Product design plays intentional role in helping the organization to achieve its goal. A good product can ensure customer satisfaction, quality and low production cost. However, if an organization offers poor product, customer’s feedback also will be poor in the sense that there will be lack of interest in the sale. Moreover quality and production costs are affected by poor design of product
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What is a product?
A product is things that are produced by labor or effort or the result of an act or a process. A product can be classified as tangible and intangible. Therefore, tangible product is a physical object that can be by touch and see such as a building; on the other hand, intangible product is a product that can only be feeling, in other word like service such as an insurance policy.
Definitions of Product Design
Product Design is one of the key stages in production and operation management. Product design is one of the most important conditions because it affects acquire from the product. It is the transfer of intellectual wisdom, requirement of the entrepreneurs and need of a consumer on a specific product.
A product design is all about every single details when manufacturing a good till the completion of the good. It take into account how the item will perform efficiently, safe and reliable way. It is capable of being economically and attractive to target consumers.
It can be depicted in the following diagram below fig 1
The two basic steps in designing a product are:
- Functional design
- Production design
The functional design step a product is designed to be functional. Decisions are made on magnitude, materials should be used, final finish required for display and among others. At this stage, the designer is more cared about the product itself than the ways of fabrication. The main things for functional design are considerations, customer appeal, cost and ease of operation and resources.
In the production design stage, the manufacturer considers introduction of adjustment and new concepts into the product to make it more appropriate for production. Some of the concepts employed in this stage include standardization, modular design and simplification.
Standardization – it facilitates the production of the part by similar of a part or whole product. It cut cost of production by eliminating the need for planning several different product varieties and allows organization to work larger and quantities of fewer items.
Modular Design – it facilities construction and continuation. This type of design is used largely in computers. Products are made easily adaptable sub-assemblies or sections.
Simplification – the designer include some features in the design which is very important to function of the product. The part of the design must be simplified. Product undergo value analysis in order to see if any parts can be redesigned in such a way to performed better, with lower cost.
Why do we need design products?
Product design is a key element for any organization as this will help to attract customers and make anything less than an excellent product strategy can be destructive to a firm. Top companies focus on few products and concentrate on maintaining a high level of quality for those products to maximize the potential for success. Product strategy is to build particular competence in customizing goods and services and allows customer to have a variety of choice.
In planning the conversion system, major decisions are made concerning the design of the product or service as well as the design of the conversion process to produce the design of products or services. The design of new product followed by the design of manufacturing process and each separately for manufacturing, we consider service product and process design choices together.
Product research is often begun only in response to consumer demand. A great deal of research is conducted in most industries, the purpose of which is to make new discoveries, establish new applications and so on and this will lead to commercial application. Product design is important because it is related with the same of the company. For example if the product is design in a good way this will obviously attract more customers and as a result this will lead to an increase in sale and revenue.
Product design related with product life cycle
Product life cycle is applied in production and operation management for any product system which takes inputs and converts it into output by using some process. The production system applies to the process of production depending on what type of product we have to produce and volume of the process we need to produce the goods. The whole process of operation from introduction to decline of a production system is defined as the product life cycle.
A product life cycle consist of four stages namely the introduction stage, growth, maturity and finally the decline stage. Producers go through introduction, growth, maturity, high volume saturation and finally decline. The life cycle can be reconstructed into four stages to reveal four important issue areas. It can be depicted as follows in figure 1
Introduction – it is the first stage when is product is new and has to be launch in the market. Product design is very essential in the first stage itself because design of the product plays vital role for the increase of sale. The early stage emphasize the product’s unique characteristic If people are attracted by the design of the product then it is obvious that there will be demand for that product and will survive in the market.
Growth – this refers to the increase of the product as it shows a rise in the curve. This is an indication that the product was successful in the market and it is the open where a firm/organization can make its profit and cover its production cost.
Maturity – it is the stage where a firm can make maximum profit and at this stage before the product will fall the organization must redesign its product or develop it. This is so because once it has reach the decline stage, the sale of the product will start falling and will be kick out the market.
Decline – it is the last stage of a product to survive in the market, now the product will be kick out of the market and at this point the firm will have to bear losses. However, if the organization develops the product or they redesign it then it still has change to stay in the market.
Product life cycle helps an organization to know at which stage the product lies and whether they have to innovate something new with the product or they will have to redesign it again. The demand for a product and its market acceptance generally tends to follow a predictable pattern. As a product moves through these stages it’s pricing, packaging, promotion and distribution are reevaluated and change. It is the journey from new and existing too old and dated.
Product development or product redesign
Product development refers when a company is adding new features to its product.
For example just like the mobile Nokia is adding new feature in order to make the product stay in the market. Product development undertake major when risk when the matter comes up to a new product. Before entering a new product into the market one has to do a lot of research and development so as to be able to know about the like and dislike about the consumers. We must consider each and every single details while design a product. It can computer based, paper and so on. Before launching a product onto the market the organization must bear many things in mind. For example Nokia mobile before coming up onto the market the owner has employ expert to work on this project. They have design the mobile on computer, paper and finally they have select the appropriate one and start selling it. Once a product idea surfaces, it must be shown that the product fulfill the consumer needs and that’s the existing one is no longer needed.
Moreover with the evolution of new technology we can see the products with the same feature are having different design. Let take the example of water itself, it all serves the same purpose but yet the manufacture has design it in several ways to attract people. Some people prefer to drink vital and other crystal because of the different design. The important question when we design a product is, is it demand-able, the level of quality, does it has an economic standpoint. These questions are important in order to avoid a waste of time and money and making sure that it is worth changing the product.
Advantages of product design
Product design benefits a company in several ways when the product matches with local requirements in the market. They lay emphasis on the taste, standardization, prices and the like. Some of the advantages are mention below.
Platform – it allows manufacturers to create fundamental product with unique versions for the individual markets and consumers. It reduces research and development power and enables company to launch its product. It also help to control cost compared when new product is being done.
Quality- variation is important when the product design is same level quality at all market. It also allows the firm to make a strong brand which helps to recognize the product and brand strength improves effectiveness of local campaigns.
It is a source of increased sales and better profits, more brand value, greater market share, better return on investment design as a resource for society at large.
Design as transformer- it is a resource for creating new business prospect for improving the capability to cope with changes.
Design as differentiator-it is as a source of competition on the market through customer loyalty, customer orientation, price and so on.
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