In this assignment, we will discuss about the various aspects, which are relating to cross cultural management or managing across cultures.
In the 21st century, the whole world is the marketplace. The people who work with come from every part of the globe. One of the main reason is technology advances like telephone, internet, mobile, and soft ware's, are already changed the people's global mindset, internet was easily minimize the world. Therefore, the people would easily identify their jobs and easily shift over their home country. The past two decades business globalization and cross border migration had a considerable growth .since the interest of popularity level increased for work, invest, tour, study, etc. from various parts of the world. Moreover the technology advances and reduced international barriers were increased many organizations were operating individually in their home market with successful , Main reason of the growth, in the cross border migration was the business globalization, international trade expansions, team based work practices were composed the people from different countries of different cultures. (Holbeche and Glynn, 1998).
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Moreover Global talent' is one of the most important key of a company or organization. So Organizations like to adapt the talented candidate they never mind, where they from. Today's global economy, it is not at all remarkable to manage with people in different countries with straight and matrixes reporting relationships to operational teams in lot of the countries. It is uncommon to interact with coworkers at home who have a different backgrounds and diverse lifestyles. Most of which is respond to various management techniques, like global approach, global source, global transportability, global marketing, global knowledge and collaboration, decision making.
(Charlene Solomon, Michael Schell 2009 managing across cultures p 12)
Developing corporative global strategies is gaining considerable significance in present business era. In 21st century if a company wants to be successor should develop their corporative global strategies. Focused on the global strategies and management approaches from the perspective of people and culture allows to understand the influence of national and ethnic culture on organizational functions.(N.J.Adler-international organizational behaviors2002). In most of companies like to adapt the most talented worker from all over the world. So it never mind where they from. If one who has the talent, it provides a chance to work. The importance of the global business has created a demand for cross- cultural managers sophisticated in world management and experienced at working with different country people other than their own.
Nowadays managing across the culture is very essential for the company, which expands globally. All country and states has the different cultures .People celebrate different festivals, have different foods, and dress differently in their country's own tradition around the world. Culture is the traditional customs followed and taught by several ways of our ancestors, which is included the behavior, lifestyle, language, emotions, thinking, social skills. However, people are different by their characters, activities, attitudes, way of speaking etcâ€¦
So the managers would become an inter-culturally competent, in order to ensure, the depth knowledge of the cultures.
G.H.Hofsted described about the culture as, "A Collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the member of one human group from another".
Gary terraro words as, "Everything that people have, thinks, and do as members of their society"
Fons tempenaars suggested that the, "Culture is dynamic process of solving human problems and dilemmas in areas of human relationships, time and native"
Culture has practically constructed by the basement of behaviors that means that it had might different meanings for different cultures.
Culture has lot of underground layers in the earth which one is know the exact hidden, unconscious, and common values. These layers reflect deep and deeply held attitudes and beliefs.
Culture was differentiate by two types that is; visible and invisible culture.
Visible culture : Tradition, artifacts, dress, behaviors, food, customs, heroes, symbols.
Invisible culture: Attitudes, values, beliefs, philosophy, communication styles, perceptions, assumptions, worldviews.
Culture was differentiated by depend upon people that is Monochronic culture and Polychrononic culture
Monochronic people are low context and need more information to work and they do one task at a time. they are only concentrate the job, taking time commitments seriously, they are committed to the job, they are scheduled co ordinate activity, their timings are rigid, showing great responsibility for private properties; seldom, borrowings. Accustomed short relationships and they are not disturbing other in the time of work,
Monochronic countries: United States of America, Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Japan. (Business English part 2 cross culture communication).
Polychronic people are high context and had much knowledge about the work, they do many task at a time, moreover they are having strong tendency to make relationship and maintain strongly. They are committed to people and human relationships. They are scheduled interpersonal activity and their appointment timings are flexible, they are easily distracted and manage interruption well.
Polychronic countries : France, Italy, Greece, Mexico, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India, Pakistan, Philippines, New Orleans, eastern and African countries ( business English part 2 cross culture communication)
Cultural key dimensions
Cultural key dimensions are power distance, masculine vs. feminine cultures,
Uncertainty avoidance, individualism
"American washing machine was damaged the Indian sari", this sentence clearly explains the cultural importance. However, American washing machine was not only concentrated the American people, actually it made for clothes but the principle is not work in the Indian clothes like sari. Cross-cultural design is ensured usability and user experience across cultural boundaries. Cross-cultural design explains how to understand the cultural differences and application of user-centered design methods in target culture.( Hofstede, G. (2005) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill, New York)
"For without culture or holiness, which are always the gift of a very few, a man may renounce wealth or any other external thing, but he cannot renounce hatred, envy , jealousy, revenge, culture is the sanctity of the intellect" (William butler Yeats, Irish poet)
Cultural shock was first recorded by "darba soviet" magazine in July 1940
"Oz business body to teach local culture to Indian students" (times of india-2009)
An Australian business body has come out with a novel initiative "friendship programme" for the new comers to help them better understand local culture. This lines were describes the cultural importance.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
The leader of a global team plays a very responsive and essential role in its, success. Clearly, different cultures had different expectations of leadership, and an effective global team leader needs to search a way to bridge. These different expectations, as illustrates, some culture expected a team leader to be an authoritative decision maker, while others expected to be a facilitating coach. Some cultures expect active contribution of the leader on the team, while others look for the manager only to make easy organization wide interactions. (Charlene m.solomon Michael s. schell 2009 managing across culture, p 254)
Every continent represented in their business. It's a "way of life"- we breathe it every day.'
Managing multi-cultural team has amazing that was concerned more and more managers. In a recent management survey explained 31% of managers told that they were responsible for cross cultural teams.( Sinclair, Robertson - smith and hennessy,2008). One manager reported that he was managed 22 different nationalities in a group of 60 people' (Garrrow and Stirling, 2007)
Culture affects what the manager's noticed, how they interpret it, what they decide to do about it, and how managers executed their ideas' ( Distefano and Maznevski, 2000 p.46). In raising global marketplace, managers should understand how national culture differences might influence the effective work team processes. This is manager's real concern. "the capacity to work in and manage cross cultural teams leftovers a tool factor of success in the wake of an ever-globalised market place".(evans.1996,p 317).
Managers should know about the global views, global source,
Global transportability, global marketing, and global knowledge and collaboration.
Managers need to have an ability to watch the global opportunities of their own accord. It would improve their work efficiency wherever they were in the world. Global sourcing refers to the procurement of everything from raw materials to human capital around the world. World transportability explains to the flow of people and thoughts around the globe. World marketing describes organizations need to understand the cultural differences and develop their products and services depend upon the location and concentrate to appropriate for the market' needs and local requirements. Global knowledge and collaboration explains manager's intellectual management skills to be able to innovative, and improvise benefits and opportunities.
Advantages and challenges
Many studies have shown that, if managed well, a culturally diverse workforce can be one of the greatest assets an organization can have (Dadfar and Gustavsson, 1992). Studies, including our research (Seymen, 2006; Schneider-Ross, 2002; Parfitt, 2006; Higgs, 1996; Dickson, Den Hartog and Mitchelson, 2003; Sinclair, Robertson-Smith and Hennessy, 2008), show that compared to single culture teams, teams composed of people from different cultures believed that to;
Offered a rich, multicultural perspective, depth of cultural experience and knowledge
Offered more effective resolutions to business problems
Show improved creativity
Demonstrate superior long-term performance
Execute tasks with higher efficiency
Enable superior business performance and an improved bottom line
Enable greater competitiveness
Lead to higher employee satisfaction
Strengthen relationships and enhance credibility with multi-cultural customers
Offer greater durability.
Multi-cultural teams have an enormous wealth of material with which to create innovative approaches to complex organizational challenges, and a broad range of operating modes to develop new ways of implementing solutions (DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000).
At the same time, cultural differences have enormous potential to hinder effective interaction within teams, given that each society has a different set of assumptions and norms under which they tend to operate. Team members from different cultures often approach the team environment with very different predefined notions about how a group should proceed (DiStefano and Maznevski, 2000). Many organizations have found that bringing culturally diverse people together can be problematic and the performance of cross-cultural teams is often marred by increased conflict, communication challenges and fragmentation (Thomas, Ravlin and Wallace, 1994; Dadfar and Gustavsson, 1992). In practice, cross-cultural teams often fail to achieve their potential (Higgs, 1996).
Advantages of inter cultural organizations are the workers creativity, flexibility, tolerance, multiple perspectives, inspiration, bridge building. These are things automatically will increase when they are in same stream working together. Challenges' are different expectation with colleagues and communication problem and co-ordination.
Influences in different work styles and cultures
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Chain of command and status, Group vs. individual orientation, Time Consciousness, Communication, Conflict resolution.
Hierarchy and status
If all people to feel valued and to participate in problem solving or decision making, differences in this norm could be inhibiting so be aware of that.
Group vs. individual orientation
The managers need to structure a climate that balances preferences for group and individual work. A culturally competent manager would create opportunities for individuals to take some risks and explore projects that did not require coordinating with others. However, when managers place too much importance on avoiding workplace conflict, even individualistic employees may be discouraged from providing potentially constructive feedback.
Motivation/flexibility would suffer if conferences were conducting outside normal work hours.Time-conscious managers may see people whose cultures take a more relaxed view toward deadlines as being less committed to team goals, as well as less dependable, accountable and reliable. Remember that each culture has different rules of behaviour and interprets behaviour through that lens!
Communication style explains how messages would send and receive,
If a direct communicator, probably expected "tell it like it is," response from the employee. However, the employee may be an indirect communicator who expects to read the contextual clues to understand response.
Egalitarian approach and individualistic orientation implies teamwork between manager and employees; they expect people to think and speak for themselves. Staff members with a more hierarchical and group orientation, To take the initiative to make suggestions to an authority figure would be awkward for all involved. Manager should demonstrate about their leadership when make decisions and gave directions. ( Cross-Cultural Awareness. Effective managers can recognize and adapt to different work styles and cultures. Author/s: Lee Gardenswartz, Anita Rowe, Issue: March, 2001)