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Jenifer L Aaker (Aug, 1997), Dimensions of Brand personality. This article is about the different human characteristics which are associated with the brands. It tells us that the all popular brand should have some personality traits which are similar to the human personality. To identify the brand personality dimensions, a total of 631 subjects rated a subset of 37 brands on 114 personality traits. The result shows that the brand have five distinct personality dimensions: Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication and Ruggedness.
These five are the most important variables discuses in the article along with that the article also tells about perception of human personality traits which are inferred on Individual behavior, Physical characteristics, Attitudes and beliefs and Demographic characteristics. The article further explains US population with respect to five demographic dimensions Gender, Age, Household income, Ethnicity, Geographical location.
Articles says that the most important traits of any brand is Sincerity: which means how much brand is sincere with its customers, how much they care about them, Excitement: which bring the excitement in customer after seeing the brand, Competence: which means it has a competitive advantage and much better than its competitors, Sophistication: some brands also show some sophistication in it and Ruggedness: which shows the attitude and hardness of the brand. Author says that the personality traits of Coca Cola are cool and real whereas the personality traits of Pepsi are young and excited.
Kevin Lane Keller (Mar, 2003) The Multidimensionality of Brand Knowledge. This article about how to gain the brand entity, author says that the marketers often must link their brands to other entities like people, place, things or other brands to create the brand equity. This article capture two main variables related to brand personality. The first one is the consumer brand knowledge and the other one is leveraging.
Multidimensional nature of consumer brand knowledge can be defined in terms of the personal meaning about a brand stored in consumer memory. It includes Awareness: category identification and needs satisfied by the brands, Attributes: descriptive feaure that characterize the brand name, Benefits: personal value and meaning that consumers attach to the brand product attributes, Images: visual information about the brand, Thoughts: personal cognitive response to any brand related information, Feelings: personal affective responses to any brand related information, Attitudes: summary judgments and overall evaluations to any brand related information, Experiences: purchase and consumption behaviors and any other brand related episodes, Leverages can be defined as markets often link or associate their brand with other people, place, things or brands as a means of building or leveraging knowledge that might be otherwise difficult to achieve more directly through product marketing programs.
Larson and Dave (October 1, 2002), Building a brand's personality from the customer up. This article tells about how to create brand personality for the customers. It says that the brand personality is when you hear brand's name, see, smell, taste or touch the product; it's that first involuntary thought that comes to their mind.
In this article Larson and Dave said about the variables that the marketers must learn and clearly understand the consumer's feelings, habits, motivation, insecurities, prejudices and desires. They must understand how their company's brand fits into a consumer's life and how they might respond to different branding messages. They comes up with the conclusion that consumer research plays a great role to move, modify or change their brand personality. They also give some examples of those brands who change their tagline or comes up with some new strategies for strongly build their brand personality.
Martin S and Ruth (Winter, 1995), Effects of Global Market condition on Brand Image customization and Brand Performance. The article told about how the market conditions effects on the brand image. The research based on the countries that differ in cultural and socioeconomics characteristics. Research includes 60 regions and 10 countries, as 41 managers in 13 firms on 233 cases of a particular brand's image strategy and performance in the particular region.
The article based on two important strategies that what market condition do manager considers when deciding whether to standardize or customize their global brand image. They focus on that department which didn't get importance before. Authors comes up with the conclusion the extent to which manager decide to customize or standardize their brand depend on the Cultural uncertainty, Individualism, National socioeconomics. Customization is to make the product according to the regional people whereas the standardization is to make the design for all the different regions. Nikes standardize their products on the other hand Reebok customize its product on the basis of national and regional difference.
Sune Donoghue (2000), Projective technique in consumer research. This article describes the different projective techniques to understand the consumer behavior of the certain brands. The projective technique is the structured indirect way of investigate the customer thinking about the personal phenomena. The article based on the concept is that it is valuable to use projective techniques to find out the value characteristics of a product in the consumer's life and not the physical characteristics of the product.
Different projective techniques describe in it as the variables; the techniques are Word Association, in which the subjects are asked to read a list of words and to indicate the first word that comes to mind, Namely Construction, the subject is asked to constructed a story or a picture from a stimulus concept, Completion, the subject is given an incomplete sentence, story, argument or conversation, and asked to finish it and the last one is Expressive, a subject is asked to role play act draw or print a specific concept or situation.
CHUNG K. KIM, DONGCHUL HAN AND SEUNG-BAE PARK (2001), The effect of brand personality and brand identification on brand loyalty: applying the theory of social identification. The article describes the effect of brand personality on brand assessment by using the concept of consumers' identification with a brand. The research is based on the existence of brand personality in the cellular phone market in Korea. The research investigates any possible linkage between brand and consumer through social identification. Five companies were computing for the market of cellular phones in Korea. 42 dimensions of brand personality were measured with the BRAND PERSONLITY SCALE, out of which the top 5 factors are extracted.
The factors were names as Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication and Ruggedness. These factors are describe the same way as it is in the ARTICLE 1, as Sincerity: which means how much brand is sincere with its customers, how much they care about them, Excitement: which bring the excitement in customer after seeing the brand, Competence: which means it has a competitive advantage and much better than its competitors, Sophistication: some brands also show some sophistication in it and Ruggedness: which shows the attitude and hardness of the brand.
Sengun Yeniyart, Janell D. Townsend and Mchmet Berk Talay (2007), Factors influencing Brand Launch in a Global Marketplace. This article explains the factor that influences the launch of brand into new market in a global environment. The companies which didn't respond to the environment change will face the competitive risk. It says that the new product introductions in less familiar markets have a higher likelihood of failure. The research based on 22 countries of origin, 42 countries of brand entry. They take the sample 50572 spells, derived from 99 companies, 173 brands and 700 market entries.
Three variables describe in this article and the result shows that these variables are much important for launching the brand. These variable are Uncertainty, launching brands in a global marketplace requires and understanding of the factor that influence managerial decision making with respect to market selection, Market Attractiveness, market related factors that provide motivation for launching a brand in a specific country, Physic distance, it is a cultural distance, firms will enter market that are similar to their own first and then gradually expand in other market.
Holly Copper, Sharon Schembri, and Dale Miler ( June 2010), Brand Self Identity Narratives in the James Bond Movies. This article describes the consumer's social and contextual response to the brands in the James Bond Movies. It tells how these brands make brand personality in the mind of people. To show the relation between the effect of brands use in movies on the consumer mind they choose JAMES BOND film series, the series spanning more than five decades and 24 films constituting the series to date.
This article identifies three different and contrasting brand self narratives. These three narratives are lover, hero or outlaw. They describe three movie scenes from the James Bond movie and describe three brands which include in these scenes. The first brand is Bollinger, they said as this brand is use in some romantic scene so it creates the perception of Love in the consumers mind. The 2nd brand is Aston Martin, they say as this was the James Bond car so it shows the super hero characteristics in it. And the 3rd brand is Jaguar, they said as this was the villain car, so it creates the rebellious relations with the customers. Article said that this movie create permanent perception of these brand in the mind of people as Bollinger relates with love and romance, Aston Martin relates with sophisticated and heroic story whereas the Jaguar relates with anti hero or outlaw.
Jia Yao Esther Bao and Jillian C. Sweeney (October 2009), Comparing factor analytical and circumflex models of brand personality in brand positioning. The research describe that it is more important than ever that organization assess their brand management strategies, including brand personality management. Research based on the 62 students included such products as cars, alcohol beverages, clothing, mobile phones, MP3 players and food and soft drinks. Small cars and alcoholic beverages were the most commonly cited.
The study examines two conceptualizations of brand personality, the factor analytical approach and interpersonal circumplex approach. Factor analysis approach describe the brand personality as a set of human characteristics associated with the brand whereas the interpersonal circumplex approach posits that the brand represents a relationship partner with which the consumer may choose to engage. The result support the factor approach in a purely quantitative sense but the interpersonal circumplex approach offers both a richer qualitative explanation of the findings of traits and a more prediction of consumer's outcomes.
Yongjun Sung and Jooyoung Kim ( July 2010), Effects of Brand Personality on Brand Trust and Brand Affect. This article present research conceptualizes and investigates the relationships between five brand personality dimensions and brand trust as well as brand affect. The research purpose that some brand personality dimensions relate more to brand trust whereas other dimensions relate more to brand attract. Aaker's 15 brand personality traits were used out of 42 to measure personality traits of the 30 brands. They come up with the same five brand personality dimensions, Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication and Ruggedness.
Article explains two major concepts one is brand affect and the other one is brand trust. Brand trust consist of the relationship quality concepts in the interpersonal field and implies that the relationships consumers have with brands have similar to those of human characteristics. Trust has been a key factor in the success of relationship marketing efforts. Brand affect is the potential to elicit a positive emotional response in the average consumer as a result of its use.
The result suggest that sincerity and ruggedness brand personality dimensions are more likely to influence the level of brand trust whereas the Excitement and Sophistication dimensions relate more to brand effect. The Competence dimensions appear to have similar effects on both brand trust and brand effect.
Study the significance of Brand Personality.
Study the significance of Brand Attractiveness.
To find out whether Brand Personality and Brand Attractiveness effect the sales or not.
Study the impact of Brand Personality and Brand Attractiveness on Competitive advantage.
To Study how the Brand Personality and Brand Attractiveness helps in create Brand Loyalty
To Find Out The Difference between those brand who create Brand Personality and those Brand who don't create Brand Personality.
To find out the independent variable that effect the Brand Personality and Brand Attractiveness
Brand personality will not significantly effect on sales.
Brand attractiveness will not significantly effect on sales.
Brand Personality will not significantly effect on competitive advantage.
Brand Attractiveness will not significantly effect on competitive advantages.
Brand Personality will not significantly effect on brand loyalty.
Brand Attractiveness will not significantly effect on brand loyalty.