Relation Between Liking And Other Characteristics Marketing Essay

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Several studies show the relation between liking and other characteristics of the execution. Commercial liking is best described as multidimensional put up, with fundamental cognitive and affective components (Alwitt 1987). The variable that most influences the ability for a commercial to get into memory is its likability (understanding and using likability) . According to Joel Dubow(1992) a commercial should first intrude memory, and once this has been achieved, it should proceed to persuade. Dubows view was supported in South Africa. Similarly a commercial may have a zero persuasion but high penetration.

There are three significant aspects for advertising: 1) A persuading selling message, 2) prospects for the products or service, and finally 3) at the lowest possible cost (Jefkins 5).  The first aspect deals with how to persuade people in believing that the product that is being advertised is absolutely salutary. The second however identifies which target group the commercial or the ad will be advertised to. Finally the last phase deals with the economical issues like how low the products price has to be in order to grasp the customer's attention. Presumably the most popular aspect for advertising is the first aspect since advertising is all about using the right statements and pictures that would grasp the customer's attention. It essentially aims to cause the customer at least look at the article to see a picture or a name of the product, which is being advertised. 

One way to persuade and plunder the customer's attention is to use catchy slogans, characters, symbols, and icons with which the advertisers use to identify and advertise their products. Volkswagen has been one of the most famous car companies that have been known to use catchy slogans and different symbols. For instance, in 1988 Volkswagen made a commercial that generally says that a car is more precious than diamonds to a girl. An additional example of a company, which uses very interesting slogans, is Coca-Cola. One of the Coca-Cola commercials presents three little boys sitting together in the desert somewhere in Africa, chatting. One of them asks, "I wonder what it tastes like?" His friend then answers, "My dad says it's like kissing a girl," the little boy then takes a sip from his Coca-Cola bottle; "Is it like kissing a girl?" his friend asks. The boy finally replies, "I hope so." This commercial was able to connect the taste of coke to the taste of kissing a girl, which without a doubt makes the commercial very capable of making little boys directly go to the nearest store and buy a Coca-Cola bottle. In January 17, 2000 a well known magazine titled Advertising Age wrote: National TV spots--four by brunet and six by Edge Creative--liken sipping a coke to kissing a girl, tasting a snowflake, sharing good times with friends, dancing in a crowd and riding a waterfall, among other pleasures . Coca-Cola created its different commercials taking into consideration the different age groups who will be viewing their commercials, which makes the commercial more effective by grabbing everyone's attention. The previous example of the Coca-Cola commercial illustrates the three different aspects that have been described above. It shows where the persuasion occurs, which age group the commercial is targeted to, and finally deals with the economical issues by showing that even kids from Africa which is considered a third world country can offered to drink Coca-Cola. Further in this essay we will discuss a few research studies which concentrate on the likability aspect of advertising in addition to a few recent examples of communication practice.

Main Body:

There has been a long footing controversy in advertising around the issue of commercial likability. The industry has always rewarded creative efforts (Cannes lions International Festival of creativity) that lure and entertain the consumer despite the dearth of convincing evidence that this adds anything to a commercial persuasive power. While on the other hand Rosser Reeves liking-be-damned philosophy have traditionally thumbed their noses at entertaining the consumer, opting instead to just get down to business and sell the product. In 1985, the Ogilvy Centre for Research and Development conducted a large scale investigation to check whether liking a commercial had anything to do with persuading consumers to buy the brand; the study covered 73 prime time commercials. The result of the study was that people who liked the commercial a lot were twice as likely to be persuaded by it as compared to people who felt neutral about it. One of the most convincing arguments in this is that attitudes towards the brands are two dimensional. Both the emotional and utilitarian components of brand attitudes can play a important role in persuasion, but according to researchers emotional component is more important for products in low-involvement categories (Batra, 1986).

In recent years there has been an increased intent among both academics and practice in measures of liking for advertising research. In a research on the association between liking measures and brand preference measures, result seems to depend to some degree on how these attitudes are measured. In one of the earlier empirical studies in this area, the former Marschalk company(1980) examined liking for TV commercials as well as the relation of liking for brand choice. In a nationally projected survey Marschalk respondents expressed a general dislike of advertising and denied being influenced by it. A survey (mittal ,1994) confirms this finding, with 48% of dislike of TV ads. According to the Marschalk study, roughly two third of respondents claimed that their enjoyment of advertising "Probably/definitely would not influence" the brand, 19% bought because they liked the commercial.25% did not buy a brand because they disliked a commercial. But this study used a retrospective purchase behaviour which was a soft measure of sales. Therefore studies were conducted on consumers opinions of individual commercials. Biel(1985) studied liking and persuasion on TV commercials for packaged goods at the Ogilvy centre for research and development . Proprietary method of (Mapes and Ross) was used for measuring persuasion. Liking was measured through a five point commercial scale opinion .the conclusion from this study was that tv ads were more liked than disliked, only 3% people disliked individual commercials according to Biel`s rating the results showed that the highest shift in brand preference for those who liked the commercial "a lot" next highest to those who liked the commercial "somewhat" and the neutral ones were ranked last. In addition to this a forced -exposure-study of one Dutch print ad for a coffee product (Stapel,1991) was carried out which also showed a significant relationship to preference. But according to Beils study it was concluded that liking is not a sufficient condition for persuasion.

Spaeth, Hess and Tango(1990) examined the relationship between liking and telephone response rates obtained when the ads were aired. The result showed two kinds of liking measures. The first showed a correlation between sales performances of five commercials of the same advertiser while the second showed a good performance of one of the two commercials.

The Leo Burnett company used 10- point liking rating to describe that commercial liking is best described as a multi dimensional construct. In addition to this Biel and Bridwater (1990) revisited the incidence of commercial liking . commercials were rated on a scale of 26 attributes. Data was collected for 80 commercials in all. The findings of the study showed that 58% liked "somewhat/a lot" and only 3% disliked the commercial. Meaningfulness and energy emerged as the strongest predictors of liking .

According to (Walker,1990 and Willke 1992)the data was drawn from ASI`S database of test results ,aggregating respondents for each 30 second commercial . This was tested among women between the age of 18-65. The result of this were quite similar to that of Biel(1985).

Source- Walker and Dubitsky;May/june 1994; Why Liking Matters;Pg 6

Shows a correlation of liking with recall . The table shows that liking has a significant correlation with related recall and in particular with measured attention liking is negatively associated with main point playback. To conclude ads that are more likely to be attended are remembered .

In 1984 Adtrack carried out a research of in-market recall of all TV commercials in south Africa through a telephone survey of 200 respondents each week. Each person was asked whether he or she can remember a commercial for a particular brand and if yes then they were asked to describe the commercial. If it was currently described then they were asked to rate it on a scale of 10 in terms of how much you like it. For each commercial one measure is taken two or three weeks after its first appearance . This resulted in a database of 10000 commercials. After this a regression model is then trained on the data to estimate the impact rate and retention rate. The result showed that the impact rate has stabilized it will normally remain constant for a few years . Only during 'wearout' of the commercial starts does the impact rate show signs of declining. According to the research average impact rate is 14.3% and the average retention rate is 81.5%.

According to (Biel and Bridgwater; June/july1990; Attributes Of Likeable Television Commercials) to find out the answer for the question that what makes a likeable TV commercial a large sample of commercials and people were selected. The study used a sample of 80 prime time commercials and was based on a nationwide sample of target market consumers. On an average each commercial was rated by 133 people in manner similar to the Ogilvy centre`s previous research study a scaled question about commercial liking to a current syndicate research program was added which allowed efficient collection of large amount of data to implement the study which was being worked upon by Bruzzone research company which conducts commercial tracking service which regularly collects information about commercials. BRC uses a uniform mail service to measure consumer reactions towards commercials.

The Questionnaire- . Included pictures of the product from the commercials accompanied by the audio script were used to fuel recognition of the commercial all of which were on-air for at least a month. The study was limited to a particular product

Category users for each commercial. Further, the research included only those consumers who recognized the commercials and had seen them earlier. A average of 57% people recognized the commercials. Substantial studies on this technique

show that false recognition that is claimed recognition for commercials that were never shown-is low, averaging about 9 percent. After having answered a few questions about the commercial, respondents were asked to describe it using the list of adjectives shown in Figure 1. BRC has developed this list over the years using an broad background of academic research, as well as help from the Ogilvy Center ( Aaker and Bruzzone, 1981). The final string includes terms that people actually use to describe commercials, as well as words that are best at differentiating commercials from one another (see Figure 1). After describing the commercial, respondents answered the liking question, which read as follows: Thinking about the commercial as a whole,did you like or dislike the commercial? And to what extent did you like or dislike the commercial? A series of 31 rationale studies conducted by BRC tested the Comparability of the mail survey to in-person interviews using the same questionnaire. Adjective ratings from the mail surveys were very similar to results obtained from people who were questioned after actually viewing the commercial in a mall-intercept environment . Thus, the results are comparable to what could have been found from live

tests, while having the added advantage of pattering a nationwide probability sample-a luxury rarely available in most commercial testing situations.

The Respondents- A total of 1277 people and 6062 questionnaire were included in the study. On an average 133 people rated each commercial. 80% of the commercials that were used in the research were rated by atleast 75 people.

Only national commercials were used which had been on air for atleast one month (survey was conducted in march 1986). 38 commercials advertised foods or beverages, 36 commercials advertised medicine,personal care and household product while 6 were used for long distance services and cars. The major finding or result of the research was that people like commercial far more than industry can think. About 20% people liked the commercial' a lot' and 38% liked it somewhat and only 3 % respondents disliked what they saw.

Some Recent Examples Of Marketing Communication Practice are:

1. Kraft's Hockeyville campaign in Canada reaches consumers across the country and engaging them with the Kraft brand in a new way. Co-sponsored by the NHL and NHL Players' Association, Hockeyville enables towns and cities to compete for the chance to host a pre-season NHL game in their community, as well as win $100,000 to upgrade local sporting facilities. The campaign crosses all of the major media - print, TV and the Internet - and enables consumers to create their own stories. Unlike traditional marketing efforts, Kraft is not the main event: consumers are the focus and the brand is simply a facilitator. "It's amazing seeing people waving boxes of mac and cheese at a sporting event, but it warms my heart," said Rosenfeld.

Rosenfeld outlined how market research - particularly Internet mining - enable the company's marketers to find a core group of young, passionate and loyal fans for the sandwich spread: males, age 18-34. Using this information, Kraft marketers sought to make Miracle Whip part of contemporary culture with quirky, fun TV commercials which led to the campaign's mention by Stephen Colbert. A mock "Sandwich Spread Smackdown" ensued, and Kraft strategically bought all of the advertising around one the show's episodes. Further updating the brand was placement within Lady Gaga's hit video "Telephone" - a video that was viewed more than 38 million times on YouTube.

2. Nielsen data showed that the five primary World Cup TV sponsors (Adidas, AT&T, Budweiser, Hyundai and Sony) generated 55% higher Net Likeability on average compared to commercials from other, non-sponsor World Cup advertisers. The sponsors also generated 16% higher Brand Recall on average for their World Cup in-game/in-studio elements, such as the Hyundai "Halftime Report" and the Adidas "First Half Highlights," versus their typical in-game sponsorship performance in other sporting events.

Official World Cup sponsor Visa, which decided to air World Cup TV ads outside the U.S. only, also saw a significant lift in Likeability within World Cup programming. Visa's World Cup-themed credit card ad scored a 100% increase in Likeability when it aired during World Cup programming. (Nielsen Company)

Blended Media Scorecard for Super Bowl XLIV



Paid Media*

Earned Media**






































Bridgestone Tires









Source-Nielsen Company

Top Ten Most Liked New Ads, May 10, 2010 to June 6, 2010




Likeability Index



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Johnsonville Sausage

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