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This research which to study the effect of food advertising influence on children food choices behavior. Now in this civilized society we can see the advertisement in anyway and anytime by different media with different creative. Advertising can be very innovative and attract people, especially to children it may lead them influence to their lifestyle and preferences.
According to (William F. Arens, 1999) at the beginning of the 20th century, a person name call Albert Lasker, has been called as ‘father of the modern advertising’, he was the owner of Sunkist’s advertising agency, Lord and Thomas which is the processor of Foote, Cone and Belding. He describes advertising as “salesmanship in print, driven by a reason why.” But that was long time ago; it is before advent of radio, television, or the internet. On that time, the nature and scope of the business world and advertising were still undeveloped. In a century later, the nature and requirements of the business have different, thus that start come the advertising with concept and practice (William F. Arens, 1999).
Nowadays, advertising be explain as a non-personal from of mass communication that given a high degree of control for those responsible for the design and delivery of advertising messages (Chris Fill, 2006).
Thought changing of time, now children occupy a large place in market, children around 4 to 12 year old was spending more that $24 billion in 1997, which is increase 300% from 1991 (Hawkins et al, 2001) it was very impressive, therefore marketers and advertisers conversion target on young consumer, use with various advertising strategy and techniques to attract children which to increase their sales, especially for food advertising.
How the effect of children food choice behavior influence by food advertising that using a different media to attract children, moreover what are the effect will be influence children food choice behavior by food advertising.
In order to research while set the question as follow:
1) What are meaning and objective of food advertising?
2) How the strategies apply on food advertising to attract children?
3) How the food advertising will influence to children’s preferences and health?
4) What are the influences of children on the family spending?
The objectives are to research as follow:
To analysis the strategy that use on food advertising to attract children.
To identify food advertising that impact on preferences of children.
To review food advertising that influence children’s health.
To evaluate the impact of children on the family consumption.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Food Advertising
Advertising which is one type of marketing activity (McCall KL, 2003). Besides that, based on (Chris Fill, 2006) mention that no matter on international, national, local or direct basis, is important, because it can affect audiences by informing or reminding them of the existence and awareness of a brand, or alternatively by persuading or helping them differentiate a product or organization and comparison from others competitors in the market.
On the other hand, it is an impersonal from of mass communication that provides a high degree of control for those responsible for the design and delivery of advertising messages (Chris Fill, 2006). However, the capability of advertising to convert the target audience to think or behave in a particular way is problematic (Chris Fill, 2006).
According to (Gallo AE, 1999) In US food advertising which is very powerful, the reasons that the food advertising market is so large include the following:
1) US consumer spending on food extracts by 12.5% and so there is effective competition.
2) Food is a repeat-purchase item and consumers’ views can be change swiftly.
3) Food is one of the larger branded items, which lends itself to major advertising.
The US food system is the second largest advertiser in the American economy (the first being the automotive industry) and is a leading buyer of television, newspaper, magazine, billboard, and radio advertisements (Gallo AE, 1999).
2.2 Food Advertising Strategy
It is a step away from marketing strategy towards creative work, which is a step nearer the production of an original creative idea, and a step towards the real world (Judith Corstjens, 1990). Besides, it also is the company accomplishes its advertising purpose and it come from two main elements; creating advertising messages and selecting advertising media (Philip Kolter and Gary Armstrong, 2009).
2.2.1Creating Advertising Messages: According to (Chris Fill, 2006) explain the message mean by which engagement can be encouraged, so it is very important that attach important to organise the advertising message. In practise, creative brief is the sources for generation of suitable messages. For the sake of discussion and analysis, consideration; balance, structure and presentation of the message itself to the target audience is needed.
In addition, message strategy is the first step in creative effective messages, which to decide what general message will be communicated to target audience (Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, 2009). Can be say as a simple description and explanation of an advertising campaign’s overall creative method (William F. Arens, 1999).
2.2.2Selecting advertising Media for children: The media plan should be ready, when created and agreed the message. Actually Media planning generally is selection and scheduling exercise (Chris Fill, 2006). Based on (Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, 2009) the selection media include:
1) Deciding on reach, frequency and impact
2) Choosing among media types
3) Selecting specific media vehicles
4) Deciding on media timing
The media usually used by food advertisers and marketer;
Television – which the largest single source of channel that promo food messages to children (Gallo AE, 1999). Television viewing starts from young, US children around the ages of 2 to 4 years normally view 2 hours of television daily; this increases to more than 3.5 hours near the end of primary school, then decrease to around 2.75 hours in late adolescence (Roberts DF et al, 1999). US children who in low-income families and fewer youth tend more like to watch television (Roberts DF et al, 2002). Therefore, Food is very often advertised product category on US children’s television and food advertise account for more than 50% of all advertise are targeting children (Gamble M, Cotunga N, 1999; Kotz K, Story M, 1994; Coon KA, Tucker KL, 2002; Taras HL, Gage M, 1995 ).
Internet – US Census data shows that the year between 1998 and 2001 was increase from 51% to 75% of US adolescents (ages 14-17 years) are using the Internet and increase from 39% to 65% of US children (ages 10-13 years) are online (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2002). The 2001 US Census data shows that half (51%) of US children around 10 to 13 years old and 61% of those who around 14 to 17 years old have Internet access at home (Montgomery D and Pasnik S, 1996).
Therefore, Advertisers and marketers have start use different kinds of new interactive advertising and marketing techniques to target the rapidly growing number of US children online (Montgomery D and Pasnik S, 1996).The way to advertising and marketing on the Web is not similar significantly from television commercials. Advertisers and marketer able pass thought the special feature of the Internet to seamlessly integrate advertising and Web site content (Montgomery KC, 2001). Great majority of the big companies will created their own websites, and designed as “branded environments” for children, the purpose is to advertise and market to children (Montgomery KC, 2000, 2001).
For example, Burger king food company website (http://www.burgerking.com) their provide Games, toys, tunes, and other downloads to promoted alongside for their food items. These is under Big Kids Club which is link on the home page, where encouraged 4 to 12 year old to join club members (Story and French International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2004).
2.3 Food Advertising Influence to Children Eating Preferences
Nowadays, more and more people attract important that Advertising which aimed at children (Keane and Willetts, 1994; Moore and Moschis, 1983; Moschis et al., 1980). Because “no other agent of consumer socialisation has received more attention than the mass media” (Moschis, 1987, p. 121). There is a large amount of scholarly research in the area that focuses mainly on two dimensions of media that confers affect upon children, namely, advertising and editorial/programming content, especially intend to promote young people about products and encourage them to purchase (Ward and Wackman, 1973; Clancy-Hepburn et al., 1974; Galst and White, 1976; Gorn and Goldberg, 1982; Woodward et al., 1997; O’Guinn and Shrum, 1997).
Approximately, 11 of 19 commercials per hour were for food. Those advertises occupy 246 (44%) to promoted the kind of fats and sweets food, such as candy, soft drinks, chips, cakes, cookies and pastries. Fast-food restaurant advertising was very frequently, which stand of 11% of total food advertisements. The most often advertised food product was high sugar breakfast cereal. And there were no fruits or vegetables on advertisements. Also by indicate evidence of other studies that advertises on US children’s television are majority on high in sugar and fat food, it was very field to fruits or vegetable (Gamble M, Cotunga N, 1999; Coon KA, Tucker KL, 2002; Taras HL, Gage M, 1995; Morton H, 1984; Dibb S, Harris L, 1996; Lewis MK, Hill AJ, 1998; Chestnutt IG, Ashraf FJ, 2002; Byrd-Bredbenner C, Grasso D, 2000)
More and more TV viewing in children and/or adolescents is associated with decrease fruit and vegetable consumption (Ortega, RM et al, 1996; Lowry, R et al, 2002; Boynton-Jarrett, R et al, 2003; Matheson, DM et al, 2004), more snacking (Francis et al, 2003; Snoek, HM et al, 2006) and add more intake non healthy foods and taking less healthy foods (Woodward, DR et al, 1997)
2.5 Food Advertising Influence of children healthy
It is very importance whether food products of marketing and advertising for youth-targeted has any impact on children’s food behaviors or body weight (Coon KA and Tucker KL, 2002).
From the research evidence indicate that preschoolers and grade school children’s food habit and food purchase more on high sugar and high fat food are affected by television exposure to food advertising. (Isler L et al, 1987; Coon KA and Tucker KL, 2002; Horgan KB et al, 2001; Taras HL et al, 1989; Borzekowski DL and Robinson TN, 2001).
On the other hand, a new WHO/FAO consultation shows the report on diet and prevention of chronic diseases investigated the evidence showing the hazard of developing obesity by dietary and lifestyle factors (Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003). Under scientific strong evidence Diet and lifestyle factors can be categorized on four levels of evidence: convincing, probable, possible and insufficient. The report indicate that even the evidence shows heavy marketing of fast food outlets and energy-dense, micronutrient-poor food and beverages to children causes obesity is equivocal, enough indirect evidence to place this fulfill in the “probable” category for increasing hazard of obesity (Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003).
2.6 Children Preferences Influence to Family Consumption
Children strong affect how the family functions-in terms of relationships, employment, and purchases-and their affect is changing family consumption throughout much of the world (Blackwell et al, 2006) studies based on Canadian data shows that young children depreciate parents’ participation in the; labor force, it will influence how families spend their money, and lower the amount of time and money available for leisure (RoBert E.Wilkes, 1975)
Has a huge influence on children to make purchase decision involving products for their own use (Chankon Kim and Hanjoon Lee, 1997), In addition their also influence over parental spending when they request particular products and brands (Blackwell et al, 2006).
Not only do Children affect choices, but they also are used family money and their own to purchases. Just like a cycle, children influences family spending, family influences young consumers’ cognitive and evaluation of product and brand choices (Margaret Hogg et al, 1998).
The diagram shows the procedure of food advertising use strategy to attract target children by message and media. Under media, they have two channel; television and internet which is the most effective to promote product or services which to attract children, cause of above reason it may affect to children food choice behavior such as influence to children preferences, healthy, or indirectly affect family consumption in their real life.
These are the various possible hypothesis that may result in effect food advertising influence on children food choices behavior such as affected children food preferences, health, or family consumption by the advertising media and messages.
Hn1: Food advertising will be the biggest reasons that straightforward to influence children food preferences and health and it may indirectly affected family consumption.
Ha1: Food advertising will not cause any effect that lead to influence children food preferences and health, even family consumption.
Hn2: Food advertising can be successful attract children interest to purchase therefore able to help marketers increase sales in business and broad market.
Ha2: Children have totally not interested or direct ignore the food advertising, therefore marketers unsuccessful to promote their product.
Hn3: Food advertising can be successful to convince parent to purchase for their children.
Ha3: Parent is totally not interested to take any action on the product after view the food advertising.
Path Analysis result
The implementation of food advertising influence on children food choices behavior that could have harmful effects to influence children food preferences or health, which could present the relationship between children food perception and children behavior, then allow the marketers and advertisers to improve their sales and stand firm in the market.
Besides that, it could have opportunity lead to several effects to children preferences and health if implementation of food advertising in improper way or wrong techniques, but it also possible that no any influence or changes in children food preferences and healthy affected by food advertising, whether the implementation of food advertising in right way or wrong way.
Sampling is one of the processes of choosing a number of units for a research in such a method that the units represent the biggest group from which they were chosen (L. R. Gary and P. L. Diehl, 1996). Besides that based on (L. R. Gary and P. L. Diehl, 1996) the purpose of the sampling define as use a sample to collect information about a population.
Different age of children population responded will be collecting as a sample to obtain a source that formulate objective. The survey result able to reaction the children requirement, children preferences and children habit from different status.
Different status of children could have a big different ideology, such as background, gender, religion, age, culture, lifestyle and family economy situation etc. it could lead to different effect influence by food advertising. Therefore the researchers can base on the survey result to get a better understanding and know exactly to the effect of food advertising influence to children food behavior.
The measurement of any influence cause by food advertising affects to children food choices behavior can be measure based on using different media to promote product and/or using different way to present messages. The changes of media use for food advertising will directly affects to the children attention. And the changes of the way to present message for food advertising will seriously affect to children perception.
Besides that, different of status of children have different perception, such as religion and age. Different religion of children will have different believe it will affect children to make the judgment of the content of food advertising. And different age of children have different ideology, it will affect to their view of the content of food advertising.
According to (Mark Saunders et al, 2007) Secondary Data can be defined as the data that have already been assembled for some other determination, which the both raw data and published summaries, many researchers assemble and keep the various data to support their research.
Base on (Pervez Ghauri and Kjell Gronhaug, 2002) these are some of the method which cans helping researchers more easy collect the useful date:
Interpret research question or determine some or all of the research problems.
Helping in problem originations and/or more focused and concrete on research questions.
They are two mains subgroup of secondary data that often use for research:
Documentary Secondary Data
This data normally will use on research proposal, sometime also use on primary sources of secondary data. It can divide into two parts, which is written material, for examples reports, journals, and newspaper and non-written materials. And non-written materials, for examples television, voice recording and radio (Mark Saunders et al, 2007).
Survey-based Secondary Data
This data are use on survey strategy, often are for questionnaire that already been analyzed for the original determination. It can help the secondary data more smooth such as more frequently when downloadable matrix of raw data for secondary analysis. It can be dividing into three main survey strategies, which is censuses, for examples governments’ censuses: census of population and census of employment. And Continuous and regular surveys, for examples governments: family spending, labor market Trent; and organization: employee attitude survey. In addition, Ad hoc surveys, for examples governments’ survey, academics’ survey and organizations’ surveys (Mark Saunders et al, 2007).
The data of research proposal are analysis base on SPSS soft way; it was more convenient, reliable, and accurate, save time and cost to analyze the data was collected. And it was helping me to get more accurate the data to complete the assignment.
Quantitative Data is use of the determination of this research proposal. The method of this data which is more attached important on testing and verification with to concentrate on the facts and/or reasons for social events. This data is using a logical and critical method to conduct and able to under controlled measurement in the data and the objective which ‘outsider view’ distant from data. In addition, it can be consider as hypothetical-deductive which are more concentrate on hypothesis testing and more oriented by result. It can be say that this data is more on particularistic and analytical moreover is normally use by population membership (pervez Ghauri and Kjell Gronhaug, 2002).
I will guarantee that I will not leakage of any data or other sources, besides to keep privacy and confidential which also one part of my job, I have responsible that to ensure my collected data will not use by other purpose or link to negative impact such as interferences, discrimination, bully etc.
The data that which to completing the research proposal are sources come from internet, book, research journal, and article.
There are various limitations during the process of completing of this research proposal, first advertising was too wide is hard to find the data are related to food which link to children. Second, a lot of related data are not allowed to show on generally, most of that required to purchase or already does not exist. Third, it was not enough evidence to support the data.
1. Understand assignment
2. Choose a Topic
3. Begin preliminary reading
4. Finalise research question and objectives
5. Read methodology literature
6. Prepare research proposal & outline
7. Daft Literature Review
8. Daft research strategy and method
9. revise the daft
10. Prepare Literature Review
11. Prepare Methodology
12. Complete remaining chapters
13. Final revise and correction the report
14. Print and Bind the report
15. Submission of the report
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