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Consumer Perception on brand by different aspects

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Published: 1st Jan 2015 in Marketing

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Clothing is one of the most noticeable icons of the youth culture and is an important means by which they express their identity and gain social approval. It also reflects individual status, image and style, therefore it can be presumed that reference groups may play a significant role in providing relevant information, deemed necessary to make a purchase and conform to group norms. Additionally, as clothing is visible it is likely to be purchased with a reference group in mind.

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Increasingly, in Today’s marketing, brands are seen as important in creating an identity, a sense of achievement and identification for consumers who are fashion conscious and materialistic. The economic value of luxury, fashion and status products is argued to be substantial argued that people express themselves through consumption in a myriad of ways, and in this context, products and brands have the ability to communicate messages too there, in that product styles determine how consumers who own a particular product are perceived by others One view of fashion is that it is not the creation of powerful persuaders, but a normal outcome of a dynamic culture and common shifts in taste and preferences. Increasingly the relationship between characteristics of consumers and of brands are becoming important marketing problems, particularly, so for the characteristics such as materialism as a strong driver of acquiring and consuming specific types of brands. As such, this study focuses on examining the relationships between consumer characteristics, including gender, regional influence and level of materialism with brand perception. 

The emphasis placed on the possession and consumption of material goods as a signal of

One’s status and success in life has given rise to a trend of materialism. Richens and Dawson’s definition of materialism is adopted here: i.e., “a mind-set or constellation of attitudes regarding the relative importance of acquisition and possession of objects in one’s life”

Materialism

Throughout the twentieth century, materialism and its other conjugations (e.g., materialistic, symbolic, status-oriented, etc.) have been used as descriptors of modern culture, often without a clear and precise understanding of its conceptualization. Researchers have offered various perspectives of what the term encompasses: associates materialism with personality traits. More recently, materialism is conceptualized as a value that can be further decomposed into possession values

and personal values

Rakish defines a value as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence” Others target motivations of acquisition as a major focus on status consumption, or the acquisition of goods based on the status the goods provide for the purchaser. The authors conceptualize and develop an instrument to measure status consumption (an internal motivating force), and show that it is positively related to, but distinct from, materialism.

Fitzmaurice also examine the relationship between materialism and social consumption, but include leadership opinion, the amount of time spent on shopping, and spending. Conclusions support the authors’ hypotheses that materialism positively correlates with those four factors. Materialism is also linked to a variety of other factors, including existential insecurity and brand connection family structure and competitiveness .In addition to the above empirical evidence, many take a methodological approach, developing reliable measurement instruments.

As noted above, materialistic purchases are based heavily on the connections formed

between the brand and the individual and the perceived status that is gained through the

acquisition of certain goods. Thus, brand image is typically an important consumption criterion for materialists.

Brand Image

Brands attempt to differentiate themselves from competitors via a variety of techniques (e.g., the use of high-quality materials, insuring customer satisfaction, using unique and catchy names; One method to distinguish a brand from others is to create a favorable brand image. [Brand image is here defined as perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory (Keller 1993).] Furthermore, suggest that brand image pertains to endorsers’ congruency as well as their qualities and effects on persuasion.

Brand image is consequently used as a means to connect with consumers and tolerate brand equity [defined from the consumer’s perspective as “the brand attitude based on

beliefs about positive product attributes and favorable consequences of brand use” (Peter and This process by which the connection between a consumer and brand develops can be explained ,meaning transfer model. Advertising, along with other factors, can be used to convey cultural meaning from the culturally constituted world to the consumer goods and then from the consumer goods to the individual consumer. In this sense, the brand is actually used as a method of expression of an individual’s identity to his/her self and the rest of society, and in doing so can create brand loyalty. For example, Ad-Based Persuasion 6 materialistic individuals seek out the acquisition of brands that convey a certain type of cultural meaning, i.e., those that symbolize status and success (Richins et al. 1992). More recently, Aaker (1999) finds that personality aspects specific to the brand only have an impact on a consumer’s brand preference if those personality traits are both descriptive of and important to that consumer’s sense of personality or self. These works hint at a match-up between the consumer and the brands selected.

Consumer Buying Behavior

Everybody in the world is the consumer. Each of us buys and sells or consumes goods and services in the life. Consumer behavior is very complex and is determined to a large extent by social and psychological factors. Consumer behavior can be defined as those acts of individuals directly involved in obtaining, using and disposing of economic goods and services. The relevance and importance of understanding consumer behavior is rooted in the modern marketing. The needs of not even two consumers are the same. Therefore, they buy only those products and services, which satisfy their wants and desires. To survive in the market, a firm has to be constantly innovating and understand the latest consumer needs and tastes it will be extremely useful in exploiting marketing opportunities and in meeting the challenges that the Indian market offers. A study of consumer behavior is significant for regulating consumption of goods and thereby maintaining economic stability. Within the broad framework of marketing, the area that entices the most researchers is the study why a consumer behaves in a particular way. The complexity of the behavior, however, varies with the nature of the product and the need, which it is required to satisfy. The study of consumer behavior is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources on consumption of related items.

Consumer behavior is an applied discipline. Its application exists at two different levels of analysis. One is at the micro level perspective and other at the macro level perspective. Micro level seeks application of the knowledge faced by the individual, firm or an organization. The macro perspective applied knowledge of consumer includes the aggregate level of problem faced by large groups or by society as a whole. Consumer behavior provides a sound basis for identifying and understanding consumer needs. It is the act of the individuals directly involved in obtaining and using economic goods and services.

The study of consumer behavior is an essential component of marketing. The adoption of marketing concept by the marketers provides the impetus for the study of consumer behavior. In case of New Product Introduction in the market, there is a risk of product failure. To increase the chances of success of new products, better information of the consumer behavior is required. Their desires, tastes and preferences are to be taken care of. So from all these aspects the study of consumer behavior is important.

This project attempts to establish a linkage between materialism, gender and regionality with the consumer perception of a high priced brand of apparel. It indicates that different undergraduates and graduates hold different perceptions of a brand depending on their sex and Nationality. The study also examines materialistic tendencies and whether, materialism was influenced by gender and nationality. The results indicated that there is a difference in perception between customers of different regions and sexes and that materialism does effect the perception of high priced fashion clothing.

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

Dubois & Duquesne, 1993, Mason. 1981,Analysis of Materialism in fashion industry:

Abstract: Increasingly, in fashion marketing, brands are seen as important in creating an identity, a sense achievement and identification for consumers who are fashion conscious and materialistic. The economic value of luxury, fashion and status products is argued to be substantial (argued that people express themselves through consumption in a myriad of ways, and in this context, products and brands have the ability to communicate messages to others, in that product styles determine how consumers who own a particular product are perceived by others .One view of fashion is that it is not the creation of powerful persuaders, but a normal outcome of a dynamic culture and common shifts in taste and preferences. Increasingly the relationship between characteristics of consumers and of brands are becoming important marketing problems, particularly, so for the characteristics such as materialism as a strong driver of acquiring and consuming specific types of brands. As such, this study focuses on examining the relationships between consumer characteristics and level of materialism with brand perception.

Materialism, Status Signaling, and Product Satisfaction, Authors: Wang,Jeff1  Source: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science; Sep2006, Vol. 34 Issue 4

The consumer satisfaction literature has not, for the most part, integrated individual values into the product evaluation process. Yet including both consumer and product factors can best attain a comprehensive understanding of consumer satisfaction. To demonstrate the usefulness of including individual values, this research focuses on one consumer value, namely, materialism. The authors empirically explore how this individual value is linked to consumers’ evaluations of products they have purchased Across these two studies, using divergent samples and products, they find consistent evidence that materialism is negatively related to product satisfaction in product categories with high potential for status signaling, but unrelated to product satisfaction in product categories with lower potential for status signaling. The consumption goals that produce these product evaluations are empirically addressed.

Materialism As Social Cognition: People, Possessions, and Perception.

By: Hunt, James M.; Kernan, Jerome B.; Mitchell, Deborah J.. Journal of Consumer Psychology (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), 1996, Vol. 5 Issue 1

Abstract: At the core of our conceptual framework is a set of personal constructs, limited in number with applicable over a wide range of perceptual events (Kelly, 1955). Our central tenet is that individuals bring these constructs to bear in forming impressions of themselves and others, and their primary effect is trait-based person schemata. When activated, these structures enable individuals to encode information about people and form impressions. In the case of materialism, personal constructs express a judgmental orientation that is external in nature and weighted heavily toward physical accoutrements. Accordingly, the person schemata of materialists are organized around possessions and their acquisition. Activation of these schemata steers impressions of people into related categories-successful versus unsuccessful and fulfilled versus unfulfilled–on the basis of apparent ownership. Admittedly, our conceptualization of materialism is tentative and its Ps–relating to information-processing stages, context effects, and personality correlates-remain to be verified. Nevertheless, this approach has intuitive appeal, it is consistent with the extant literature on social cognition, and it represents an alternative framework for studying materialism. By focusing on those individual mental processes wherein judgments ultimately are made, we might uncover the genesis of materialism’s myriad effects and thereby integrate the micro- and macrotraditions in this fascinating phenomenon’s 

The Effects of Materialism, Brand Image, and Ad Appeal Type on Ad-Based Persuasion :

(Fitzmaurice and Comegys 2006). [Richins and Dawson’s (1992)

Ad-based persuasion is dependent on many elements, some are unique to individual

Consumers and others are ad-related. Materialism has grown in popularity within the field of consumer research, but empirical evidence of its relationship to consumption is limited. This study focuses on the relationships among materialism, brand image, and ad appeal type, with special focus on a three-way “match-up”. Contrary to predictions, interactions among the three variables are insignificant. However, there is directional support for the notion (match-up) that materialists prefer the status-theme ad for the high-image/status brand. In addition, brand image interacts with two measured individual difference characteristics, susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) and self-brand connection (SBC) to varying degrees. Theoretical and managerial implications are offered.

Richins and Dawson 1992 Theory of materialistic marketing::

Possessions and their acquisition occupy a central role in the lives of many

individuals (who are often termed materialists. Activities focusing on possessing and acquiring are central to materialists because they indicate success and provide happiness. It is not uncommon to be involved to some extent in the pursuit of happiness, however it is the pursuit of happiness through acquisition Buyer Behaviour

rather than through other means, like personal relationships and achievements that

distinguishes materialists. More often than not materialists tend to judge their own

and others success by the number and quality of possessions they accumulate. The

value of possessions stems not only from their ability to confer status but also from

their ability to project a desired self-image and identify one as a participant in an

imagined perfect life (Campbell 1987). Success for a materialist depends to a large

extent on the possession of products that depict certain desired images.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

RESEARCH

METHODOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

To determine the Brand perceptions of branded apparels differ between males and females

To determine the Association between consumers materialism and his/her perception of brand

To examine materialistic tendencies between males and females and check whether materialism was influence by regionality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESEARCH DESIGN:-

The research design used in this study is descriptive research. A thorough review of literature was undertaken before selecting the topic of the study.

After having gone through the study the relevant questionnaires was designed in orientation to consumers and retailers.

Two sources of data have been used for conducting the study.

Primary Data:- Survey method was used to collect the primary data. Data was collected by administering a questionnaire to the consumers

Secondary Data:- secondary data was collected through the following journals and research papers.

The measurement scale used for rating of the question is the 5 pointer scale by Rensis Likert .

SAMPLING METHOD

The sampling method used in this survey is Convenience Sampling

SAMPLE SIZE

The sample size of 208 for consumer oriented questionnaire is being taken .

Sampling Design

Sampling refers to selecting some of the elements in a population by which one can draw conclusions about the entire population.

Sampling Technique

The selection of the respondents was done on the basis of convenience technique based on the non-probability method of sampling.

Sampling Area:

NCR (Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida)

Data Collection Tools

Primary Data

Primary data is that data which is collected for the first time. It is original in nature in the shape of raw material. For the purpose of collection of primary data, a well structured questionnaire was framed which was filled by the respondents. The questionnaire comprises of close ended questions. In close ended questions dichotomous, ranking, checklist questions and multiple choice questions are used.

Secondary Data

Secondary data is the data which is already collected by someone. They are secondary in nature and are in shape of finished product. Secondary data was collected so as to have accurate results. Required data was collected from various books, magazines, journals and internet.

 

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The research instruments used is a questionnaires which is being designed for customers .

QUESTIONNAIRE

Part 1: First 3 questions have been designed to evaluate the impact of materialism, brand image in general and question 3-14 have been specific in terms of branded apparaels and the impact of materialism and brand image on consumers perception is observed and recorded.

Part 2: General information about the consumers Name, age, gender, email and mobile no.

 

Data Analysis Techniques

The data has been analyzed in two parts, i.e., primary data (collected through questionnaires) and secondary data (collected with the help of newspapers, magazines and various other journals). The primary data was analyzed using SPSS software. It was depicted using bar charts, line graphs, pie charts, chi-square, T test etc.

 

 

 

 

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Analysis

Table 1

I have all the things I really need to enjoy life…… *

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

66

30.8

31.7

31.7

agree

79

36.9

38.0

69.7

neutral

29

13.6

13.9

83.7

disagree

30

14.0

14.4

98.1

strongly disagree

4

1.9

1.9

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.1

Interpretation: It can be observed from table 4.1 and graph that most people believe that they have all the things to enjoy life ,It shows that people are satisfied to some extent with what they have in life

Table 4.2

I admire people who own expensive homes, cars, and clothes

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

64

29.9

30.8

30.8

Agree

69

32.2

33.2

63.9

Neutral

33

15.4

15.9

79.8

Disagree

33

15.4

15.9

95.7

strongly disagree

9

4.2

4.3

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.2

Interpretation : It can be observed that the most people surveyed admire people who have luxurious lifestyle in terms of clothes ,cars and home ,this shows that people respect those people who have good amount of luxury in their life ,hence it is interpretive that LUXURY is a factor that drives people to respect others

Table 4.3

I like to own things that impress people

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

26

12.1

12.5

12.5

agree

83

38.8

39.9

52.4

neutral

73

34.1

35.1

87.5

disagree

19

8.9

9.1

96.6

strongly disagree

7

3.3

3.4

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.3

Interpretation : Table 4.3 and respective graph shows that most people agree that they like to own things that impress people ,this shows that people like to have things in their life that can impress others ,hence it’s concluded that people try to influence others with things they have driving them towards materialism

Table 4.4

The things I own say a lot about how well I am doing in life

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

46

21.5

22.1

22.1

agree

77

36.0

37.0

59.1

neutral

52

24.3

25.0

84.1

disagree

33

15.4

15.9

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.4

Interpretation : Graph 4.4 depicts that most people agree and some strongly agree that what they own says about their well being in life , hence it’s observed that the things people own reflects their healthy living .

Table 4.5

Possessions can make your life happy

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

56

26.2

26.9

26.9

agree

69

32.2

33.2

60.1

neutral

38

17.8

18.3

78.4

disagree

36

16.8

17.3

95.7

strongly disagree

9

4.2

4.3

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.5

Interpretation : Table 4.5 shows that people strongly believe that possessions can make their life happy ,hence in this context more a person can own or have in life will make him happier ,it can be concluded that POSSESION is a factor that drives people towards happiness.

Table 4.6

Do you believe a person who dresses well seems to have a good personality?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

66

30.8

31.7

31.7

agree

96

44.9

46.2

77.9

neutral

41

19.2

19.7

97.6

disagree

5

2.3

2.4

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.6

Interpretation : The above graph and table shows that people judge others on the basis of clothes or dress he/she is wearing ,if someone dresses well will be having good personality ,hence it’s concluded that people who have good dressing sense or have good selection of clothes have good personality. Hence clothes are an important attribute that people keep into consideration while judging personality of an individual.

Table 4.7

I have more Self-confidence when i wear branded clothes of my choice

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

39

18.2

18.8

18.8

agree

56

26.2

26.9

45.7

neutral

61

28.5

29.3

75.0

disagree

52

24.3

25.0

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.7

Interpretation : It can be observed from table 4.7 that people to some extent develop self confidence when they wear branded clothes of their choice ,hence it can be reason out that branded clothes are an important factor that drives confidence in people making them strong and motivated.

Table 4.8

I like to own cloths that impress people

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

44

20.6

21.2

21.2

Agree

66

30.8

31.7

52.9

Neutral

67

31.3

32.2

85.1

Disagree

31

14.5

14.9

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Graph 4.8

Interpretation : As we already discussed from table 4.2 that people like to own things that impress people ,now here from graph 4.8 and table it can be observed that people own clothes to impress others that might ride them towards satisfaction ,it can finally concluded that peole consider clothes to be an important aspect that can impress others

Table 4.9

I like a lot of luxury in my life

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

60

28.0

28.8

28.8

agree

91

42.5

43.8

72.6

neutral

29

13.6

13.9

86.5

disagree

28

13.1

13.5

100.0

Total

208

97.2

100.0

Missing

System

6

2.8

Total

214

100.0

Graph 4.9

Interpretation : It can be analyzed from table 4.9 that people strongly agree to have luxury in their life , that is they want to have lavishness in their lifestyle ,hence it can be concluded that most people believe that they want luxury in their life and hence shows that people are materialistic when it comes to wealth and opulence .

I like to own things that impress people * Possessions can make your life happy

H0 – There is no association between “things that impress people” and “possessions can make your life happy “

H1 – There is a strong association “things that impress people” and “possessions can make your life happy”

Level of significance 95%

Table 4.10

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

132.321a

16

.000

Likelihood Ratio

101.708

16

.000

Linear-by-Linear Association

37.377

1

.000

N of Valid Cases

208

Graph 4.10

Inference : From the table 4.10, we can see that the significance value is less than .05 (P=0.00) so null hypothesis is rejected and H1 is accepted i.e. there is strong relation between “things that impress people” and “possessions can make your life happy “

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Interpretation : It’s observed that people who agree to have possessions in life love to own things that impress people ,hence it shows that people want to have possessions to impress other people ,making them materialistic with the things they own ,hence they want to influence people with what they possess

I like a lot of luxury in my life * Possessions can make your life happy

H0 – There is no association between ”I like lot of luxury in life ” and “Possessions to make life happy”

H1- There is a strong association between ”I like lot of luxury in life ” and “Possessions to make life happy”

Level of significance – 95%

Table 4.11

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

53.221a

12

.000

Likelihood Ratio

49.963

12

.000

Linear-by-Linear Association

18.471

1

.000

N of Valid Cases

208

Graph 4.11

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

132.321a

16

.000

Likelihood Ratio

101.708

16

.000

Linear-by-Linear Association

37.377

1

.000

N of Valid Cases

208

Inference : From the table 4.11, we can see that the significance value is less than .05 so null hypothesis is rejected and H1 is accepted i.e. there is strong relation between ”I like lot of luxury in life ” and “Possessions to make life happy”

Interpretation : It can be observed from graph 4.11 people who want to have possessions in life or who believe that having possession can make their life happy strongly believe in having luxury in life ,hence it can concluded that people possessions are a lot dependent on the luxury they want ,more is the luxury more will be the possession of things and happier would be the individual, hence possessions and luxury are driving factors towards HAPPINESS

Table 4.12

Gender

According to you having Branded Apparels is a symbol of ?

Total

STATUS

happiness

image

prestige

satisfaction

I HAVE GOT MORE ATTITUDE

Male

Rate the following factors which are part of your considerations in order of your priorities while purchasing clothes:- Price

1

11

3

3

5

19

0

41

2

 

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