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This report presents a deep insight of theories and frameworks related to leadership that the employees must adopt for its personal career development and giving the direction in the light of theories to develop the skills needed in Management and Leadership. The report starting with the detailed focus and insights on the Leadership and the significance of this objective in the personal career development and in the employment context and discussing key factors of leadership.
The next section shed lights on the detailed analysis of leadership theories and models and demonstrating great leaders over the past century presenting great models like The Hersey-Blanchard Model, Adair's Action-Centered Leadership Model, and Path Goal Theory. Each model giving deep insights into in exhibiting the qualities of successful leaders, but a shift has been focused from the general attributes and behaviors that each individual has and recognized in different situation by the importance of respondent. These Leadership Models are being exploited in multiple organizations and firms and giving the deep insight and detailed analysis for the employees required to develop the true leadership skills and assisting in personal career development and helping in revising leadership development process.
Further on, it has been given great importance that how these Leadership Models results in the changing of thinking and behavior individuals. This section is shedding light on the critical analysis of behavioral and thinking change.
The report comes to end by concluding that with a discussion of action plans and realistic planning to develop the skills, to achieve the goals and the focusing on the time management of the goals by reviewing their completion deadline.
The ambition behind in producing this report is to give a mark that how the multiple techniques can be utilized in the development of true leadership capability within the individuals and employees of the organization.
2 INTRODUCTION AND RATIONAL:
Leadership is a very complex process to build a set of standards, attributes and competencies to
hold the nature of what makes some leaders successful and unsuccessful in the organizations.
Now-a-days, organizations expects from their employees to take on more responsibilities for their development. Leadership is an essential part of the management in coordinating the activities of people and guiding their efforts towards goals and objectives of the organization. It follows closely in the workplace to help in completing the plans.
In the 21st century, leaders must create an atmosphere in which people believe in strategy, believe in management decisions believe in their work. Believing in management decisions produces an excitement within an organization and such atmosphere makes an organization prosper. This is the result of successful Leadership which creates this sort of environment both inside and outside the organization.
Leadership has been the key factor in "profession advancement". As the study reflects the past, it has proved to be particularly valuable for career planning. Leadership skills have played vital role in "profession improvement" by supporting generate responses in various circumstances.
Leadership skills comprehend business designs and assist managers through a number of established processes. The skills play vital role in ensuring that the requirements of work in the places maintained and improved on the daily foundation. It helps in improvement of the business processes in the organization or firm. It is a matter of making a difference. It entails changing an organization and making active choices among plausible alternatives. It is increasingly associated not with command and control but with the concept of inspiration of getting along with other people and creating a vision. It is related to motivation, interpersonal behavior and the process of communication. It involves the effective process of delegation and empowerment. The emphasis of leadership is on interpersonal behavior in a broader context. It is often associated with the willing and enthusiastic behavior of followers. It is vitally important at all levels within the company. It is the moral and intellectual ability to visualize and work for what is the best for the company and its employees. It helps in promoting organizational goals and strategies. It helps in aligning the personal needs, priorities and activities with the organization needs and goals. It helps in supporting tough decisions made for the overall benefits of organization.
In terms of employment context, it takes some time for some in experienced employees to get used to the style of Leadership and may require a directional at first. It helps in assisting managers with other leaders to comprehend the circumstances with the departments. It has become very important for the employment holders to build the leadership skills in order to have successful career. One of the major key factors in the career development is that it reduces complacency. It helps in feeling more confidents in the abilities to take more responsibility and the charge of tasks, decision making, team processes, goal setting and personal and career development. It helps in understanding and internalizing the qualities to enhance the ability for making the rational decisions by creating supporting plans, delivering information confidently, efficiently and effectively and developing useful strategy that results in the end meet the specific needs of the organization.
The Hersey-Blanchard Model of Leadership:
The Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Model draws attention to the importance of developing the ability, confidence and commitment of subordinates. This model plays the vital role in determining the most appropriate leadership styles (leader behaviors) by the development levels of a leader's subordinates. This development should take place by adjusting leadership behavior through the four styles of telling, selling, participating and delegating.
â€¢ Task behavior is the extent to which the leader provides directions for the actions of followers, set goals for them, and defines their roles and how to undertake them.
â€¢ Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leader engages in two-way communication with followers, listens to them, and provides support and encouragement.
It demands the contained focus of leaders on both results expected of them and their team and relationships with everyone who impacts their success.
Emphasis high amounts of guidance (task behavior) but limited supportive (relationship) behavior. Most appropriate style for low follower readiness.
Emphasis a high amounts of two-way communication and supportive behavior but low amounts of guidance. Most appropriate for moderate to high follower readiness.
Emphasis a high amounts of both directive task and relationship behaviors. Most appropriate for low to moderate follower readiness.
Emphasis little direction or support with low levels of both task and relationship behaviors. Most appropriate for high follower readiness.
Adair's Action-Centered Leadership Model:
This theory focus on functional approach associated with the work of John Adair and his ideas on action-centered leadership collaborated with the leaders actual doing. Meeting three areas of need within the work group is effectiveness of the leader. Adair symbolizes these needs by three overlapping circles.
Task functions involve:
Achieving the objectives of the work group.
Defining group tasks.
Planning the work.
Allocation of resources.
Organization of duties and responsibilities.
Team functions involve:
Maintaining Morale and building team spirit.
The cohesiveness of the group as a working unit.
Setting standards and maintaining discipline.
Systems of communication within the group.
Training the group.
Individual functions involve:
Meeting the needs of the individual members of the group.
Attending to personal problems.
Giving praise and status.
Training the individual.
Training the group.
Action-Centered Leadership Model (Adair, 1973)
The three-circle approach used by Adair also serves the close relationship between leadership and management. Building the team and satisfying individual needs would include leadership. The effective leader/manager carries out the functions and the exhibition of the behaviors depicted and execution of functions by the effective leader is depicted by the three circles. Situational and contingent elements call for different responses by the leader. More or less emphasis will be given to the functionally-oriented behaviors by the leaders according to what the actual situation involves. To manage all sectors of the diagram is the great challenge for the leaders.
Path Goal Theory:
This model is based on the belief that the individual's motivation is dependant upon the expectations that increased effort to achieve an improved level of performance will be successful, and expectations that improved performance will be instrumental in obtaining positive rewards and avoiding negative outcomes. It suggests that the performance of subordinates is affected by the extent to which the manager satisfies their expectations. According to House's path-goal theory, a leader's effectiveness depends on several employee and environmental contingent factors and certain leadership styles.
Four main types of leadership behavior identified by House:
Directive Leadership: involves letting subordinates know exact expectation of them and giving specific directions. Following rules and regulations are expected from the subordinates. The style is the same as the task-oriented one.
Supportive Leadership: involves a friendly and approachable manner and displaying concern for the needs and welfare of subordinates. This style is the same as people-oriented leadership.
Participative Leadership: involves consulting with the subordinates and the evaluation of their opinions and suggestions before the manager making the decision. It consults its subordinates on important decisions related to work, task goals, and paths to resolve goals.
Achievement-oriented Leadership: involves setting challenging goals for subordinates, seeking improvement in their performance and showing confidence in subordinates' ability to perform well. The leader believes that employees are responsible enough to accomplish challenging goals. This is the same as goal-setting theory.
Two Main Situational Factors:
Employee Characteristics: It determines the reaction to the manager's behavior and the extent to which they see such behavior as an immediate or potential source of need satisfaction. For instance, a directive style of leadership may not be necessary; a supportive approach may be suitable for less ability followers.
Nature of Task: It relates to the extent that it is routine and structured, or non routine and unstructured. In terms of non-routine tasks participative style is much better than routine ones.Similarly, a supportive style is much effective than the directive one for the employees who are performing simple and routine tasks. Leaders should apply directive style to counteract team norms that oppose the team's formal objectives.
Effective leadership behavior is based, therefore, on both the willingness of the manager to help subordinates and the needs of subordinates for help. Leadership behavior will be motivational to the extent that it provides necessary direction, guidance, and support, helps clarify path-goal relationships and removes obstacles in the attainment of goals.
Behavioral Change (Critical Analysis) :
As discussed in section 2, the theories related to personal career development in an organization deeply. The methodology adopted by a newly stepped in employer moving towards leadership task exhibits changes in its behavior to have special roles and responsibilities to prove themselves a role model. His actions are controlled by the sum of their personality, attitudes and complexes of believes and feelings about specific ideas, situations or other people. In terms of organizations and business industries, behavior analysts assist organizations to improve human performance. To encourage and support behaviors in the contribution of organization effectiveness is given high priority by having a core purpose of quality initiatives, behavioral safety and management development.
It has been the fact that behavioral changes methodologies are not incorporated and designed into the initiatives and the training, management development and performance improvement initiatives are drastically constrained. Rate of behavioral change and effectiveness of the change process is affected by the leaving out critical behavior change tools and practices. Often leaders assume that it is codling employees to precisely pinpoint the behavior that will lead them to succeed.
Many leaders consider themselves work-oriented, obsessive types, highly intelligent and self-motivated by pushing themselves up removing the barriers to perform better - to be the best.
Leaders focus on communicating the vision and behavioral change to deliver the new organization.
Leadership Skills Development:
In today's complex and fast-changing world, employer should concentrate on the main areas of knowledge, understanding and expertise to successfully lead an organization by adopting strategic-directive approach. Effective leadership is the key possessed by the characteristics in all the organizations related to private and public sectors. Leadership qualities are greatly attributed towards expertise, knowledge and competencies contained in the approach and behavior. The essential attributes require for the better career and future developments are defined as follows:
The decision selected is affordable, accomplishable by analyzing the effect of the decision on all stakeholders before approving implementation; one final solution should be taken by considering the set of all solutions; the problems should be identified by personal expertise and knowledge; analysis of information should be done by establishing a consistent approach.
Leaders must be put into a wide variety of leadership challenges to come across with creative and manageable solutions to the problems. In an unclear solution of the problems leaders must be comfortable working in a complex environment. To train leaders for the adaptability they must be focused on how to think.
Information exchange in the organization, amongst partners, clients and suppliers must be encouraged proactively; To ensure effective exploitation of communication channels within the organization; must be responded to the messages and signals from the environments. In different situations and audiences personal communication style would be more appropriate.
Successful Team Development:
To ensure that appropriate priority be given to individual and team development schemes; Individuals and team should be kept aware of issues, strategy and development that can affect them; Individuals and teams at all levels must be supplying personal aid for the maintenance and implementation of development activities.
Developing Positive Image:
Being in the leading role in starting action and making decisions; demonstrating a professional approach every time; be broad-minded, assisting and responded in the needs of its co-workers. Showing commendable work towards career and personal development objectives; Taking systematic approach to all organizational and personal activities; demonstrating integrity and fairness every time; being helpful to the co-workers;
Personal progress and performance should be regularly reflected; personal performance to be asked for feedback pro-actively; being responsible for personal development necessities; to change personal behavior in the view of receiving feedback;
Developing multiple networks and channels that generating an even flow of information, inside and outside the organization; collecting, analyzing, competing, and exploiting the information gathered consistently and regularly.
Knowing the weakness and the strengths of the firm and organization, and the threats and opportunities being faced by it; comprehending how the strategic goals are influenced by all the forecasted and current influences being affected on the organization; comprehending that the targets and the operational aims must be sync with and assist the strategic aims of the organization.
Focusing on Results:
Dealing with the arising problems and issues; to make the best exploitation of available resources by scheduling and devising personal work; granting personal attention to the critical events and issues; delegating appropriately.
Taking personal responsibility for actions and decisions; being prepared properly for the involvement in events and activities; denying unreasonable demands; being professional and confident in taking up challenges and changes.
Action Plans (Goal Achievement):
Goals may seem overwhelming and unachievable until they are broken down into action steps with clearly defined responsibility. This module gives team members a common method for action planning using small, achievable steps directly linked to each member's daily "to-do list."Â
A specific time frame and a step-by-step action plan should be reviewed each day to keep moving towards the goals. To achieve it a list can be organized by priority, putting the most important step first, continue to the least important and check off each step as you accomplish it.
At the end of each day, review your plan and reset priorities to get the action steps ready for the next day. Always knowing the next step will keep you focused, prevents procrastination and wasted time. As suggested by Time Management Guide, as new tasks present themselves, prioritize and write them in your action plan to stay productive and on track.
Develop trust and accountability between team members
Ensure individual action plans reflect overall team goals
Eliminate conflict from overlapping goals and tasks
Practice realistic action planning and time management
Provide an objective tool for coaching performance
Within the limited available amount of time successful planning demands to be realistic. Analyzing and planning the project accordingly will receive positive results.
Working with the bounds of timescale generates restrictions and bound the opportunities. Getting flexibility in the working approach helps in overcoming issues and problems caused by having to adapt to the time restrictions. Flexibility also depends on positivity and creativity encouraging in becoming more resourceful and able to take up the issues and problems that might arise.
Making the most of every chance to enhance the knowledge and skills will enable in viewing the limitations positively. Planning, in any form, will need break to review all aspects of the task or project before it initiates. Exploiting the opportunity to consider all the options will enable to view the task realistically.
The aim of managing the time is to spend time doing the things that help in achieving the goals and the things that personally prioritize and value.
Time management is straightforward - but it takes time. For effective time management and then devising a workable system meeting the needs.
The priority while planning the project is to make the priority of all the tasks needed to make up the job. By listing both the long term and the short term priorities will help in understanding the importance of each individual task or goal. Priorities might get change however, so it is necessary to remain ahead of any alterations that might require to be done. This is achieved easily by taking the time to revise all the priorities at the starting of the day.
Identifying the Objective: Knowing how much work the project demands will enable in prioritizing the workload.
Being Realistic: Most of the tasks require longer time for completion than the people anticipation. With or without setbacks re-occurring filtering to be done in sufficient time to complete the tasks so it could help in identifying the possible pitfalls in the planning.
Balancing the Day: In order to make the project in a realistically achievable time frame, such plan should be devised so that some urgent, non-urgent, convenient and flexible tasks are combined in such a way that could enable us to achieve a good balance.
Delegation: The problem to be raised in the tasks can be delegated to other skilled workers. In doing so will increase the timescale of the project.