Concern on environmental issues worldwide

2743 words (11 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Marketing Reference this

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There has been a rising concern on environmental issues worldwide nowadays. Ministry of foreign affairs statistic shows that over the years, the temperature has been rise because of carbon dioxide trapped and green house gases have affected the global climate. This change will affect the people live all over the world. This also includes access to water, health, food and the well being of the environment. Today’s consumers have started to recognize that their purchasing behaviors actually cause a big impact to the environment. Therefore, companies should practice offering environmentally friendly products and service to people to prevent this world become worse.

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Although, Malaysia has undergone an excellent development followed governmental efforts to attract foreign investor to come and invest for a green product development in Malaysia, the action of environmental responsible behavior among Malaysian consumers are still low.

One of the examples of the lack of environmental responsible behavior is shown in an article in Bernama whereby garbage thrown by one of the state in Malaysia residents is the main cause of river pollution in the state. According to a survey which was handled on by global market insight and information group, only 8% of Malaysian respondents responded that they have changed their behavior in a greatest deal to benefit the environment on the aspect of eco-friendliness of habits and behaviors

In addition 83% respondents reported that their views on a company’s and their College’s friendliness to the environment would influence them to purchases a green products and services.

Studying the determinants of generation-Y consumers green purchase behavior will be definitely benefit green marketers. Generation-Y (also known as a millennial) is defined as A label attributed to people born during the 1980s and early 1990s. Members of Generation Y are often referred to as “echo boomers” because they are the children of parents born during the baby boom (“baby boomers”). Because children born during this time period have had constant access to technology (computers, cell phones) in their youth, they have required many employers to update their hiring strategy in order to incorporate updated forms of technology. In a simple word, generation-Y grew up with a technology and relies on those things to perform their job and their task.

In addition, when going through a literature review in Malaysian context, there are still a gap existed between environmental knowledge, intention and behavior towards green product. [Said et al. (2005)]. Even though people that have vast knowledge about green products are not necessarily would buy a green product.

Therefore, factors those determine and affect Generation-Y to purchase a green product would be worth to find out.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH

Environment is defined as what surrounds a thing or an item or in other words it means the surrounding. It could be a physical element which is physical environment, that includes the built environment, natural environment such as air, water, land, atmosphere and etc or it could be human environment where people surrounding the item or thing which also known as the social environment. Today environment is getting worst and worst. Many environmental issues arise. Environmental concerns have been growing in recent years. One of the examples of environmental issue is global warming. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities such as burning garbage and waste are believed to be contributing to an increase in average global temperatures. This is caused primarily by increases in “greenhouse” gases such as Carbon Dioxide. The greenhouse effect keeps the earth warm when functioning normally. For the first time in history, human activities are altering the climate of our entire planet. According to (Jack, 2010), in less than 2 centuries, humans have increased the total amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by 25% from the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of forests. In addition to the natural fluxes of carbon through the Earth system, human activities, particularly fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are also releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (The Carbon Cycle; the Human Role, Earth Observatory, NASA).

Green product is define as a product that produce limited carbon footprints; they may require fewer resources to produce, consume less energy or emit fewer hazardous emissions. Green product is also a product that is non toxic, water-efficient, and also recyclable and biodegradable. There are many green products that have been produce for people in the market. For example, a household cleaner. Nowadays it’s nearly impossible to go shopping without finding a plethora of products that claim to be environmentally and consumer friendly. Oddly enough, many cheap and eco-friendly substances, such as vinegar, have been used for years as home cleaners. Whether you buy a green cleaning product at a store or use something on hand in your pantry, you can reap the benefits of choosing products that are gentler on you and the environment. Phosphate-free dishwasher and laundry detergents are also consider a green product because they do not discharge environment-damaging phosphates into waterways. Other examples of green cleaning products are those labeled “certified biodegradable;” these have passed several stringent tests relating to biodegradability and environmental impact conducted by an independent certifying agency. According to Consumer Reports, the “certified biodegradable” label is more meaningful than a “general biodegradable” label. Glass and metal cleaners, kitchen and bathroom cleaners, and laundry detergents are products that might carry this label.

The rationale for going green is twofold. Clearly, the positive effects on the environment are a key driver for purchasing green product. Green product provides myriad environmental benefits. They can replace toxic materials that may be harmful to people or animals. Also, some products save energy and water, while others limit solid waste and manufacturing releases. Green products create a healthier environment for people through reduced exposure to cleaners, solvents, paints and other hazardous substances. Green product also can reduce allergies. Many families find that their children are suffering from allergies, even though their family history does not necessary say that there are no allergies. In some situations, chemicals found within cleaning products contain allergens. Bleaches, toxic cleaning sprays and other chemicals used to clean the home commonly contain a variety of ingredients specifically able to cause or trigger allergies in people. 

Generation Y are the cool generation, they embrace brand and live in the new world of digitize communication. Thus that might be interesting to find their perception and their level of awareness towards environmental issues that the world is facing nowadays. Gen Y has grown up in a very structure, busy and over planned world. Also, Gen Y is made up of confident, optimistic young people who feel valued and wanted. In a article of science daily, Gen-Y is a people that will go all the way when it comes to saving the environment as long as it benefit to world economic and environment. They are maturing into a pragmatic generation that wants to do the right thing for the environment but also has real economic concerns

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Consumers or practically customers are the sellers and buyers that boost the country’s economy. Therefore, many firms are actually putting many efforts in order to attract more customers because these customers create businesses opportunities and generate profits to them. As the world nowadays facing so many problems regarding to an environmental issue, the consumers and their attitudes or behaviors to purchase a green product are the important factors to be considered. Consumers nowadays have more choices due to the effects of globalization. They will prefer the function of the product rather than the brand or whatsoever to ensure a healthier future.

To determine the current level of Gen-y consumers preference towards the green products.

To determine what are the determinants or factors of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product.

To determine the consequences or effects of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product.

To determine consumer level of awareness of Gen-y consumer towards green product.

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

Awareness towards environmental issue that the world nowadays facing play a major role encourage people to purchase a green product. Thus, this study is attempts to relate on the various variables that influence consumer especially generation-Y to purchase a green product. The objectives are as the following:

* To study the factors affecting the consumer especially Gen-Y to purchase green product.

Gen-y is a new generation and It is crucial to understand as they are more advance and modernize. Thus, several researches have been conducted in order to understand consumers in a way that how they behave, and what are the factors that cause them to behave or react to the responses of the products. Leading factors such as price and quality are always the top concerns to the consumers. Product attributes will moderate the effects of price on quality judgments. Partial of the consumers may focus on buying low prices goods and neglect the quality of the products. This group of consumers takes the price as a measure of sacrifice. For instance, consumers take the price served as the benchmark for comparing utility gains from the quality of the product. One the other hand, some portion of the consumers will be willing to pay a premium price for the quality and function of the products, as they are very sensitive to the signals of the quality of one product. Thus, it is hope that this study will contribute further to the understanding of factors of price and quality that may lead to the consumers prefer for a green product

* To understand the awareness level of people about “Go Green” campaign.

Nowadays, there are many environmental campaign have been organized by a government and private sector. This campaign is aim to encourage people to more concern about the environment. Thus, it is hope that this study will explore how people react to a environmental campaign and what is their level of awareness about the awareness campaign.

* To examine the benefit for people involvement in “Go Green” program.

We might be asking, how we will benefit from getting involved in this environmental campaign. Well, recently there has been an increase in events directly related to the availability of natural resources. For example energy shortages that resulted to load shedding, change in weather patterns and water shortages. As a result, civil society is recognizing the need to manage our natural resources more effectively and responsibly. In doing so, we can ensure positive effects on our health, quality of life and even the cost of living. Thus, this study will help people to getting known more about what they will gain if they participate in the environmental campaign.

*To discover what consumer perception towards green product.

In curiosity to identify what are the main components or criteria that consumer especially gen-Y are looking forward in order to purchase a green product. It is true that each and every one of us are special and unique in the way we are, thus, every consumer has their very own perception in purchasing a green product. Different people from different backgrounds may have different perceptions on these products. In addition to that, different demographic groups may have different perceptions to this kind of product as well. Thus, this study will help to identify whether the consumer especially gen-y prefer to buy a green product or not to safe a mother of earth.

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1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study is crucial as there are a lot of green products have been selling nowadays. Obviously, when we talk about green product, the price for that particular item might be so expensive. The study on factors affecting consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product may allow us to know in depth why are previous efforts taken does not produce as it is thought it would be. Based on the study conducted, motivations towards the environment, knowledge on green product, social norm, awareness and self-image have an impact on the consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product. Government may need to enhance its program in educating people green product. New and more interesting “Go Green” program and method is a definite necessity in motivating people to increase their interest/awareness on a green product and indirectly motivates them to purchase it.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY

The research focus on students in Multimedia University (MMU) Melaka campus and teenagers from outside the campus which comes from various demographic backgrounds such as the faculty, ethnicity and nationality. The focused respondents are a great resemblance on the exact population in Malaysia.

1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL OF RESEARCH

1.6.1 Chapter 1: Introduction

Regarding this chapter, it introduce the background of this research such as why do people as a consumer buy a green product. Thus, this will create a strong preference among the gen-y consumers locally and abroad to consume and purchase green products. These sections will explain in details in the of consumers’ preferences from the Malaysian perspective and as well from the global view for green products. This chapter also recognized the problem statement and the research objectives for this research. Finally, the justification of the research will help to justify the benefits and those who will gain in this research.

Chapter 2 : Literature Review

A thorough study will be conducted on the dependent variable and independent variables. The main purpose for this chapter is to weigh the pros and cons of the topic and to discuss in details on the ideas and knowledge concerned. In this chapter, every definition of the dependent variable and independent variables will be cited from the journals in order to strengthen every point mentioned. Several of arguments and various points of views from different authors in order to provide a stronger formation of each point can be founded in this chapter. In addition to that, this chapter explains the relationships on several independent variables relate to the dependent variables.

1.6.2 Chapter 3 : Research Methodology

Research methodology is usually conducted after the thorough study of literature review. In this chapter, theoretical framework will be form to illustrate the relationships between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Hypotheses or a proposed explanation which were made on the basis of limited evidences will explain the relationships between two or more variables. All the hypotheses stated will be tested together with empirical data. This chapter also includes the description of the sampling data, data collections and as well as the development of the questionnaire for this research.

Chapter 4 : Data Analysis

After questionnaires are collected from all the respondents, then few tests will be conducted to test on the validity and reliability of the results. The responds of the questionnaires from the respondents are represented by a set of numbers that symbolize their own significant meanings. Whereas the tests that will be carry out are to analyze the responses from the respondents so that it will derive to a stronger conclusion at the end of this research.

Chapter 5 : Conclusion

This chapter will provide the final outcome of this research. Thus, the final results will be explained and we will be able to identify how the exact hypotheses that formed earlier are hold.

There has been a rising concern on environmental issues worldwide nowadays. Ministry of foreign affairs statistic shows that over the years, the temperature has been rise because of carbon dioxide trapped and green house gases have affected the global climate. This change will affect the people live all over the world. This also includes access to water, health, food and the well being of the environment. Today’s consumers have started to recognize that their purchasing behaviors actually cause a big impact to the environment. Therefore, companies should practice offering environmentally friendly products and service to people to prevent this world become worse.

Although, Malaysia has undergone an excellent development followed governmental efforts to attract foreign investor to come and invest for a green product development in Malaysia, the action of environmental responsible behavior among Malaysian consumers are still low.

One of the examples of the lack of environmental responsible behavior is shown in an article in Bernama whereby garbage thrown by one of the state in Malaysia residents is the main cause of river pollution in the state. According to a survey which was handled on by global market insight and information group, only 8% of Malaysian respondents responded that they have changed their behavior in a greatest deal to benefit the environment on the aspect of eco-friendliness of habits and behaviors

In addition 83% respondents reported that their views on a company’s and their College’s friendliness to the environment would influence them to purchases a green products and services.

Studying the determinants of generation-Y consumers green purchase behavior will be definitely benefit green marketers. Generation-Y (also known as a millennial) is defined as A label attributed to people born during the 1980s and early 1990s. Members of Generation Y are often referred to as “echo boomers” because they are the children of parents born during the baby boom (“baby boomers”). Because children born during this time period have had constant access to technology (computers, cell phones) in their youth, they have required many employers to update their hiring strategy in order to incorporate updated forms of technology. In a simple word, generation-Y grew up with a technology and relies on those things to perform their job and their task.

In addition, when going through a literature review in Malaysian context, there are still a gap existed between environmental knowledge, intention and behavior towards green product. [Said et al. (2005)]. Even though people that have vast knowledge about green products are not necessarily would buy a green product.

Therefore, factors those determine and affect Generation-Y to purchase a green product would be worth to find out.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH

Environment is defined as what surrounds a thing or an item or in other words it means the surrounding. It could be a physical element which is physical environment, that includes the built environment, natural environment such as air, water, land, atmosphere and etc or it could be human environment where people surrounding the item or thing which also known as the social environment. Today environment is getting worst and worst. Many environmental issues arise. Environmental concerns have been growing in recent years. One of the examples of environmental issue is global warming. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities such as burning garbage and waste are believed to be contributing to an increase in average global temperatures. This is caused primarily by increases in “greenhouse” gases such as Carbon Dioxide. The greenhouse effect keeps the earth warm when functioning normally. For the first time in history, human activities are altering the climate of our entire planet. According to (Jack, 2010), in less than 2 centuries, humans have increased the total amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by 25% from the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of forests. In addition to the natural fluxes of carbon through the Earth system, human activities, particularly fossil fuel burning and deforestation, are also releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (The Carbon Cycle; the Human Role, Earth Observatory, NASA).

Green product is define as a product that produce limited carbon footprints; they may require fewer resources to produce, consume less energy or emit fewer hazardous emissions. Green product is also a product that is non toxic, water-efficient, and also recyclable and biodegradable. There are many green products that have been produce for people in the market. For example, a household cleaner. Nowadays it’s nearly impossible to go shopping without finding a plethora of products that claim to be environmentally and consumer friendly. Oddly enough, many cheap and eco-friendly substances, such as vinegar, have been used for years as home cleaners. Whether you buy a green cleaning product at a store or use something on hand in your pantry, you can reap the benefits of choosing products that are gentler on you and the environment. Phosphate-free dishwasher and laundry detergents are also consider a green product because they do not discharge environment-damaging phosphates into waterways. Other examples of green cleaning products are those labeled “certified biodegradable;” these have passed several stringent tests relating to biodegradability and environmental impact conducted by an independent certifying agency. According to Consumer Reports, the “certified biodegradable” label is more meaningful than a “general biodegradable” label. Glass and metal cleaners, kitchen and bathroom cleaners, and laundry detergents are products that might carry this label.

The rationale for going green is twofold. Clearly, the positive effects on the environment are a key driver for purchasing green product. Green product provides myriad environmental benefits. They can replace toxic materials that may be harmful to people or animals. Also, some products save energy and water, while others limit solid waste and manufacturing releases. Green products create a healthier environment for people through reduced exposure to cleaners, solvents, paints and other hazardous substances. Green product also can reduce allergies. Many families find that their children are suffering from allergies, even though their family history does not necessary say that there are no allergies. In some situations, chemicals found within cleaning products contain allergens. Bleaches, toxic cleaning sprays and other chemicals used to clean the home commonly contain a variety of ingredients specifically able to cause or trigger allergies in people. 

Generation Y are the cool generation, they embrace brand and live in the new world of digitize communication. Thus that might be interesting to find their perception and their level of awareness towards environmental issues that the world is facing nowadays. Gen Y has grown up in a very structure, busy and over planned world. Also, Gen Y is made up of confident, optimistic young people who feel valued and wanted. In a article of science daily, Gen-Y is a people that will go all the way when it comes to saving the environment as long as it benefit to world economic and environment. They are maturing into a pragmatic generation that wants to do the right thing for the environment but also has real economic concerns

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Consumers or practically customers are the sellers and buyers that boost the country’s economy. Therefore, many firms are actually putting many efforts in order to attract more customers because these customers create businesses opportunities and generate profits to them. As the world nowadays facing so many problems regarding to an environmental issue, the consumers and their attitudes or behaviors to purchase a green product are the important factors to be considered. Consumers nowadays have more choices due to the effects of globalization. They will prefer the function of the product rather than the brand or whatsoever to ensure a healthier future.

To determine the current level of Gen-y consumers preference towards the green products.

To determine what are the determinants or factors of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product.

To determine the consequences or effects of Gen-y consumer preferences towards the green product.

To determine consumer level of awareness of Gen-y consumer towards green product.

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

Awareness towards environmental issue that the world nowadays facing play a major role encourage people to purchase a green product. Thus, this study is attempts to relate on the various variables that influence consumer especially generation-Y to purchase a green product. The objectives are as the following:

* To study the factors affecting the consumer especially Gen-Y to purchase green product.

Gen-y is a new generation and It is crucial to understand as they are more advance and modernize. Thus, several researches have been conducted in order to understand consumers in a way that how they behave, and what are the factors that cause them to behave or react to the responses of the products. Leading factors such as price and quality are always the top concerns to the consumers. Product attributes will moderate the effects of price on quality judgments. Partial of the consumers may focus on buying low prices goods and neglect the quality of the products. This group of consumers takes the price as a measure of sacrifice. For instance, consumers take the price served as the benchmark for comparing utility gains from the quality of the product. One the other hand, some portion of the consumers will be willing to pay a premium price for the quality and function of the products, as they are very sensitive to the signals of the quality of one product. Thus, it is hope that this study will contribute further to the understanding of factors of price and quality that may lead to the consumers prefer for a green product

* To understand the awareness level of people about “Go Green” campaign.

Nowadays, there are many environmental campaign have been organized by a government and private sector. This campaign is aim to encourage people to more concern about the environment. Thus, it is hope that this study will explore how people react to a environmental campaign and what is their level of awareness about the awareness campaign.

* To examine the benefit for people involvement in “Go Green” program.

We might be asking, how we will benefit from getting involved in this environmental campaign. Well, recently there has been an increase in events directly related to the availability of natural resources. For example energy shortages that resulted to load shedding, change in weather patterns and water shortages. As a result, civil society is recognizing the need to manage our natural resources more effectively and responsibly. In doing so, we can ensure positive effects on our health, quality of life and even the cost of living. Thus, this study will help people to getting known more about what they will gain if they participate in the environmental campaign.

*To discover what consumer perception towards green product.

In curiosity to identify what are the main components or criteria that consumer especially gen-Y are looking forward in order to purchase a green product. It is true that each and every one of us are special and unique in the way we are, thus, every consumer has their very own perception in purchasing a green product. Different people from different backgrounds may have different perceptions on these products. In addition to that, different demographic groups may have different perceptions to this kind of product as well. Thus, this study will help to identify whether the consumer especially gen-y prefer to buy a green product or not to safe a mother of earth.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study is crucial as there are a lot of green products have been selling nowadays. Obviously, when we talk about green product, the price for that particular item might be so expensive. The study on factors affecting consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product may allow us to know in depth why are previous efforts taken does not produce as it is thought it would be. Based on the study conducted, motivations towards the environment, knowledge on green product, social norm, awareness and self-image have an impact on the consumer especially Gen-Y buying a green product. Government may need to enhance its program in educating people green product. New and more interesting “Go Green” program and method is a definite necessity in motivating people to increase their interest/awareness on a green product and indirectly motivates them to purchase it.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY

The research focus on students in Multimedia University (MMU) Melaka campus and teenagers from outside the campus which comes from various demographic backgrounds such as the faculty, ethnicity and nationality. The focused respondents are a great resemblance on the exact population in Malaysia.

1.6 ORGANIZATIONAL OF RESEARCH

1.6.1 Chapter 1: Introduction

Regarding this chapter, it introduce the background of this research such as why do people as a consumer buy a green product. Thus, this will create a strong preference among the gen-y consumers locally and abroad to consume and purchase green products. These sections will explain in details in the of consumers’ preferences from the Malaysian perspective and as well from the global view for green products. This chapter also recognized the problem statement and the research objectives for this research. Finally, the justification of the research will help to justify the benefits and those who will gain in this research.

Chapter 2 : Literature Review

A thorough study will be conducted on the dependent variable and independent variables. The main purpose for this chapter is to weigh the pros and cons of the topic and to discuss in details on the ideas and knowledge concerned. In this chapter, every definition of the dependent variable and independent variables will be cited from the journals in order to strengthen every point mentioned. Several of arguments and various points of views from different authors in order to provide a stronger formation of each point can be founded in this chapter. In addition to that, this chapter explains the relationships on several independent variables relate to the dependent variables.

1.6.2 Chapter 3 : Research Methodology

Research methodology is usually conducted after the thorough study of literature review. In this chapter, theoretical framework will be form to illustrate the relationships between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Hypotheses or a proposed explanation which were made on the basis of limited evidences will explain the relationships between two or more variables. All the hypotheses stated will be tested together with empirical data. This chapter also includes the description of the sampling data, data collections and as well as the development of the questionnaire for this research.

Chapter 4 : Data Analysis

After questionnaires are collected from all the respondents, then few tests will be conducted to test on the validity and reliability of the results. The responds of the questionnaires from the respondents are represented by a set of numbers that symbolize their own significant meanings. Whereas the tests that will be carry out are to analyze the responses from the respondents so that it will derive to a stronger conclusion at the end of this research.

Chapter 5 : Conclusion

This chapter will provide the final outcome of this research. Thus, the final results will be explained and we will be able to identify how the exact hypotheses that formed earlier are hold.

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