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What Is Project Management Body Of Knowledge Management Essay

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5/12/16 Management Reference this

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Project Management Institute (PMI) is one of the world’s largest professional membership associations, with half a million members and credential holders in more than 180 countries. It is a not-for-profit organization that advances the project management profession through globally recognized standards and certifications, collaborative communities, an extensive research program, and professional development opportunities.

PMI offers five certifications that recognize knowledge and competency, including the Project Management Professional (PMP)® credential held by more than 370,000 practitioners worldwide. Salaries and career opportunities for credential holders show that employers recognize the value delivered by trained practitioners.

Launched in 1984, PMI’s first certification was the PMP. Around 370,000 people now hold the PMP certification. In 2007, it earned the ANSI/ISO/IEC 17024 accreditation from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Credential holders do not have to be members of PMI.

To initially obtain a PMI credential, individuals must pass an examination consisting of multiple choice questions. To maintain most PMI credentials, holders must earn Professional Development Units (PDUs) which can be earned in a variety of ways such as taking classes, attending PMI global congresses, contributing to professional research or writing and publishing papers on the subject. Most credentials must be renewed every three years.

Global Standards 

PMI’s 12 standards for project, program and portfolio management are the most widely recognized standards in the profession – and increasingly the model for project management in business and government.

They are developed and updated by thousands of PMI volunteers with experience in every type of project, and provide a common language for project management around the world.

PMI standards are targeted at projects, programs, people, organizations and the profession. Currently, some of the published standards are:

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)

Construction Extension to the PMBOK Guide, Third Edition

Government Extension to the PMBOK Guide, Third Edition

The Standard for Program Management

The Standard for Portfolio Management

Practice Standard for Earned Value Management

Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3)

Practice Standard for Project Configuration Management

Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures-Second Edition

Project Manager Competency Development Framework-Second Edition

According to PMI, standards are developed by volunteers in a three step process including an exposure draft process that allows the public to view the standard draft and include change suggestions.

Research 

The PMI Research Program, the most extensive in the field, advances the science, practice and profession of project management. It expands project management’s body of knowledge through research projects, symposiums and surveys, and shares it through publications, research conferences and working sessions.

Governance

PMI is governed by a 15-member volunteer Board of Directors. Each year PMI members elect five directors to three-year terms. Three directors elected by others on the Board serve one-year terms as officers.

Day-to-day PMI operations are guided by the Executive Management Group and professional staff at the Global Operations Center in Newtown Square, PA, USA.

What is Project Management Body of Knowledge?

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) is a project management guide, and an internationally recognized standard,[citation needed] that provides the fundamentals of project management as they apply to a wide range of projects, including construction, software, engineering, automotive, etc. The purpose of the PMBOK is to provide and promote a common vocabulary within the project management profession for discussing, writing, and applying project management concepts.[1]

History

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) was first published by the Project Management Institute (PMI) as a white paper in 1987 in an attempt to document and standardize generally accepted project management information and practices. The first edition was published in 1996 followed by the second edition in 2000.[2]

In 2004 the PMBOK Guide – Third Edition was published with major changes from the first edition. The English-language PMBOK Guide – Fourth Edition was released on December 31, 2008.

Contents

The PMBOK Guide is process-based, meaning it describes work as being accomplished by processes. This approach is consistent with other management standards such as ISO 9000 and the Software Engineering Institute’s CMMI. Processes overlap and interact throughout a project or its various phases. Processes are described in terms of:

Inputs (documents, plans, designs, etc.)

Tools and Techniques (mechanisms applied to inputs)

Outputs (documents, products, etc.)

The Guide recognizes 42 processes that fall into five basic process groups and nine knowledge areas that are typical of almost all projects.

The five process groups are:

Initiating

Planning

Executing

Monitoring and Controlling

Closing

The nine knowledge areas are:

Project Integration Management

Project Scope Management

Project Time Management

Project Cost Management

Project Quality Management

Project Human Resource Management

Project Communications Management

Project Risk Management

Project Procurement Management

Each of the nine knowledge areas contains the processes that need to be accomplished within its discipline in order to achieve an effective project management program. Each of these processes also falls into one of the five basic process groups, creating a matrix structure such that every process can be related to one knowledge area and one process group.

The PMBOK Guide is meant to offer a general guide to manage most projects most of the time. A specialized standard was developed as an extension to the PMBOK Guide to suit special industries, for example the Construction Extension to the PMBOK Guide and the Government Extension to the PMBOK Guide.

What is Association for Project Management?

Association for Project Management (APM) is an independent organization for project management based in the United Kingdom. It has over 17,500 individual and 500 corporate members in the United Kingdom and worldwide. APM’s mission statement is: “To develop and promote the professional disciplines of project and programme management for the public benefit.”

The Association’s Headquarters are at Princes Risborough in Buckinghamshire where they employ around 48 people.

It promotes these aims by a variety of means, among them a series professional qualifications. These are governed and examined by the APM through their examination syllabus and Body of Knowledge publications. These may usefully be compared to the PMI’s PMBOK, which has similar aims though they differ in many details.

Project Management Qualifications

The APM have a wide range of qualifications. These start with the Introductory Certificate APM IC which is designed for team members and is a simple 1 hour multiple choice test. At a foundation level they offer the APMP. This covers all the basics of project management and finishes with a 3 hour written paper. The next step is to the practitioner level APM PQ which is based on a 3 day assessment centre and is designed for managers of single discipline projects and at the highest level Certified Project Manager, which is based on a written submission and interview.

Compare to APM, PMI, PRINCE2

APM

PMI

PRINCE2

Advantages

A range of qualifications from introductory to advanced project management.

A pragmatic approach to project management based on a published Body of Knowledge.

Competences include leadership and management of teams.

Very strong within certain sectors in the UK including defence, infrastructure, telecoms.

Links to professional development.

Advantages

Most widely recognised global project management qualification.

Computer based test can be administered from anywhere in the world.

Detailed comprehensive body of knowledge (PMBoK) available in many languages.

Requirement for experience and formal training add value to qualification.

Formal requirement for CPD to maintain certification.

Advantages

Most widely recognised project management in the UK.

Increasing value in the international market.

Clear and simple step by step process to follow.

Detailed and comprehensive PRINCE2 manual.

Need for ongoing certification to maintain credibility

Disadvantages

Only recognised strongly in the UK and other parts of the commonwealth.

Examinations and certification are not computer based making logistic more difficult outside the UK.

Body of knowledge lacks the detail in the PMBoK and PRINCE2 manual

Disadvantages

Not widely recognised in the UK.

Highest level of qualification in the PMP with no options for further development beyond this knowledge level.

Need to learn the PMBoK way for working which may not reflect practice in your organisation.

Disadvantages

Method only works in a PRINCE2 environment. It can be hard to apply PRINCE2 to general project management.

Excludes the important area of people leadership and management.

 Only strongly recognised in the UK

Looking to the future it would be good to see these different standards combined into one common approach. Parallel Project Training recently did this for one of its international programme management consultancy clients with offices around the world. It can be relatively easily done, especially since the release of the new 2009 PRINCE2 manual.

Combining the best of all three approaches into one common method?

It is relatively simple to produce a combined method that meets the requirements of all three approaches. A detailed analysis of the APM and PMI BoKs reveals that they have much in common. The high level nature of the APM Bok is helpful here because its knowledge areas are very similar to the PMI BoK. The fourth edition of the PMI BoK increased this similarity because many of the changes brought it is much closer to the APM BoK in the areas such as risk management.

PRINCE2 is slightly more difficult to integrate, because it has a much wider definition or project management and views the project from the perspective of a client organisation. It is much more concerned with the formulation and management of the project business case, governance structures and interface to the users in client business to ensure the benefits are realised. This is understandable because of its roots in national government. It pays less attention to the mechanisms for the delivery of the project.

The PMI Bok however views the project as more of a delivery process for the scope defined on the project charter. It pays less attention to the processes used to formulate the project charter in the first place and the governance of the project by the client. PRINCE2 is however very weak on the delivery mechanisms such as resource planning

However these two approached (PRINCE2 and PMBoK) form a useful complement, with PRINCE2 clearly describing the processes for the formulation, governance and control of the project charter (project brief) and business case. The PMBoK described in more detail the processes to turn the project charter (project brief) into deliverables. By the way the APM BoK covers both these processes although at a high level.

Any multinational organisation that can demonstrate compliance to all three of the major international standard for project management has both a real competitive edge but also a more holistic approach and effective approach to project management.

The others related Project Management Groups

Project management is related of several different types of groups, which are already mentioned above, such as:

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)

Construction Extension to the PMBOK Guide, Third Edition

Government Extension to the PMBOK Guide, Third Edition

The Standard for Program Management

The Standard for Portfolio Management

Practice Standard for Earned Value Management

Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3)

Practice Standard for Project Configuration Management

Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures-Second Edition

Project Manager Competency Development Framework-Second Edition

Project Integration Management

Project Scope Management

Project Time Management

Project Cost Management

Project Quality Management

Project Human Resource Management

Project Communications Management

Project Risk Management

Project Procurement Management

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