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Canned food also knows as preserved food. Canned food product always describe in the term of ready meal. In the 19th century, canned food products were introduced in the market but with limited choice. This product was offered the convenience to the consumers at that time period.
In the time to time, those companies have introduced difference type of canned food to allow the consumer to choose. The category of canned food include beans, fish/seafood, fruit, meat and meat products, pasta, soup, tomatoes, vegetables and other. The taste of the canned food was having an improvement to more palatable.
Compared to other food product such as fresh food, frozen food, instant food product and so on, canned food products were especially popular with consumer who did not have a great deal of cooking experience or time to prepare meal. Therefore, the demand of canned food products was increase higher than past. Through the investigation, the result shows that canned food sales have reach to RM 961 million in 2011 (passport, 2011).
Consumers purchase canned food products are due to canned food product offer the convenience, at affordable price, longer shelf-life which within 2 years, and easier storage. Mostly, canned food products are targeted to the office ladies who are no time to purchased fresh food in the market. But some of the consumer will purchased the canned food product due to the nutritional value that has listed down on the label. Therefore, different consumers have difference perception toward the canned product to influence themselves to making the purchase decision.
Statement of problem
Consumer always have their own reason to purchase the product whether food, apparel, daily product and so on. Customer purchase decision is based on the eight mental which include perfectionist, brand consciousness, novelty and fashion conscious, recreational and shopping conscious, price conscious, impulsiveness, confused by overchoice and brand loyal (Sproles and Kendall, 1986). Other than that, functional need and emotional (Consoh, 2009) need also influence the customer purchase decision.
Nowadays, many companies offer their own brand canned product to attract the target consumer. For example, in the bean canned food which have Yeo’s brand, Ayam brand and so on. Consumers have their own perception toward the particular canned product and make a purchase decision toward the particular brand products. In major of consumer perception, canned food products have a bad reputation for being less nutritious and contain preservative ingredients in the foods.
In the particular season or period, a certain fresh foods are unavailable in the market or groceries store. For example, some fruits are produce just in the particular season such as laici. Consumer may need to switch the choice to preserved food such as frozen, dry and canned food products.
Purchase decision of consumers is the major problem, consumers have their decision on whether to purchase the product or not. Moreover, almost every purchase has its own reason.
In this study, focus on the canned food products, canned food product is popular in among other frozen, dry and fresh food products. The advantages of consume canned food not lesser that other food products. Although canned food products can storage longer than other food products.
This investigation is conducted four objectives. There are
1. To examine the relationship between consumers demographic (age) and purchase decision toward the canned food.
2. To examine the relationship between promotion and purchase decision toward the canned food.
3. To examine the relationship between price and purchase decision toward the canned food.
4. To examine the relationship between nutritional value and purchase decision toward the canned food.
1. Is there relationship between consumers’ demographic (age) and purchase decision toward the canned food?
2. Is there relationship between promotion and purchase decision toward the canned food?
3. Is there relationship between price and purchase decision toward the canned food?
4. Is there relationship between nutritional value and purchase decision toward the canned food?
1. Consumers demographic are going to influence that consumer purchase decision towards the canned products.
2. Needed to be tested is whether the promotion offer to the consumer will influence the consumer to purchase the particular canned products.
3. Price is to shows how many will the consumers purchase in the lower price (grand sale) and how many will consumers purchase in the normal price.
4. How important of the nutritional value that will influence the consumer to purchase the particular canned food.
Consumer Purchase Decision
According to Consoh (2009) the purchase decisions of customers are driven by two kinds of needs: functional needs satisfied by product functions and emotional needs associated with the psycological aspects of product ownership. The products must generate emotions but also present good functionality (traditional attributes).
Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard (1995) present the most recognized model of consumer purchase decision-making. This model divides the consumer purchase decision process into 5 stages: 1) problem recognition, 2) information search, 3) alternative evaluation, 4) purchase decision, and 5) post purchase behavior. With the aid of this model, Engel et al. (1995) have also identified some factors that affect consumer purchase decision making. These factors fall into three categories: 1) personal, 2) psychological and 3) social.
According to Kurniawan (2010) mentioned that in the past, investigation on consumer decision-making issues were mainly focused n the decision-making process. However, Bettman (1979) argues that consumers may sometimes typically rely on simple strategies, rather than going through a series of steps or processes rationally when they made purchase decisions, they may simply.
Sproles and Kendall (1986) define a Customer Decision Making style as “a mental orientation characterizing a consumer’s approach to making choices.” In the Customer Style Inventory (CSI), Sproles and Kendall have indentified of eight mental consumer’s decision-making styles or characteristic. There are
1. Perfectionist/high quality-conscious consumer: decision style of consumers who systematically search for the best quality products possible.
2. Brand consciousness/price equals quality: decision style of consumers concerned with getting the most expensive, well-known brands.
3. Novelty and fashion conscious: decision style of consumers who like new and innovative products and who gain excitement from seeking out new things.
4. Recreational and shopping conscious: decision style of consumers who take pleasure in shopping and who shop just for the fun of it.
5. Price conscious/value for the money: decision style of consumers who are concerned with getting lower prices.
6. Impulsiveness/careless: decision style of consumers who tend to buy spontaneously and who are unconcerned about how much money they spend.
7. Confused by overchoice: decision style of consumers who feel they have too many brands and stores to choose from and who likely experience information overload in the market.
8. Habitual/brand loyal: decision style of consumers who shop at the same stores and tend to buy the same brands each time.
According to Rogers (2011) Canned food which is first appeared in the 19th century that offer the convenience and variety of foods that can be easily prepared. The improvement in taste of today’s canned foods may make them a more palatable.
According to Roussell (2011) the convenience of canned food is undeniable. They have a long shelf life, are compact and east to carry and store, But they also have the reputation of being cheap, low-quality fare, loaded with sodium and preservatives.
Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) have explained the perception about the price of a particular brand or product. This means that how they evaluate a particular brand’s price as fair or low or high. It is also stated by them that perception about unfairness of price of a particular product lays an impact on the consumers’ decision to buy or not to buy a particular product. Moore et al (2003) has explained that negative perceptions and positive perceptions have an important impact on the decisions about the marketplace.
Different other studies have explained the perception of price as an element which can play an important role in the success of a firm (Jiang, 2004). Moore et al.
(2003) has described that positive perception of consumers about a particular brand is an indicator of status, quality and prestige; i.e. factors other than price. This aspect is also covered in our research through the study of extraneous variables.
First factor of consumer’s decision-making styles is price consciousness/value of money. Creyer and Ross (1997) suggest that when the consumersâ€Ÿ price consciousness increases, “demand for products that offer the highest benefit-to-cost ratio is likely to increase”. This means that consumers are likely to consider the most valuable product at the most acceptable or lower price than the retail quality, fashion conscious, and brand loyalty. In addition, they also examined the factors between price and quality, and found that most of the consumers are tend to select the lower price products, but with a higher value option, rather than select the higher price products, with a guaranteed best quality option. This is also supported by Bucklin et al. (1998). He stated that price consciousness is significantly influences consumer’s decision-making or choice and thus affects the purchase decision. He also found that, price conscious consumers are sensitive with the discount price and would switch to that brand and makes the consumersâ€Ÿ purchases early than usual require.
Consumers usually form price expectations to assist their purchase decision for a product. These price expectations are then used as reference points to compare with store prices and make purchase decisions (Monroe 1973).
According to Heilman, Lakishyk and Radas, 2011 stated that consumers today are bombarded with all different types of promotions. Vlanchvei et al, (2009) mentioned that promotion are even more important than advertising in ensuring profitability of the product. The promotion included product trials, free samples and free gift (Peattie, 1998).
Pauwels (2002) has examined the permanent impact of sales promotion on accumulative annual sales for two categories; storable and perishable products with the results show that those product lack permanent effect of sales promotion due to short lives and persist only on average 2 weeks and at most eight weeks affects of sales promotion for both product categories.
Smith (1998) has described that there are three main categories of sales promotion. There are consumer promotion (premiums, gifts, competition and prizes, e.g. on the back of breakfast cereal boxes) and trade promotion (point-of-sale materials, free pens and special terms, diaries, competition prizes and etc.)
According to Rizvi and Malik (2011) Consumer promotion is a category of sales promotion including free samples, winning contests, different price pack and sweep stakes. Sales promotion is projected to increase the sales of final ultimate consumers of the product (Kotler and Armstrong, 2002)
According to Kempf and Smith (1998) product trial defined as a consumer’s first usage experience with a brand, is a critical factor in determining brand beliefs, attitudes and purchase intentions. Trial experience whether negative, ambiguous or positive may affect consumers’ evaluations of brand equity (Washburn, Till and Priluck, 2000).
Food labels are clearly intended to influence consumption choices at point
of purchase by providing information relevant to the decision in hand. They combine
size, colour, images and informative text (Hawkes and World Health Organization,
2004, p. v; Mintel, 2003, p. 11; Rettie and Brewer, 2000; Wandel, 1997), to visually
attract consumer’s attention, thereby conveying meaning and providing a point of
difference with competitors (Solomon et al., 1999, p. 44).
The food labels should give the consumers information about all the main ingredients put into the food, as well as additives and condiments. A nutrient list is also often provided. There are data to indicate that a large proportion of consumers do not have enough knowledge to be able to take full advantage of the information given on the food labels (Shannon, 1993).
According to the FDA (1998), nutrition information on food items allows consumers to, eat a variety of foods, maintain a healthy weight, choose a diet with low saturated fat, and cholesterol, choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits, and grain products, use sugars only in moderation, use salt and sodium in moderation. Nutritional labeling is found to affect the consumer purchase behavior significantly (Prathiraja and Ariyawardana, 2003).
According to Lynn (2011) the convenience of food does not detract from its nutritional and health potential. Although the taste and texture of canned food may be different from that of their fresh and frozen companions, the nutrition value is often similar. When considering the purchase of a particular canned food, read the label and compare the nutrients with customer dietary goals.
According to Stein (2011) canned foods may have a reputation for being less nutritious than fresh foods, but they can provide certain health advantages.
According to Kapica and Weiss (2012) Canned foods contain the same important nutrients as fresh, frozen and dried varieties do. According to Bruso (2011) Although some vitamin C is lost from food during canning, much of lost vitamin C just moves to the canning liquid. The amount of a vitamin or mineral or fiber in canned food remains the same, even after one to two years of storage (Barbara and Rhonda Kaletz, 1997). Canned foods may be better sources of certain nutrients than fresh, according to the America Dietetic Association, as the canning process make them easier for consumer body to absorb.
Safety of Canned Food
According to Barbara and Rhonda Kaletz (1997) Canning is one of the safest ways to preserve foods. The high heat process, used for many decades, kills microorganisms that cause foodborne illnesses. Rarely is an outbreak of food-related sickness caused by commercially canned products. The rapid heating methods, high temperatures, the integrity of the can and its conductivity all contribute to the success of the process. Shelf life of canned foods is at least two years.
According to Lynn (2011) A health benefit of commercially processed, canned foods is that they are safe, so you are not likely to get sick from eating them. Food-borne illness, usually as the result of unsafe handling or inadequate cooking, affects 76 million individuals each year in the United States, according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Canned food does not require refrigeration, and it is safe to eat right out of the can.
United States Department of Agriculture (2003) consumers buying fresh, packaged, or canned food should always check to be sure the package or can is intact before purchasing. Do not purchase packages that are punctured or appear to have been opened. Follow label advice for products that are packaged with safety seals. Do not consume food if the seal has been broken. For canned goods, do not eat the contents if the cans are dented, cracked, or bulging. These are warning signs that the product may not be safe.
Always store the canned food products and other shelf-stable product in a cool and dry place but never put them above the stove, under the sink, in a damp garage or basement, or any place exposed to high or low temperature extremes. The canned food product which is high-acid such as tomatoes and other fruit can store up to 18 months whereas for the low-acid such as meat and vegetables can keep 2 to 5 years.
According Bruso (2011) avoid cans that are leaking, bulging, cracked, denied or that have a bad odor or discoloured food, as this food may not be safe.
According to Gleason (2011) Expiration dates are usually found on the top or bottom of the can. Some canned food manufactures put “use by”, “sell by” and also “best if used by” dates on cans. Actually that not a food safety dates, it just indicates the date before which food will have the best favour.
According to Cathy Kapica and Wendy Weiss (2012a) Foods, especially fruits and vegetables, which are frozen, canned or dried, have a longer shelf life than fresh, with little waste, which helps household food preparers save money and not worry about spoilage.
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