Process is another element of the services of marketing mix . There is a number of perceptions of the concept of process within the business and marketing literature. Another view is that marketing has a number of processes that integrate together to create an overall marketing process, for example – telemarketing and Internet marketing can be integrated. A further view is that marketing processes are used to control the marketing mix, i.e. processes that measure the achievement of marketing objectives. All views are understandable, but not particularly customer focused. Marketers at each stage of the process:
Deliver value through all elements of the marketing mix. People, process, and physical evidence enhance services.
Feedback can be taken and the marketing mix can be changed.
Customers are maintained, and other services or products are extended and marked to them.
The process can be tailored to the needs of individuals, experiencing a similar service at the same time. (Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman and Hansen, 2009)
Physical Evidence is the last element of the services of marketing mix. However customers tend to base on physical cues to help them evaluate the product before they buy it. Therefore marketers develop what we call physical evidence to replace these physical slogans in a service. The role of the marketer is to design and implement such tangible evidence. Physical evidence is the material part of a service.
There are many examples of physical evidence, including some of the following:
The building itself.
The interior of any service environment is important.
Paperwork (such as invoices, tickets and dispatch notes).
Signage (such as those on aircraft and vehicles).
Uniforms and employee dress.
(Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman and Hansen, 2009)
According to case study Ritz Carlton, the role of ‘people’ in Ritz-Carlton’s success is that first of all, the staff is well-trained. Namely, the staff needs to be trained and developed to maintain a high quality of personal service and satisfy the consumer needs. Also, an important factor in success of ‘people’ in RITZ-Carlton is the customer service. Many products, services are supported by customer services teams. Customer services provide expertise, technical support and coordinate the customer interface. The disposition and attitude of such people is vitally important to a company. The way in which a complaint is handled can mean the difference between retaining or losing a customer, or improving or ruining a company’s reputation. Today, customer service can be face-to-face, over the telephone or using the Internet. People tend to buy from people that they like, and so effective customer service is vital. Customer services can add value by offering customers technical support, expertise and advice. According to case study RITZ-Carlton, the success of ‘people’ in RITZ-Carlton is in the points where, the RITZ-Carlton cares and comforts the needs of consumers, provides the personal services, facilities, and high quality service. Also, RITZ-Carlton provides superior service created its targeted selection process to ensure a successful match of potential employees to employment. The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company’s excellent reputation for customer service and its low employee turnover rate compared with other organizations in the hospitality industry is renowned. It’s phenomenal success can be summed up in three phases: a comprehensive employee screening process, significant employee orientation and ongoing training, and a high level of respect and trust in staff that leads to employee empowerment. These three phrases also embody the Ritz-Carlton credo: creating a memorable experience for customers. These three phrases also embody the Ritz-Carlton credo: creating a memorable experience for customers.
RITZ-Carlton’s success is based on an important theory, which says that taking care of customer, each person must first take care of those who take care of customers. Satisfied employees have high service value, which then creates satisfied customers, which has a result to create high sales and profits for the company.
<2> First of all, the concept of globalization is based on the new communications technologies and their impact on the local and global economy, as well as on social, cultural, and political life. Globalization consists of five characteristics. These are:
Capital has become more globally mobile, so that investments are more footloose,
The market has become less regulated, breaking down governmental and political control,
Powerful multinational firms are the principal agents of change,
The nation-state or national political forces have been weakened, giving way to multinational corporations, and
Dual trends have been set in motion, the one trend toward more homogeneous global conditions as a result of widespread competition, and the other toward enhanced differences as localities strive to maintain their identities. (Amedeo and Golledge,1975), (Truman and Alexander,1988)
Globalized world companied are called and multinational companies which have positive effects and negative effects. The positive effects in the host country include:
Needed investment capital,
Technology transfer, and
Improved balance of payments.
On the other hand, the negative effects include:
Exploitation of resources,
The sudden closing of a subsidiary, with potentially economically devastating impact on the local area,
The neutralization of national economic policies by the size and international capacities of the companies,
The modification of a culture, brought about by a mode of production and consumption foreign to the local culture, and
The focus of production needs to the detriment of the local population’s essential needs.
(Katherin, 1986), (Dennis, 1986)
From the view of the multinational companies, however there are clear advantages, which, according to Michel Falise (1983, p.211), are due to its capacity to use an international field for a mobility of workers, knowledge, finances, and technology. These advantages are manifested for the corporation in terms of profits and growth rates, of research potentials, investments, and innovations. These globalized world companies need to adapt their marketing communication strategies according to the local requirements, because the local communities are embedded within the global company, as decisions made in far-away places impact localities. At the same time, localities compete with one another for a niche in the world system. Also, these companies must be adapted in the requirements of the local communities, as the economic data in these communities are different from country to country. Also, another parameter that must be taken mind is the culture of the local culture. It should also report and emphasize the balance that must exist between the incomes of local communities and the prices of goods of the market. (Rubner, 1990), (Michael and Thrift, 1982). As a report the marketing communications strategies are messages and related media used to communicate with a market. An important factor of marketing communication strategies is advertising. Advertising can be TV, Radio, Newspapers, Magazines, Billboards, Posters, and the Internet. The marketing communications strategy process usually begins with creating a “messaging strategy” determining the consistent theme or fundamental selling message that will he used in all marketing materials. (http://blog.allen.com/2009/08/marketing-communications-strategy.html)
Some methods applied for promoting a business product or services of Marketing Communications are following:
Television Advertising: This method is meant for promoting a product or service on television. In this method the advertisements are shown in the breaks of popular programs.
Print Advertising: There are many popular Newspapers and Magazines. Advertising in the relevant part of a relevant magazine can work in favor of the product or service, as more than often people associate the advertisement with the reputation of the Newspaper or Magazine. However, the major drawback about this style is that if the reader doesn’t like the article in the newspaper or magazine he may end up hating the advertised product as well. Furthermore, the shelf life of Newspaper and magazine is limited and once the new edition comes in, it becomes highly unlikely that people will turn back the pages of old edition to check your advertisement.
Sponsorship: Sometimes companies also engage in sponsoring a complete event, sports team or television program. The sponsorship of IPL team, Delhi Daredevils by GMR is a relevant example.
Charity: Organizations often engage in charity events. Although, it may seem like a loss making venture but it creates positive image and people get inspired to associate with the product or services. The charity works done by Birla’s has always helped them in branding themselves as people friendly business house.
Education: There are many corporate houses who are owner of educational institutions. People who are associated with these institutions are indirect brand ambassadors of the business. Besides Education Business , the corporate houses are also involved in offering scholarships to successful students and scholars.
Gimmicks: Offering free service or product has often worked and even the petty businessmen are aware of this trick. However, too much gimmick marketing can result in brand dilution as people may start considering the reduced prices as real cost for the product.
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