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One of the most important reasons for the failure of the marketing plan is the belief that marketing is something that a marketing person "does" in their office. The appointment of a marketing supreme is often a last-ditch attempt to put things right when all else has failed. The problem is the new person comes and irrespective of their knowledge and skills quickly finds that all the power is vested in the others particularly for the product development, pricing, customer service and selling. This leaves some bits of the promotional mix for the new person to play around with. Hence the new executive is powerless to influence anything of significance and quickly fails.
Closely related with the concern of marketing powerlessness, is the issue of corporate Organisational form. The most usual is the one which is based around corporate functions such as personnel, finance, production, allocation, operations, and marketing. Although the traditional reasons for this type of organisation are clear, there is little uncertainty that it can be very difficult to get people who are loyal to their own "tribe" to assume of subjugating their own goals to the broader goals of customer satisfaction. This is clearly the role of top management and has a lot to do with corporate culture, to be discussed below. Whilst the team building approach has gone a long way towards overcoming this kind of organisational barrier, of much more importance is to get the task of defining strategic business units (SBUs) right.
A Strategic Business Unit:
a) Will have common segments and competitors for most of its products
b) Is a competitor in an external market
c) Is a discrete, separate and identifiable unit
d) Will have a manager who has control over most of the areas critical to success.
Official plans can't substitute perception and creativity:
Victorious organizations are usually the outcome of someone's vision, but these visions have the ability to become dignified as they grow. Formal efforts typically follow a style that includes a thorough analysis of the organization's capabilities and chances and a mechanistic investigation that reduces the vision to a planned routine. That can bring disaster for an organization. For example, the quick growth of Apple Computer in the late 1970s and all through the 1980s was certified, in part, to the creativity and ant mutual attitudes of one of its co-founders, Steven Jobs. But as the business grew, Jobs felt a want for more distinguished management, something he was uncomfortable performing. He hired a CEO, who ultimately ousted Jobs from his own business. With Job's departure came increased organizational formality-the very thing Jobs despised because it troubled creativity.
Measures to overcome such barriers:
Management should certify efficient communication of organizational plans at
all levels. Planning creates coordinated effort. It gives way to managers and non-managers alike. When all organizational members know where the organization is going and what they must add to attain the objectives, they can begin to coordinate their activities thereby encouraging cooperation and teamwork.
Planning forces managers to look to the future. It removes crisis
management by obliging future-oriented management to forecast threats in the environment. By looking back over the past and forward to the upcoming, management can organize the present because of which future will be as flourishing as possible.
Planning ensures that company keep abreast of technology. The power of modern technology on current businesses, especially in the development of difficult products using complicated processes, makes serious demands on scheduling. It takes about nine years to develop an army helicopter. It is very costly in both time and proper scheduling is significant to its success.
According to McDonald marketing planning is "a reasonable chain of events leading to the setting of marketing objectives and a formulation of plans for achieving them." (McDonald 2002 p56) The density of marketing planning means that when organizations board on it, they should expect to meet a numeral of organizational, attitudinal, process and cognitive problems (McDonald 2002). This article is an attempt to outline some of those problems; however it is beyond this essay to clarify all possible barriers in implementing a marketing plan. After the potential barriers are of implementation are specified the essay will try and give possible solutions. The essay will first look at organizational constraints and then progress onto operational barriers. Organizational barriers It is not ..."
Subject= ethical concerns in marketing
a) Ethical issues in Marketing
Marketing morality deals with the proper principles behind the function and regulation of marketing. Possible essential frameworks of analysis for marketing audit are:
Value-oriented framework, ethical problems on the basis of the values which they violate e.g. honesty, sovereignty, privacy, transparency.
Stakeholder-orientated framework, analyzing ethical exertions on the basis of whom they influence e.g. consumers, competitors, the social order as a whole
Process-orientated framework, analyzing ethical problems in terms of the classes used by marketing specialists e.g. research, price, sponsorship, placement
Thorough issues in the marketing ethics:
Market research: ethical danger points in marketing research contain:
- Invasion of the privacy
Market audience: ethical threat points include
- targeting the helpless e.g. children, the elderly
- Excluding potential clients from the market: selective marketing is used to discourage demand from unwanted market sectors or disenfranchise them altogether.
Pricing ethics: list of unethical pricing practice:
- cost fixing
- Price skimming
- Price bias
- Price wars
- Bid rigging
Advertising and promotion: ethical drawback:
- Concerns over truth and honesty
- Concerns with violence, sex and vulgarity
- Taste and controversy
- Negative advertising
Implications of ethical issues on marketing mix:
Price: should be affordable for everyone.
Product: should be standard. .
Place: should be available everywhere for everyone
Promotion: there should be social responsibility in promotion.
Because marketing decisions often require dedicated knowledge, ethical issues are often more problematical than those faced in personal life- and effective decision making requires stability. Because each business situation is different, and not all decisions are simple, many organizations have held ethical codes of conduct and rules of professional ethics to guide managers and employees. Though, sometimes self-regulation proves inadequate to protect the interest of customers, organizations, or society