According to James C.Sarros and Joseph C.Santora leadership must accommodate themselves to changes if they do not want to leave behind. So, executives must try and work hard for long hours to meet the results not merely intended to keep up with their competitors but to eliminate them out of the water. These explore the elements of caring, visionary, role modelling and team building leadership through the transformational-transactional leadership. This contribute to the literature in term of hat leader do, as district to managers. Leadership works best when the leader and employee agree what mechanisms and strategies need to be used to achieve the goals. Leaders use their specific leadership behaviors consistent with their deeply-ingrained values to achieve great things. These leadership are explored through the dimensions of transformational and transactional leadership. Leader usually strive for transformational but often frustrated in reaching their goals because of unpredictable external or internal factor problem among staff. Executive indicate that there is reticence among their colleagues to tackle the hard issues. Another perspective on leader is their role modelling of appropriate behaviors and their use of language, symbol and sheer hard work. This article examine the leadership behaviors of executives as they make sense of the transformational-transactional model. The theories of transformational and transactional leadership have underpinned the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). MLQ has the important insight into the nature of effective leadership but they also suffer from some serious response biases. Administration is the main functional area of expertise and in industries as diverse as the public sector, education and many more. Most executives were in medium to large sized organizations. MLQ is used initially to access the leadership profiles of the executives along four factor of transformational leadership, two of transactional leadership and a non-leadership or laissez faire factor of leadership. Transformational leadership raise the consciousness of followers by appealing to higher ideals and values such as liberty, justice, peace and equality. The four types of transformational leadership used by the executives in order of most to least often use are individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and idealized influence. Individualized consideration deals with the fundamental transformational leadership behaviors of treating individuals as important contributors to the work place. Leaders that use this style of leadership show consideration for their workers needs and are prepared to encourage and couch the development of appropriate work place behavior. The key of elements of individualized consideration include encouragement, caring for and coaching of individual and a consultative and open approach. Inspirational motivation is raising the consciousness of workers about the organization’s mission and vision and encouraging others in understanding and committing to the vision is a key facet of the transformational leadership style of inspirational motivation. It address the principle of organizational existence rather than the personality of the leader. Many executives were critical of their peers when speaking about inspirational motivation and they believed that instead of encouraging workers executives stifle their creativity. Preventing experimentation and stifling creativity will frustrate workers who want to contribute to the organization. Inspirational leader work actively in drawing out the best in their employees, not holding them back. Leader who used inspirational motivation set high standards, communicate their ideas and vision to their workers in unambiguous ways and encourage workers to develop beyond the norm so that they and the organization grow and develop. The key indicator of inspirational motivation are organizational vision, communication, challenging workers, encouragement, working with workers and autonomy. Intellectual stimulation are leader who intellectually stimulate workers encourage creativity and accept challenges as part of their job. They keep their cool, working out ways of dealing with problems in a rational manner. These cultivate the same skills in their workers and they work through difficulties with their staff in a calm, calculated fashion and use problem solving techniques for reaching decisions that reflect a mutal consensus between leaders and employees. The intellectual stimulation leadership approach reflects in large measure the coaching, morale building strengths of individualized consideration. Both leadership approaches build character as well as organizational skill through caring leadership behaviors that coach and challenge. Intellectual stimulation key elements are problem solving ability, creativity and challenging the status quo. These approaches rely on different talents to those associated with individualized consideration and inspirational motivation. Intellectual stimulation relies on ‘tough love’ to work and the ability to get the people to think in different and creative ways. Challenging workers intellectually assumes that certain abilities exist in leader and workers. The key indicator of intellectual stimulation are creativity, rationally, consensus decision-making, coaching, challenging, supporting and involvement. Idealized influence is a behavior that encourages followers to use their leaders as role models. The other term that describe this leadership is charisma. The influence is the creation of values which inspire, provide meaning for and instill a sense of purpose in people. This is an inspirational because it hones it on feelings and attitudes about what is important in life.
Transactional leadership pursue a cost-benefit, economic exchange with followers. Transactional leadership consists of two factor that are contingent reward and management by exception. Laissez faire is a form of non-leadership. Contingent reward leadership achieves results and people appreciate tangible, material rewards for their efforts. This leadership recognized individual talents and build enthusiasm through appeals to emoticons, values and belief systems, transactional leadership promotes compliances by appealing to the need and wants of individuals. Executives who use contingent reward are expected to show direction to workers so the job gets done. The negatives associated with contingent reward cannot be ignored. Executives see performances in dollar terms, and forget that organization exists as living cultures that rely on mutual transactions among leaders and workers to achieve synergistic outcomes. The key indicator of contingent reward include material rewards for performance, direction setting, reciprocity and confidence in the team.
Management by exception is not the abdication of leadership, characterized by laissez faire leadership. Leaders who practice management by exception have implicit trust in their workers to finish a job to a satisfactory standard and avoid rocking the boat. These leaders do not inspired workers to achieve beyond expected outcomes. Management by exception consists of trust in workers, maintenance of the status quo, poor communication and lack of confidence.
Laissez faire behavior is not really leadership at all. It is referred to as non-leadership. The major indicator is the managers of leader’s incapacity to get involved. Leader works intentionally on avoiding involvement or confrontation, keeping personal interactions to a minimum. This indicates a leader fast losing his or her power base, out of touch with their workers and a daily reminder to the organization of anachronistic work practices. Individual who take laissez faire approach are on the express elevator to early retirement. This behavior reflects to a lazy, sometimes cynical and non-committed attitude among executives. This approach merely damages organizational goodwill and frustrated hard working employees. Laissez faire is identified by non-commitment, laziness, complacency, avoidance and abdication of responsibility.
Journal 2: Motivating employees for environmental improvement
According to Nalini Govindarajulu and Bonnie F.Daily majority of US corporations have used the compliance approach in their environmental programs driven by laws and regulations. However, environmental forces such as consumer boycotts, dynamic preferences and new customer requirements have affected basic business strategies as well as corporate core values. This paper have an overview of the current management literature regarding increasing employee motivation for environmental improvement efforts. There are four factor that is management commitment, employee empowerment, rewards and feedback and the key elements is encouraging employees for enhanced environmental performances. Management commitment is a commitment from top management and it’s like a framework for environmental improvement. The top management will decides the environmental policies to establish, the level of training and communication required. It’s necessary to provide commitment to environmental improvement efforts by adopting a formal EMS and EMS provides a format that allows management the ability to better control the company’s environmental impacts. Organizational culture is composed of a set of assumptions and values that guide individuals’ daily works behaviors. Management commitment must include a culture that encourages innovation and risk-taking. Environmental programs, initiative and the goals of an organization should be communicated frequently so the employee know what is expected to accomplish the goals. Another elements essential is signifying management’s commitments to environmental improvements is the provision of specific training. The need of cultural transformation in adoption of a formal environmental management programs necessitates training. A company can devastate its efforts to become environmentally responsible if there is little or no support to train and encourage its employees to ‘do the right thing’. Employee empowerment is the introduction of a new program will yield optimal results when employee treated as major stakeholders in an organization. The traditional top-down organization inhibits employee empowerments, instead a flatter, horizontal organizational should be in place to encourage employee empowerment. Empowered employees who have autonomy and decision-making power are also likely to be more involved in the empowerment of the environment. Motivating employees for greater participation in environmental improvement efforts may also require employee of teams. Cross-functional teams may be particularly helpful in achieving environmental improvement across departments. A well-designed reward system can be helpful in promoting employees to perform sound environmental practices. Rewards can be a reinforcement to continuously motivate and increase commitment from workers to be environmentally responsible. Rewards can be implemented in several forms such as financial rewards and recognition awards. Monetary awards may be on eof the strongest motivators for inducing employees to participate in environmental improvement efforts. Negative reinforcement may be necessary for making employees perform certain tasks include environmental improvement efforts. It is important for manager and supervisor to not only reward employees for quality and daily work efforts but also for innovating environmentally-sound processes and products. Other than that, feedback and review is needed for continued improvement. The enthusiasm and interest that is often associated with project initiation and the early stages of implementation of an environmental program may wane over time. Another feedback as the environmental audit. Environmental audit helps companies comply with environmental laws and regulations in addition to its own goals and objectives.
It is important for manager to have an understanding of managing organization because without having understanding of the organization, manager cannot cooperate with the employee in the organization. For an organization to be successful, manager should collaborate with the employees to achieve company goals. If a manager don’t understand how the organization works, therefore the employee will not cooperate with the manager and this might make the manager to leave the organization because he/she cannot work together with the employees. This will lead the sales of the company to drop if the employee cannot cope with the manager.
I would like to recommend the manager to use transformational leadership. This leadership is about the leadership that creates positive changes in the followers where they take care of each other’s interest and act in the interest of the group as a whole. Other than that, in this leadership the leader enhance the motivation, moral and performances of his follower group. At the times of organizational changes, people do feel insecure, anxious and low in energy and organizations changes fail because leader’s pays attention to the changes they are facing instead of the transition people must make to accommodate them. Transformational approach also depends on winning the trust of people which is made possible by the unconscious assumption that they will be changed or transformed in some way by following the leader.
In this transformational leadership, there are four type of component. The first components is the idealized influence. This influence is also known as charismatic leadership and this characteristic describes the extent to which leaders are capable of being role models to their followers and display solid moral and ethical principles. Idealized influence is described in two type where is attribute (what traits are assigned to a leader) and behaviors (what one does). Second is the intellectual stimulation. This is where the transformational leadership instills creativity as well as the followers are encouraged to approach problem in new ways. Third components is the inspirational motivation. This characteristics reflects the extent to which a leader is also capable for being a cheerleader, so to speak, on behalf on his or her followers. These leader demonstrate enthusiasm and optimism and emphasize commitment to a shared goal. The forth components is the individual consideration. In this components, transformational leaders are invested in the development of their followers. Other than that, they serve also as mentors, coach and take into account individual needs and desires within a group. Two-way communication is particularly recognized under this dimension. Manager are recommend to use this transformational leadership because this leadership can easily cooperate with the employees. Employee won’t feel uncomfortable when meet the manager where as they will feel like meeting a friend. Employee can comment to manager once they feel there is improvement for the company.
I would like to conclude that transformational leadership creates positive changes for the followers where they can take care of each other interest and treat each other as friend rather than a manager. For this transformational leadership there are four components that are, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence and individual consideration. Idealized influence also known as charismatic leadership and this describe to extents which leader are capable of being role models to their followers and display solid moral and ethical principles. Inspirational motivation is the extent which leader also capable of being a cheerleader and speak on behalf of his/her followers. Intellectual stimulation inspires creativity and followers are encourage to approach problem in a new way. Individual consideration is where the transformational leadership are invested in the development of their followers and they also serve as mentors and coach.
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