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This research aims to investigate the relationship between psychological factors (motivation), socio-cultural ones (social classes, culture, subcultures and economic situation), product attributes (price, quality, brand, attraction, fashion, trustworthiness and prestige), attitude (feelings about celebrity-endorsed apparel) and teenager's purchase intention towards celebrity-endorsed apparels. This study is also looking into the effects celebrity endorsements have on the teenage girls, and the ethical issues that can follow.. The research used self-administered questionnaires. The target population was teenagers in the city of Manchester, 12 to 19 years old considered to be potential buyers of celebrity-endorsed apparels. The data was collected from 148 young students in three schools in the Manchester area only. There were seven hypotheses. The results show a significant relationship between attitude of the teenagers in Manchester towards celebrity-endorsed apparels and their purchase intention; and between psychological factors, product attributes and purchase intention.. Price and brand were shown to be related to purchase intention. Most of teenagers in this city would consider purchasing celebrity-endorsed apparels.
According to the British fashion council, the UK Fashion industry is worth £21 billion, it employs 816,000 and stands for 1.7 % of UK GDP , which is more than the car manufacturing industry (British Fashion Council 2010).
Branding has by many been viewed as a tool to position a product or a service with a consistent image of value for money and quality to ensure the development of a recurring preference by the customer. It is common knowledge that the consumer's choice is influenced can easily be influenced by many effects of which the simplest one is a brand name. Although there may be equally satisfying products, the consumer when satisfied with some brand does not want to spend additional effort to evaluate the other alternative choices. According to Majumdau (1998), once the consumer has liked a particular brand, he states that they will stay with it, unless a better quality/ value product comes to his/her attention or there is a steep rise in price, which will prompt the consumer to switch the brand. According to Kotler (2003) branding is one of the most important elements in business. As if products had no brand, the customers would have to explain to the sellers in detail about the products that they want, while sellers may be confused or give the wrong products to the customers. Therefore, he stated that a brand acts as a sign, name or symbol for the products and services, and the main aim of the brand is to identify the products or services of a seller or groups of sellers and differentiate an offering of a seller from that of its rivals (Kotler, 2003).
In recent years, brands have played a significant part in the market as the marketers add value to the brand to make it more preferable to the consumer compared to other brands in the same market segment. This is particularly true in the fashion market. The fast fashion industry is highly competitive, and consumer loyalty is low amongst the young trend led consumers (Wright, 2006). It has been suggested that they will go where the newest style is, and it is therefore vital to keep in time with the trends (Brengman and Willes, 2009). This dissertation will, however, look at if there is a link between brand image and consumer purchase decisions, and if a celebrity can help strengthen the brand image for the young fast fashion consumer. According to Barnes (2011) this segment is highly aspirational and might therefore be influenced to buy an item of clothing due to a celebrity. However, it is important that this celebrity fits in with the retailers image, and that it is someone the consumers aspire to be like (Barnes, 2011).
Recently British designer Temperley experienced the effects of celebrity endorsement from the dutchess of Cambridge and her sister wearing their dresses. Also, it is not only Temperley that has experienced increased sales due to the duchess as sales have been spiked by as much as 500% only hours after she has been seen wearing an outfit from the highstreet (bbc.co.uk, 2012). This underlines the effect of brand image, as the aspirational fast fashion consumer looks up to the duchess and therefore copies her outfits. This dissertation will look into the relationship between consumer purchasing decision and brand image, and the effect celebrity endorsement can have on a brands image and therefore affect the company's performance when it comes to later teens females. This will be achieved by investigating the psychological factors and the characteristics of the teenage demographics in relation to marketing and in particular celebrity endorsement.
According to Schiffman et al (2008). Psychological factors include perception, learning, motivation, personality and attitude. Motivation consists of needs that provide motives for consumer behaviour. Perception is a foundation for forming beliefs as different perceptions may lead to different beliefs towards an object. Learning refers to stimuli, drives and responses. Personality is a person's distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her environment. As to attitude, it pertains to a person's tendency toward an object or an idea and his/her value evaluations and feelings about something (Schiffman et al., 2008).
Motivation as a factor to stimulate consumer's purchase intention is now well established. For example, Lee and Lee (1997), who studied the relationship between appearance consciousness and self-confidence of elderly women and purchasing behavior, showed that people's intention to buy cosmetics and clothing was influenced by the intrinsic motivation of having their image enhanced.
In this study, the researchers combined the conformist psychology theory with that of Maslow's hierarchy of needs to illustrate a consumer's motivation to purchase celebrity-endorsed apparel. Three questions related to consumer's motivation in the questionnaire read as follows:
1. I would buy celebrity- endorsed apparel for no reasons but just simply following my friends and classmates;
2. I need to buy celebrity-endorsed apparel to build my own image;
3. I need to be unique by wearing celebrity-endorsed apparel (Lee and Lee 1997).
This research will concentrate on the teenage demographic, whilst raising similar questions.
The teenage demographic is by many considered insecure and easily influenced my marketing techniques )blahbalahha).
A survey was conducted to examine shopping choice behaviour of a very important and economically viable segment of this teen market called the "later aged female teen". It was found that a typical later aged female teen was born to shop. Making the right choice, especially for her clothing, is important both from a social affiliation and a social influence position. This group felt brand (fit, look, and style) to be the most important attribute to consider in apparel choice and later aged female teens wanted excitement in their shopping venue. Shopping was important and there were risks associated with an incorrect choice of their clothing.
Once fashion was dictated to consumers and there was little choice but to accept what was on offer. The tables are beginning to turn and the consumer has more power to accept or reject fashions. Recognizing this, clothing producers are researching the market more to see what will be acceptable before ¬ lling the stores with goods that just end up being discounted at sale time.
Consumers of all descriptions are more fashion educated and consequently more fashion conscious. They are demanding products that are designed to perform in special ways. Most want to express their Fashion personalities through their appearance and therefore their choice of clothing. The increasing numbers of working women want garments designed for their particular needs. They understand fashion cycles and they know when a style has become tired. Manufacturers must constantly research and develop new ¬ bres, fabrics and uses for these to keep up with the consumer's higher level of ability to select
from the vast choices on offer.However, there are other changes in the marketplace affecting consumers' attitudes, values and priorities. They are suffering some degree of fashion fatigue. For some the desire to acquire is more muted and rather than spending their income on fashion clothing they prefer to choose from a much wider range of products, services and leisure pursuits.
In the past, fashion styles, types of garments and advertising were all deeply in¬‚uenced and directed by the interests and needs of the young consumer. Now that the increasing numbers of older consumers are becoming a market to be reckoned with, things must change or opportunities will be lost. The trend is towards people dressing more to please themselves. They won't be dictated to. People are more self-reliant and cautious and careful for their individuality. They are putting more emphasis on self. Recognition of the new fashion consumer may mean that the fashion models of today will have the opportunity of a longer career than they ¬rst imagined. Elle McPherson's modelling career saw no sign of ending as she entered her forties and Twiggy who started her modelling career in the 1960s is still popular, with the turn around of Marks and
Spencer being largely attributed to using her in their advertising. To a small degree the shape of the fashion model is showing signs of change with more magazines producing features using size 16 models. This trend probably started with the then somewhat voluptuous Sophie Dahl being heavily featured in fashion magazines and on posters, although now at a size 10 she has ditched the trend herself.
Competition within the fashion market
Consumers today are presented with a bewildering array of choice, yet it is probably in the clothing market more than any other that the consumer complains that he or she cannot ¬ nd what they want. The clothing producers and retailers are working hard to correct this, but increasing competition and very small margins have made many ¬rms wary of too much investment and experimentation. The high street stores have had to work much harder at tempting consumers and at times it seemed as if price cuts were their only weapon.
However, much of the major competition happens at the sourcing of goods rather than in the stores, as summarized in Figure 2.4. It has been mentioned that globalization and sourcing from wherever cheapest is increasingly becoming the trend, particularly among European competitors. This is enabling them to keep overall costs down, while offering merchandise of good design and quality. Since the opening of the single European market, competition from continental clothing producers has increased further, partly because of lower transport costs and shorter lead times. With a single MFA quota for the EU, the highly concentrated and accessible British clothing market has become even more of a target than it was previously.
There are also concerns about increased low-cost competition from some eastern European countries whose pleas for special treatment of their exports to the EU are showing sings of success. Now that Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic have joined the EU, they too have gained free access to this vital market as will Turkey which is a candidate country. The clothing industries in these countries, in conjunction with EU companies, have undergone major restructuring and re-equipping. This has enabled them to present some formidable competition.
Branding has been defined as the process by which a marketer tries to build long term relationships with the customers by learning their needs and wants so that the offering/brand could satisfy their mutual aspirations. In the fast fashion industry it is higly important to have a recognisable brand, with which the consumer can relate. This is in order to stand out in this highly competitive market (Zikmund and Babin, 2010). Brand recognition and other reactions are created by the use of the product or service and through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary. A brand is a symbolic embodiment of all the information connected to the product and serves to create associations and expectations around it. A brand often includes a logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols, and sound, which may be developed to represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality (Caprara et al, 2001).
Marketers engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. A brand image may be developed by attributing a "personality" to or associating an "image" with a product or service, whereby the personality or image is "branded" into the consciousness of consumers (Caprara et al, 2001). A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition (Caprara et al, 2001). When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present (Rojas et al, 2004).
Brand equity measures the total value of the brand to the brand owner, and reflects the extent of brand franchise (Rojas et al, 2004). The term brand name is often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of a brand. In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark, if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration (Caprara et al,2001).
Brand energy is a concept that links together the ideas that the brand is experiential; that it is not just about the experiences of customers/potential customers but all stakeholders; and that businesses are essentially more about creating value through creating meaningful experiences than generating profit (Levine, 1998).
"A great brand raises the bar -- it adds a greater sense of purpose to the experience, whether it's the challenge to do your best in sports and fitness, or the affirmation that the cup of coffee you're drinking really matters." - Howard Schultz (CEO, Starbucks Corp.)
The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt to designer clothes. In non-commercial contexts, the marketing of entities which supply ideas or promises rather than product and services (e.g. political parties or religious organizations) may also be known as "branding" (Levine, 1998).
Consistent with Keller (1993, p. 3), brand image is defined as the "perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory". Adapting Keller's (1993) definition, we define celebrity image as the perceptions about an individual who enjoys public recognition as reflected by the celebrity associations held in consumer memory.
Keller (2008) regards brands as having dimensions that differentiate them from other products designed to satisfy the same need; these differences may be rational and tangible, or symbolic, emotional and intangible. Kapferer (2008) states that identity is the expression of both the tangible and intangible characteristics of the brand, giving authority and legitimacy to the precise values and benefits. Given that values are understood to be a powerful force in terms of influencing consumer behavior (de Chernatony and McDonald, 2003), it seems appropriate to consider brand identity and its influence on how the consumer might perceive the brand proposition.
Brand image is regarded as a reflection of consumers' perceptions of a brand, and can be gauged by the associations held in the memory (de Chernatony and McDonald, 2003; Keller, 2008), with Reizebos (2003) stating that it is a shared subjective mental picture. Keller (1993) argues that brand familiarity and favourable, strong, unique brand associations result in customer-based brand equity, which will influence consumer response to the marketing of a brand. These brand associations are categorised by Keller (1993, 1998) as attributes (the descriptive product and non-product related features), benefits (the functional, experiential and symbolic personal value attached to the brand) and attitudes (the overall evaluation of the brand that often forms the basis of consumer behaviour). Duncan (2002) asserts that the
resulting impression is created by both brand messages and experiences that are assimilated into a perception through the processing of information. Kapferer (2008) states that identity should precede image and that prior to brand image-projection, the organisation or individual must know exactly what it is that they want to communicate to the audience. Wood and Pierson (2006) argue that retailer success depends on consumers having positive associations that encourage trial and subsequent loyalty. Consumers of fast moving consumer goods may be influenced by the brand's image, they will generally prioritise on functionality and price (Dall'Olmo Riley et al., 2004). In contrast, consumers of fast fashion will be primarily influenced by the brand's image, while considering functionality as a given prerequisite (Dall'Olmo Riley et al., 2004).
Brand positioning is a major decision in marketing that seeks to build an image of a product
in consumer's mind. It is a function of the brand's promise and comparison with other choices with
regard to quality, innovation, perceived leadership, value, prestige, trust, safety, reliability,
performance, convenience, concern for customers, social responsibility, technological superiority
and so on. Kotler (2002) aptly defined "positioning as the act of designing the company's offering
and image to occupy a meaningful and distinct position in the mind of the target customers" Product positioning denotes the specific product category or product class in which the
given product is competing, and brand positioning denotes the positioning of the brand compared to
competing brands in the chosen product category (Ramaswamy & Namakumari, 2002).
Ries and Trout (1997) suggested that, to succeed in the competitive market, the first step is
to position the brand in the target consumers' mind in such a way, that in their perception of the
brand, it is distinctive and offers more customer value than its competitors do.
Celebrity endorsement is an easy way to connect with consumers. Celebrities enjoy public
recognition and they can use this recognition on behalf of a product by appearing in an
advertisement for the product (McCracken, 1989). Strong celebrities can help the consumers to
connect with the brand and lead them to retail outlets to purchase the brand. Celebrities can reduce
the time for consumer to move from awareness to action.
According to Friedman and Friedman, a "celebrity endorser is an individual who is known by
the public (...) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class
endorsed". Compared to other endorser types, famous people always attach a greater degree of
attention, recall and loyalty.
According to Melissa St. James, a doctoral fellow and marketing instructor at The George
Washington University, "Studies show that using celebrities can increase consumers'
awareness of the ad, capture [their] attention and make ads more memorable." Diverse
literature is available on celebrity endorsement.www.ajbms.org Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences
Joanne M. Klebba Lynette S. Unger (1983) uses multiple regression analyses to examine the
impact of positive and negative source information on the credibility of the advertising source
and on audience perceptions of the company and advocated product. The results of their study
indicate that the cognitive and affective dimensions of credibility are influenced differently by
Wenqian Gan (2006) explores the Chinese consumer's behaviors toward celebrity and non
celebrity commercials. The results shows that Chinese consumers prefer Celebrity commercial
& respondents collectively like celebrity who have more professional career skill, even though
there are other different reasons existing such as good appearances, good disposition, and good
Erik hunter and Per Davidsson (2008) studied negative information's impact on celebrity
entrepreneurship. There results shows that negative information about the celebrity might
leads to negative attitude towards the new venture and promotion, new ventures can
potentially reduce damage to their brand by distancing themselves from the celebrity, however,
such a maneuver may not be as effective when the new venture is run by a celebrity
Christina Schlecht (2003) examines the relationship between celebrity endorsements and
brands, by applying a selection of widely accepted principles of how consumers' brand
attitudes and preferences can be positively influenced. Thereby the concepts of source
credibility and attractiveness, the match-up hypothesis, the meaning transfer model and the
principles of multiple product and celebrity endorsement were used. A brief assessment of the
current market situation indicates, that celebrity endorsement advertising strategies can under
the right circumstances indeed justify the high costs associated with this form of advertising.
Several failures show, it is essential for advertisers to be aware of the complex processes
underlying celebrity endorsement.
Dr. Puja Khatri (2006) studied celebrity endorsement as strategic promotion. An assessment of
current market situation indicated that celebrity endorsement and advertising strategies if
correctly blended in terms of marrying the strengths of the brands with the celebrity's quality
indeed justify the high cost associated with this form of advertising. However, advertising needs
to be aware of the complex processing underlying celebrity processing endorsement by gaining
clarity on described concepts of celebrity source creditability and attractiveness, match-up
hypothesis, multiple product endorsement etc. Marketer has to decide how far the benefits
outweigh the risks associated. Advertisers agree that celebrity endorsement does not itself
guarantee sales. It can create a buzz and make a consumer feel better about the product,
which in turn has to come to expectation of customers as a real star by delivering the promise.
There have been instances where the endorsement or real consumer has started working better
than celebrity endorsers. In fact much research needs to be done on customer testimonials,
which tend to induce better creditability and helps in carving the competent, rational,
knowledgeable customer of today who is said to be the real hero.
R. Bruce Money, Terence A. Shimp, Tomoaki Sakano (2006) studied the impact of negative
information of celebrity on brand. They conducted comparative study in the U.S. and Japan to
investigate whether the form of negative information about a celebrity (other- or self-oriented)
results in differential evaluations of the brand endorsed by the celebrity. Surprisingly, we find
that both Japanese and Americans view endorsed products more positively in the presence of
self-oriented negative information, a possible suspension of the famous fundamental
attribution error in human judgment.
Clinton Amos, Gary Holmes and David Strutton (2008) studied the relationship between use of
a celebrity endorser and the resulting effectiveness of that endorsement. Kruskal-walls nonparametric test is used to identify relationship between use of a celebrity endorser and the
resulting effectiveness of that endorsement. Negative information about the celebrity exercised
the large impact on celebrity endorsement effectiveness in advertising. This result underscored
the high risk associated with using celebrity endorsers as well as the huge impact negative
information about that celebrity can have on the consumer perception.
Jennifer Edson Escalas, James R. Bettman studied consumers appropriate brand symbolism
that comes from celebrity endorsement to construct and communicate their self-concepts.
Study 1 finds that celebrity endorsement enhances self-brand connections when consumers
aspire to be like the celebrity, but harms them when consumers do not; this effect is more
pronounced when the brand image is congruent with the celebrity's image. This effect is further
moderated by the degree to which a brand communicates something about the user, with more
symbolic brands having stronger effects than less symbolic brands. Study 2 finds that the
effect of celebrity endorsement on self- brand connections is augmented when consumers' selfesteem is threatened. Consumers self- enhance by building connections to favorable celebrity
images or distancing themselves from unfavorable celebrity images.
David H. Silvera and Benedikte Austad (2004) examine characteristics of advertisements that
make them effective are especially valuable. The present experiments represent a first step in
identifying what makes endorsement advertisements effective based on work in attribution
theory within social psychology. The results suggest that endorsement advertising effectiveness
can be strongly influenced by consumers' inferences concerning whether the endorser truly
likes the product. Advertisers, on the other hand, often appear to be satisfied with merely
creating an association between a popular endorser and their product with the hope that the
endorser's positive image will somehow "rub off" on the product. The present research suggests
that advertisers should put more effort not only into choosing endorsers who are well match
with products, but also into making strong arguments and believable explanations for why
endorsers truly do like the products they endorse.
Debiprasad Mukherjee (2009) this paper is an effort to analyze the impact of celebrity
endorsements on brands. Objective of this article is to examine the relationship between
celebrity endorsements and brands, and the impact of celebrity endorsement on consumer's
buying behavior as well as how consumer makes brand preferences. This paper proposes a
20point model which can be used as blue-print criteria and can be used by brand managers for
selecting celebrities and capitalizing the celebrity resource through 360 degree brand
communication which, according to this paper, is the foundation of the impact of celebrity
endorsement. Celebrity endorsement is always a two-edged sword and it has a number of
positives-if properly matched it can do wonders for the company, and if not it may produce a
bad image of the company and its brand.
Pamela Miles Homer (2007) the "meaning" of a brand resides in the minds of consumers, based
on what they have learned, felt, seen, and heard overtime. This study explores the relationship
between quality and image with special attention on brands plagued with negative impressions,
including instances where consumers' perceptions of a product's quality conflict with its
perceived "image". Data confirm that quality and image impact attitudes in a distinct manner,
and overall, low brand image is more damaging than low quality. In addition, findings show
that (1) hedonic attitudes towards brands are most driven by image, whereas utilitarian
attitude formation/change processes are dominated by quality, (2) non-attribute brand beliefs
are a stronger predictor of hedonic attitudes when quality or image is low versus high, while (3)
attribute-based beliefs are strong predictors of utilitarian attitudes across image and quality
Farida Saleem (2007) Celebrity endorsement is becoming very prominent now a day. Marketers
use celebrities in ads when there is no or very little product differentiation. When marketers
have to target more diverse market multiple celebrities endorsement (more than one celebrity in
a single ad) could be an answer. The purpose of the current study is to explore the perceptual
difference of young adult toward single celebrity ads and multiple celebrities' ads.
Questionnaires were administered on a sample of 300 university students to asses if there is
any difference in young adult perception about single celebrity endorsement and multiple
celebrities' endorsement. Four print media ads, two containing one celebrity in them and two
containing three and five celebrities in them were used as a stimulus. The results showed that
the attitude toward ad and purchase intentions are more positive for multiple celebrities ads
compare to single celebrity ads and there is no significant difference in the attitude toward
brand for multiple celebrities ads and single celebrity ads
Celebrity endorsement is one of the most popular forms of marketing used to promote a range of consumer products and services (Byrne et al, 2003). The use of celebrities for commercial purposes is not a one-way process, however, as celebrities are becoming brands in their own right, with their own values existing in the minds of their audience in a similar way to corporate and consumer brands (Seno and Lukas, 2007).
It has become increasingly common for marketers to use celebrities to promote their products and services. Such practice has conventionally involved the transfer of key characteristics from the endorser to the product or brand in question. In addition to the celebrity source, factors that include familiarity, standing, likeability and charisma are typically deemed influential. Other theorists point out that the endorsement process can involve the transfer of meanings from other areas of the celebrity's life. The movie roles of an actor or actress would be one example of this (Boyle, 2009). As stated by McCracken (1989), a celebrity endorser is defined as "any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement" .
According to bbc, a recent example of the effect of a celebrity, shows that retail sales were up 2% in January - and designers say the best boost for the industry has been the Duchess of Cambridge. (bbc.co.uk, 2012).
The billions of dollars spent per year on celebrity endorsement contracts show that
celebrities, like Liz Hurley, Britney Spears and Tiger Woods, play an important role for
the advertising industry (Daneshvary and Schwer 2000, Kambitsis et al. 2002). Female
athlete Venus Williams, tennis player and Wimbledon championship winner in 2002, for
example, has signed a five-year $40 million contract with sportswear manufacturer
Reebok International Inc.1 Theory and practice prove that the use of super stars in
advertising generates a lot of publicity and attention from the public (Ohanian 1991).
The underlying question is, if and how the lively interest of the public in 'the rich and
famous' can be effectively used by companies to promote their brands and consequently
As a first step to answer this question, this paper will examine the relationship
between celebrity endorsements and brands, by applying a selection of widely accepted
principles of how consumers' brand attitudes and preferences can be positively
influenced. Thereby the concepts of source credibility and attractiveness, the match-up
hypothesis, the meaning transfer model and the principles of multiple product and
celebrity endorsement will be used. The following paragraph will give a brief
introduction into the topic of celebrity endorsement, to provide a common framework for
the later discussion of the above listed concepts.
A Definition of 'Celebrity'
Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of a certain
group of people. Whereas attributes like attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle or special
skills are just examples and specific common characteristics cannot be observed, it can be
said that within a corresponding social group celebrities generally differ from the social
norm and enjoy a high degree of public awareness. This is true for classic forms of
celebrities, like actors (e.g. Meg Ryan, Pierce Brosnan), models (e.g. Naomi Campbell,
Gisele Buendchen), sports athletes (e.g. Anna Kournikova, Michael Schumacher),
entertainers (e.g. Oprah Winfrey, Conan O'Brien) and pop stars (e.g. Madonna, David
1 View Forbes.com (2002).
Bowie) - but also for less obvious groups like businessmen (e.g. Donald Trump, Bill
Gates) or politicians (e.g. Rudy Giuliani, Lee Kuan Yew).
Celebrities appear in public in different ways. First, they appear in public when
fulfilling their profession, e.g. Pete Sampras, who plays tennis in front of an audience in
Wimbledon. Furthermore, celebrities appear in public by attending special celebrity
events, e.g. the Academy Awards, or world premieres of movies. In addition, they are
present in news, fashion magazines, and tabloids, which provide second source
information on events and the 'private life' of celebrities through mass-media channels
(e.g. Fox 5 news covering Winona Ryder's trial on shoplifting, InStyle). Last but not
least, celebrities act as spokespeople in advertising to promote products and services
(Kambitsis et al. 2002, Tom et al. 1992).
Celebrities as Spokespersons
Companies frequently use spokespersons to deliver their advertising message and
convince consumers of their brands. A widely used and very popular type of
spokesperson is the celebrity endorser (Tom et al. 1992)2. According to Friedman and
Friedman (1979, p. 63) a "celebrity endorser is an individual who is known by the public
(â€¦) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed."
The cosmetics manufacturer Elizabeth Arden, for example, uses the actress Catherine
Zeta-Jones to endorse its perfume (view Figure 1).
The reason for using celebrities as spokespersons goes back to their huge potential
influence. Compared to other endorser types, famous people achieve a higher degree of
attention and recall. They increase awareness of a company's advertising, create positive
feelings towards brands and are perceived by consumers as more entertaining (Solomon
2002). Using a celebrity in advertising is therefore likely to positively affect consumers'
brand attitudes and purchase intentions. To ensure positive results, however, it is critical
for advertisers to have a clear understanding of the 'black box' of celebrity endorsement.
In the following section, selected concepts that have to be considered when using
celebrities as spokespersons are discussed.
2 Other types of endorsers include the professional expert and the typical consumer (Friedman and
Source Credibility and Attractiveness
A central goal of advertising is the persuasion of customers, i.e., the active attempt to
change or modify consumers' attitude towards brands (Solomon 2002). In this respect,
the credibility of an advertisement plays an important role in convincing the target
audience of the attractiveness of the company's brand. Pursuing a celebrity endorsement
strategy enables advertisers to project a credible image in terms of expertise,
persuasiveness, trustworthiness, and objectiveness (Till and Shimp 1998).
To create effective messages, celebrity advertisers also have to consider the
attractiveness of the spokesperson (McCracken 1989). Source attractiveness refers to the
endorser's physical appearance, personality, likeability, and similarity to the receiver,
thus to the perceived social value of the source (Solomon 2002). The use of (by
corresponding standards) attractive people is common practice in television and print
advertising, with physically attractive communicators having proved to be more
successful in influencing customers' attitudes and beliefs than unattractive spokespersons
(Ohanian 1991). This behavior mainly goes back to a halo effect, whereby persons who
perform well on one dimension, e.g. physical attractiveness, are assumed to excel on
others as well, e.g. happiness and coolness (Solomon 2002).
By proving in her study that each source has different effects on consumers' brand
perceptions, Ohanian (1991) however warns, that these source dimensions of the
celebrity endorser could be treated indistinctive. She therefore urges to pursue a
systematic strategy of celebrity-spokesperson-selection. This raises the question which
famous person to select to promote a company's brand. The next paragraph examines
whether, and under what conditions celebrities are appropriate in endorsing products.
The Match-up Hypothesis
Literature reveals that a spokesperson interacts with the type of brand being
advertised. According to Friedman and Friedman (1979), a famous relative to a 'normal'
spokesperson is more effective for products high in psychological or social risk,
involving such elements as good taste, self-image, and opinion of others. Several
research studies have examined the congruency between celebrity endorsers and brands
to explain the effectiveness of using famous persons to promote brands (e.g. Till and
Busler 1998, Martin 1996, Till and Shimp 1998). Results show that a number of
celebrity endorsements proved very successful, whereas others completely failed,
resulting in the 'termination' of the respective celebrity communicator (Walker et al.
1992). Figure 2 shows some examples for successes and failures.
Celebrity Endorser Company/Product Success (Yes/No)
Liz Hurley Estée Lauder Yes
Cindy Crawford Revlon
Bruce Willis Seagrams No
Michael Jordan Nike
Whitney Houston AT&T No
Jerry Seinfeld American Express Yes
Milla Jovovich L'Oréal Yes
Figure 2: Successful and unsuccessful celebrity endorsements (Source: Till and Busler 1998,
Walker et al. 1992, Till 1998)
Simply assuming that a person just has to be famous to represent a successful
spokesperson, however, would be incorrect, with a considerable number of failures
proving the opposite (Solomon 2002). Very well accepted and attractive super stars like
Bruce Willis and Whitney Houston failed in turning their endorsements into success.
Among the possible reasons identified by several authors (e.g. Tom et al. 1992,
Daneshvary and Schwer 2000), including overexposure and identification, the 'match-up
hypothesis' specifically suggests that the effectiveness depends on the existence of a 'fit'
between the celebrity spokesperson and endorsed brand (Till and Busler 1998).
Empirical work on the congruency theory often has concentrated on the physical
attractiveness of the endorser (e.g. Kahle and Homer 1985). According to Kahle and
Homer (1985) attractive spokespersons are more effective in terms of attitude change
when promoting brands that enhance one's attractiveness. Though Ohanian (1991)
acknowledges a popular person's ability to create awareness and initial interest for an
advertisement, she concludes that this may not necessarily change consumer's attitude
toward the endorsed brand. The author rather states, that "for celebrity spokespersons to
be truly effective, they should be knowledgeable, experienced, and qualified to talk about
the product."3 A deeper insight in the complex process of celebrity endorsement is
provided by the meaning transfer model, that will be explained in the next paragraph.
The Meaning Transfer Model
McCracken (1989) explains the effectiveness of celebrity spokespersons by assessing
the meanings consumers associate with the endorser and eventually transfer to the brand.
This perspective is shared by Kambitsis et al. (2002, p. 160), who found the athletes'
personality as being an important factor in influencing "specific target groups, to which
such personalities are easily recognizable and much admired." McCracken suggests a
meaning transfer model, that is composed of three subsequent stages. First, the meaning
associated with the famous person moves from the endorser to the product or brand.
Thus, meanings attributed to the celebrity become associated with the brand in the
consumer's mind. Finally, in the consumption process, the brand's meaning is acquired
by the customer. The third stage of the model explicitly shows the importance of the
consumer's role in the process of endorsing brands with famous persons. The meaning
transfer process is shown in Figure 3.
3 Ohanian (1991), p. 52.
Figure 3: Meaning transfer in the endorsement process (Adapted from McCracken 1989)
McCracken's model is based on the concept of meanings. Celebrities contain a broad
range of meanings, involving demographic categories (e.g. age, gender, status),
personality and lifestyle types. Madonna, for example, is perceived as a tough, intense
and modern women, and is associated with the lower middle class (Walker et al. 1992).
The personality of Pierce Brosnan is best characterized as the perfect gentlemen, whereas
Jennifer Aniston has the image of the 'good girl from next door'. McCracken (1989)
emphasizes that a famous person represents not one single meaning, but expresses a
number and variety of different meanings. According to Martin (1996, p.29), celebrity
spokespersons are useful in marketing because they provide a "set of characteristics" that
supports consumers in evaluating the presented brand. In contrast to anonymous
endorsers, celebrities add value to the image transfer process by offering meanings of
extra depth and power, what is complemented by their lifestyles and personalities
Having determined the brand's symbolic features by considering consumers' needs,
the advertising company has to select the celebrity who contains the appropriate set of
characteristics, and "who will best be able to produce the most favorable response from
consumers."5 L'Oréal decided to promote its lip color brand 'Shine Délice' as "sheer,
sumptuous, sensual" with "juicy shadesâ€¦for luscious lips." (L'Oréal USA 2002) French
model and actress Laetitia Casta with her fresh and sexy look best matched the cosmetic
4 McCracken (1989, p. 315) further explains, that "celebrities draw these powerful meanings from the
roles they assume in their television, movie, (â€¦), athletic, and other careers."
5 Martin (1996), p. 28. However, besides such constraints as availability or budget, there are further limits
in finding the 'perfect' match, with no data collection of celebrities (and their meanings) available at
present (McCracken 1989).
brand's properties and was therefore selected to portray this brand line of L'Oréal.
Pairing the model and the beauty product in an advertisement allows the transfer of
Casta's meanings to the consumer good, thus her meanings (e.g. youthful, fresh,
appealing) become associated with the L'Oréal brand 'Shine Délice' in the mind of the
Using a different character, for example the actress Andie McDowell, to endorse
'Shine Délice', would affect the meaning of the brand in the minds of consumers (Walker
et al. 1992). The meanings associated with her, like sophisticated, moral, mature woman,
and family-type, are completely different to those of Casta, thus, when transferred,
resulting in different associations with L'Oréal's lip color brand, for example, less
youthful, more introverted, and safe. These findings prove, that it is crucial to select the
appropriate celebrity endorser, i.e. a spokesperson that is able to promote the desired
attributes of the brand.6
Multiple Brand and Celebrity Endorsement
Studying TV and print advertisements, one will realize that either some celebrities are
endorsing several brands or a specific brand is endorsed by different spokespersons.
These concepts are called multiple brand endorsement and multiple celebrity
Some spokespersons are "shared" by different advertising firms, i.e. they are
promoting more than one brand (Tripp et al. 1994, p. 535). Golf champion Tiger Woods
has endorsed American Express, Rolex, and Nike. Actress Catherine Zeta-Jones is used
by T-Mobile and Elizabeth Arden. James Bond character Pierce Brosnan promotes
Omega, BMW, and Noreico. Top model and actress Milla Jovovich is a spokesperson
for a broad range of brands, including L'Oréal, Banana Republic, Christian Dior, Calvin
Klein, and Donna Karan. (View Figure 4).
The question is, does this special form of celebrity endorsement does affect
consumers' brand attitudes? Following Tripp et al. (1994), the endorsement of as many
as four products negatively influences the celebrity spokesperson's credibility (i.e.
6 In fact, Andie McDowell is also a spokesperson for L'Oréal. However, she is used to endorse products
for women of her age group, e.g. the hair color brand 'Excellence'.
expertise and trustworthiness) and likeability. They further add, that these effects are
independent of the celebrity, i.e. the perceptions of even well-liked stars can be
influenced. Reasons may be found in the lack of distinctiveness, with one famous person
endorsing several products instead of concentrating on and representing one specific
brand. Though these findings may be valid, it does not automatically mean that the
concept of multiple product endorsement is useless. Further research is suggested on
potential positive effects, like transfer of positive brand images, and on the shape of
consumers' response when more than four products are endorsed.
Figure 4: Brands endorsed by top model and actress Milla Jovovich (Source: millaj.com)
More satisfying results have been achieved on the concept of multiple celebrity
endorsement. Hsu and McDonald (2002, p.21), studying the effectiveness of the 'milk
mustache campaign' on consumer perceptions, found that endorsing a product with
multiple celebrities "can be beneficial for appealing to various audiences to which the
product is aimed." The watch manufacturer Omega, for example, promotes its brand by
matching selected celebrities with the company's product lines. (View Figure 5).7
With celebrity spokespersons representing a diverse mix of type, gender, and age,
they can effectively be used to endorse specific brand lines of a company as shown by the
cosmetic manufacturer L'Oréal, which matches its diverse product lines in accordance
with the celebrity's meanings.
Figure 5: Celebrities endorsing the luxury brand 'Omega'
Cost of Celebrety Endorsement vs. non celebrity advertising
Celebrity endorsement backfire
Celebrities obviously bring attention to the products they endorse. That's why manufacturers, retailers, and brands are willing to drop millions to get celebs as spokespeople. Yet a new study shows that sometimes, the celebrity endorsement is an awful idea.
The phrase "any publicity is good publicity" is regularly applied to celebrities and products alike, and it makes a pretty argument for why paying celebrities to endorse products is money well spent. What happens, though, if an association with a celebrity does more harm than good in consumers' perception of the product or brand?
Relatively few celebrities are associated with purely positive attributes, and, as a new study published in Social Influence indicates, there are times when only a celebrity's negative traits are transferred over to the product he or she is endorsing.
The study, led by Margaret C. Campbell of CU-Boulder's Leeds School of Business, examined the effects of endorsements from celebs such as Jessica Simpson. The singer-actress who is now famous mostly for being famous-celebrated for having a baby, among other achievements-is viewed in two distinct ways, according to consumers: one positive (sexy and fun), the other negative (ditsy and weak). In the studies, when consumers were asked to evaluate products endorsed by Simpson, they tended to view the brands in the same way as they regarded Simpson-as sexy, fun, ditsy, and weak all rolled into one.
However, when a product or brand seemed like a poor match with a celebrity, consumers only associated the celeb's negative traits with the goods being advertised. The example of a pocketknife was used: When participants were told of Simpson's hypothetical endorsement of the product, they regarded it mainly as ditsy and weak, and not remotely sexy or fun. And who wants a ditsy, weak, not-fun, not-sexy pocketknife?
So, for things like nail polish and high heels, sure, sign Jessica Simpson up as an endorser. When marketers want to boost a product or brand's reputation as being strong, serious, or durable, though, an endorsement from a ditsy celebrity is not a smart move.
This should be obvious enough. Yet not a day goes by that you probably don't see an ad that leaves you scratching your head, wondering something along the lines of Why in the world is Snooki endorsing Google Chrome? OK, that example is a spoof, but it's a spoof that was made because of the ubiquity of incongruous celebrity-brand pairings.
The Kim Kardashian endorsement machine also has some consumers puzzled, especially when it comes to endorsements that seem like a bad match, such as the short-lived Kardashian Debit "Kard." Even before the fee-heavy "Kard" was killed off, it seemed dubious for a woman with a reputation as a spendthrift shopaholic to be endorsing a product that's supposed to help consumers with their personal finances.
When personal finance guru Suze Orman endorses a debit card, on the other hand, it's questionable because she gives advice to millions about the realm she now has a financial stake in, but at least the pairing sorta makes sense.
In light of the new study, Campbell, the CU-Boulder researcher, says that the global consulting firm Accenture was wise when it decided to sever its endorsement deal with Tiger Woods after the scandal broke regarding the golf stay's multiple extramarital affairs. Says Campbell of Accenture's decision: "This new research indicates this helped lower the risk of gaining associations with disloyalty and lack of commitment rather than high performance."
Well, considering how many women went public about their affairs with Woods, he did seem to be exhibiting one type of performance at a high level. It's just wasn't an honorable and trustworthy level..
The concept of a "celebrity" endorsement is not a new concept. For decades companies have been hiring famous actors, athletes, and other "famous" people to tout their product. In the modern age, some of these endorsement packages can measure in the millions of dollars. Experts disagree on the effectiveness of these endorsements and whether they pay for themselves in the long run. However, companies continue to pay celebrities to hock their wares. Some people have a few ethical issues with this process and here are a few of reasons why this is the case.
(Todd Pheipher, 2009) http://www.helium.com/items/1333629-when-celebrity-endorsements-arent-ethical
One situation where celebrity endorsements may seem unethical is when it seems unlikely that the person endorsing actually uses the product. Granted, it may be difficult to know whether or not a celebrity is a common user of the product. For example, Tiger Woods has long been someone who endorses Buick automobiles. With the millions of dollars that Tiger makes, is it likely that he drives a Buick? Theoretically it is possible, but it seems more likely that Tiger drives a luxury vehicle. Or, he may not even drive himself from place to place.
Another situation that might seem unethical is when celebrities promote particular products that are not "beneficial" for society. Granted, celebrities aren't exactly out selling substances that are illegal. However, glorifying certain types of consumables such as snack and beverages, as well as consumer-oriented products that people don't really "need", may raise concerns with some people. Do people really need to eat more fast food or drink large quantities of alcoholic beverages that can lead to abuse and violence? Granted, it is not the fault of the celebrity that people misuse products. However, if the possibility is there for misuse, the celebrity is associated with the product.
Finally, celebrity endorsements may seem unethical when the people involved get into difficulties in their life that reflect poorly on the company. This is often manifested in the form of anti-social behavior or illegal activity. For example, Michael Vick was a star in the National Football League and had contracts for millions in endorsements. However, his conviction on federal charges and resulting incarceration caused his companies to void endorsement contracts. A similar situation occurred when Kellogg's severed their relationship with Olympian Michael Phelps, after he admitted to smoking marijuana. The company stated that this type of behavior was not consistent with the "image" of the cereal maker. This is also why some companies write language into endorsement contracts that allow them to end arrangements if these types of things occur.
Overall, celebrity endorsements have existed for decades and probably will continue on into the future. However, the behavior of these celebrities is not always ethical, and their subsequent endorsements may always be associated with their personality and image. Most consumers can tell the difference, but people always have to ask themselves whether or not they should use a product because a paid spokesperson says so.
Proactiv's popularity isn't due to magic ingredient, but celebrity endorsements
Research showed that in the US market, Proactiv has been a spectacular success, with its annual sales of $1.5 billion, and therefore tower over the rest of the acne treatment industry.
The "Proactiv System" will cost the consumer $59.95. However, when looking into the ingredients of the product, it is evident that the active compound is benzoyl peroxide. That's the same main ingredient as is found in competitors such as Stridex, Clearasil and just about every nonprescription acne medication available in drugstore aisles across America. A tube of the same compound costs $5.25 at a local pharmacy.
According to Stupid mc stupidson, a physician who treats teens with acne, the products is often discurraged due to its high price tag.
"The key to acne treatment is good compliance," says Dr. Jeff Benabio, a dermatologist in San Diego. "Proactiv has system that makes it easy for teens to use properly."
He's right, and perhaps the three-step "Proactiv System" helps make it easier for teens. But the real key to Proactiv's success is celebrity. Endorsements have helped make it the acne product to buy. A-list youth stars like Katy Perry, Justin Bieber, Jessica Simpson, Avril Lavigne and even P. Diddy offer testimonials online and on TV about how terrible it was to have all that acne, and how ProActiv transformed the star into someone beautiful, confident and successful. (P. Diddy famously claimed that he uses ProActiv to "moisturize my situation and preserve my sexy.") Viewers see those hideous "before" pictures - some mysteriously dark, pimple-faced headshot of an unseen somebody - followed by the "glorious" after shot, glowing and perfect.However, Jeff Benabio's biggest proble with the Proactiv campaign, is how hard they work to equate confidence with beauty and nothing else. Every celebrity testifies that having pimples was the source of all their insecurities. Celebrties such as Katy Perry, Justin Bieber, Jessica Simpson, all claim that Proactiv gave them the confidence they needed to be their best. And he states that; "As a physician who sees plenty of teens with real confidence problems and the consequences they engender - eating disorders, depression, anxiety, drug use - I'd like to see a company with this much influence pull a few gears back on that message".
According to the research, proactiv's success is therefore up to its marketing campaing, where high profile celebreties are used. And even though it is not fashion related, it still is an example of how the right celebrities can enhance the brand image, add value, and increase sales.
Read more: http://moneyland.time.com/2012/06/22/how-celebrity-endorsements-can-backfire/#ixzz25bR69Nf5
This study will use a mixed methods (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) design, which
is a procedure for collecting, analyzing and "mixing" both quantitative and qualitative
data at some stage of the research process within a single study, to understand a research problem more completely (Creswell, 2002). The rationale for mixing is that neither quantitative nor qualitative methods are sufficient by themselves to capture the trends and details of the situation, such as a complex issue of doctoral students' persistence in the distributed learning environment. When used in combination, quantitative and qualitative methods complement each other and allow for more complete analysis (Green, Caracelli, & Graham, 1989, Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998).
The purpose of qualitative research is to understand and explain participant meaning
(Morrow & Smith, 2000). More specifically, Creswell (1998) defines qualitative research as, an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting.
The qualitative method used for this study is in depth one to one interviews, which enable face to face discussion with human subjects. The interviews will be conducted using a The questions asked will be open questions, where the respondents can answer freely, opening for endless number of reponses. Therefore it can be difficult to quantify the results, if the answers vary greatly. The findings may therefore merley be reported in their diversity or general statements can be made, or particular comments can be picked out in order to understand the minds of the consumers. Respondents will be chosen in line with the fast fashion market, and the target segment investigated, females aged 18-25.
Gaskell stated in 2000 that depth interviews involve probing an individual respondent regarding a topic, in order to extract the fundamental reasoning behind the respondent's motivations, opinions and beliefs regarding the behaviours of people in specific social contexts. During a depth interview the interviewer endeavours to follow a rough outline, but the direction of the interview is determined by the respondents' replies as the interviewer "probes for elaboration"(Malhotra, 1999). The single participant is probed in much greater detail allowing the interviewer to uncover motivations, beliefs, and hidden messages (Malhotra, 1999).
Gaskell (2000) discusses that there is an upper limit on the number of in-depth interviews, suggesting a maximum of 15-25 individual interviews for a single researcher. This study conducted 8 interviews, as it was felt during interview 7 that the process had reached "saturation" as information was being repeated (Seidman, 1998). The respondents were all female between the age of 15-19. As suggested by Zaltman in 2003 in-depth interview were conducted using photo-elicitation techniques.
The qualitative research featured two parts, one focus group and one individual interview where an advertisement is shown. 50% of the respondents were shown an advert for a product featuring a celebrity, whilst the other 50% will be shown an advert for the same product without the celebrity. The aim is to investigate whether the celebrity directly influences the choice of the later aged female teens, seeing if there is a difference in results in the two groups, and also if c