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This report discusses in detail the use of team based working to achieve organizational & strategic objectives .The report in detail discusses processes involved in individuals towards achieving organizational goals & objectives .The discussion has also focused on tools & techniques available for target setting , performance measurement which could be used for proper monitoring & control & further facilitate necessary corrective action to be taken to prevent any deviation from the expected level of performance .
In relation to performing in a team individual commitment is highly important. In encouraging commitment it is highly important that appropriate leadership styles & trait should be applied. This report highlights the use of such leadership styles & how each style would contribute towards delivering 100% commitment towards a determined course of action.
In short it can be mentioned that the report would encompass major areas in the management of relationships & people within an organization that would allow the organization to move towards the desired level of performance that would provide value towards various stakeholders connected to the organization and would allow the organization to become successful in the competitive corporate world with appropriate strategies & objectives facilitating the achievement of strategies.
LO1 Being able to set performance targets to meet Strategic Objectives
Links between team performance and Strategic Objectives
A team is basically a collection of individuals that posses a set of skills that complement each other.
Teams essentially are to carry out tasks which are complicated, and where varied input is required.
Naturally a team would be formed to achieve a certain objective .in an organizational context teams
Would be responsible for the achievement of strategic objectives
The team would require different individuals with different competencies to carry out the tasks
Required to achieve a strategic objective .Further a team should have a team leader who would be responsible for the achievement of the objective & basically would perform a role of a manger where the individual would carry out planning, organizing, coordinating, controlling & commanding.
The link between performance of a team & strategic objectives can be seen in the following example
For example a marketing manager of a washing powder manufacturing company would set an objective to achieve an increase of 10% market share for its products. Hence different alternatives such as advertising, promotion, exporting, improving quality & reducing price can be found out.
After evaluating the different alternatives the marketing manager may select advertising as the preferred method .after that a team may be formed to carry out the advertising campaign. In order to
Be successful individuals of marketing, finance, IT & procurement have to work in cohesion to achieve the target (team would involve individuals from above function)
Tools & techniques available to set team performance targets
In order to for a team to deliver a high level of performance teams need to be provided with targets to achieve a given objective.
Several such techniques are available for a team leader or team manager to set targets for the team that the individual manages.
One such technique is the Balance Scorecard developed by Kaplan & Norton .Balance Scorecard encompasses a wide range of criteria into performance measurement & would involve qualitative and non qualitative aspects...Under Balance Scorecard performance is assessed based on four perspectives.
Under the financial perspective performance is evaluated based on financial perspective with the objective of maximizing the share holder wealth while stabilizing funding. Measures used to set performance targets can be Stated as follows .E.G :-Return on Investment (ROI) ,Return On Equity ,Standard Costing ,Budgets ,NPV.,IRR
Internal Business perspective
This world evaluates the efficiency effectiveness in operations. Measures used to set performance targets can be stated as follows .E.G:- Number of defective products, Machine down times, the time take to process a customer order ,time take to service a customer.
This would evaluate the ability the organization a of delivering & creating value to its customers. Measures used to set performance targets can be stated as follows E.G:-Percentage decrease of dissatisfy customers, number of new customers attracted, number of customer complaints.
. Innovation & Learning Perspective
This would evaluate the ability the organization to innovate .Measures used to set performance targets can be stated as follows E.G:-Number of new products introduced, level of employee retention.
Other performance target setting tools
Several Other performance target setting tools are also can also be discussed are
Network Analysis (Used in Project management)
Network Analysis is a technique to plan & sequence the different tasks which must be undertaken in a project. . This would ensure that projects are thought through and organized in the most efficient way.
Network Analysis is particularly good at identifying the critical tasks ââ‚¬"that would allow project to avoid delay& complete on time to achieve project targets...
Gantt charts are a technique used to plan and sequence different project tasks .this is a good communication tool since it can be easily understood, however the critical activities are not identified & a high possibility of the project activities going behind schedule can be identified.
PERT (Project Evaluation & Review Technique)
PERT is a way of considering uncertainty in projects .Rather than simply estimating one time estimate, three are estimated .These being a pessimistic estimate (p), expected estimate (m), Optimistic estimate.
Using these estimates an average can be found using the formula
P + 4m + O
Value of Team Performance tools to measure future team performance
The value of team performance tools would be vital with regard to identifying whether the actual performance level was achieved against the planned level of performance if achieved it will be important to learning for future performance .On the other hand if the actual level of performance was below the expected level of performance the senior management or leaders of the team could identify the weak areas of and look into whether the targets set were realistic.
Further if required above mentioned tools can be used to reset the targets & probably also try to create improvements to the performance tools or try out new performance tools as all tools have its own merits & demerits.
LO2: Being able to agree team performance targets to contribute to meeting strategic objectives
2.1 Determination of Performance targets within teams against current performance
The setting of targets would be an important aspect in assessing team performance .As a matter of fact it is targets would be used to determine whether the actual performance achieved is higher or lower than the expected level of performance .Target setting would be also important to identify & reward exceptional performance .Thus determining the appropriate performance targets are important.
In order to determine required targets within teams several factors are to be considered.
Past experience of working in similar situations
This will provide an idea on the present requirements based on the past working experience which would identify the deviations, positives & weaknesses in different situations.
Availability of Resources
In order to determine appropriate targets the availability of resources too needed to be taken into account as without appropriate resource levels target achievement would be difficult.
Nature of the performance targets
This is where realistic targets should be set to motivate individuals to provide high level of commitment towards delivering 100% performance.
2.2 Encouragement of Individual Commitment to team performance
In the context of an organization it is highly important that each member of a particular team is involved to perform in order to achieve organizational goals.
The most important resource to an organization is people or human resources .in other words teams would consist of individuals who would be part of a team responsible for achieving certain objectives .In order to achieve objectives different individuals in a team would be allocated certain tasks . Which would be based on the talents & skills of each individual .In fact a successful team would require people with different level of skills & expertise that would cover a wide range of areas. Hence if a team member or several members do not perform to the expected level it would negatively affect the achievement of organizational goals.
If not properly addressed this may lead to conflict, de motivation & redundancies which may affect negatively for achievement of organizational goals.
Thus it is important on the part of a team leader or team manager to encourage individual commitment towards performing within teams by rewarding, recognizing exceptional performance that would further encourage individual commitment.
2.3 Application of delegation, mentoring & coaching to achieve organizational Objectives
Delegation is the act of entrusting another person to make decisions within sphere criteria. Delegation will lead to authority being given to the person to the person to whom the wok is delegated .that particular individual will be accountable to the superior.
In the case of delegation an example is that a marketing manager of a washing powder manufacturing company would set an objective to become the leader in the market in the particular region. Which the marketing manager would appoint a separate team to carry out the marketing campaign .this would enable greater efficiency & effectiveness& allow the staff members to develop while the manager concentrates on strategic issues.
Further mentoring& coaching is an activity which involves guiding ,Counseling & most importantly training mentoring would enable a team leader or manager to motivate individuals of the team to achieve organizational objectives .Further successful mentoring may create better relationship within a team & allow team members to develop their skills quickly.
In relation to the above example it is the marketing manager would provide advices on the alternatives available to carry out the marketing campaign &provide important information on how the market behave ,type of information required ,brief on competitor action ,reward & recognition of individuals who have demonstrated exceptional performance .
2.4 Evaluate a team performance plan to meet organizational objectives.
Objectives are specific aims of an organization...Objectives should b e SMART .Hence the following team performance plan would be evaluated on these SMART factors.
This is the team performance plan for a team to of a confectionary making company to increase the market share of one of its products by 20% by the 2013 .Out of several alternatives it is decided to improve quality of the product .the following plan can be given.
Obtain financing to carryout research of the current product quality of the product .This can be done with either in house specialists or even an external expert can be hired.
Examination of the machines & production lines of the sweets & if not up to standard try to either replace or repair machines. .Carry out necessary evaluations (financial & technical)
For this activities to be handled successfully team members from finance & manufacturing should be working together.
Sourcing of high quality flavors, materials to manufacture sweets & improve d packaging of the products.
Testing of the products & carry out a research on the comments provided by the individuals who were involved in the trial
Re launching of the brand or rebrand the product, carry out appropriate promotions using the promotional mix.
Obtaining of trademarks & Quality Certificates from organizations such as ISO.
Further try out export opportunities of the product.
The above performance plan would demonstrate that it would strive towards achieving the SMART features of the given objective & also emphasizes on how different individuals from different functions such as finance, marketing, procurement, exports & production can work together as a team to achieve an organizational objective.
LO3 be able to monitor actions and activities defined to improve team performance.
3.1 Monitoring team Performance & initiate change
In the case of an appointment of a team it is important that monitoring & controlling is properly carried out so that the team would deliver the required level of performance & any deviation from the actual level of performance can be identified & corrected .Examples for such monitoring & control systems are Budgets , Variance analysis ,Code of conduct ,Internal Audits, Procedures
In order for such control systems to operate information is consistently requires information known as feedback .Feedback involves two types.
Single Loop Feed Back
Actual situation is compared with control System standards & if deviations are identified control
Action would be taken.
E.G- Standards & Variances
Double Loop feedback
The actual situation is compared with the control system standards & if necessary the standards are also modified to meet the actual realities.
Control Systems Can be of two types
Open Loop Closed Loop Control
Open Loop Control System
An open loop control System may take action regardless of whatever the controlled outcome may be.
E.X ââ‚¬"Traffic lights
Closed Loop Control Systems
A closed loop controlling system would monitor the main system closely, takes its output s as its inputs compares them with the standards & takes action only if there is a deviation from the standard.
Ex- Budgetary Control, Quality Control
Post Completion Review /Audit
Further a Post Completion Review /Audit Can are carried out, As a monitoring & controlling device normally used in a project based environment. It is normally carried out at the end of a project so that lessons can be learnt for future projects .however if carried out simultaneously with a particular set of activities corrective action can be taken then & there .This may include
Review against project objectives (time Cost quality)
Effectiveness of the team & t he team manager.
Review of benefits gained by the deliverables
3.2 Evaluation of team performance against agreed objectives.
With reference to evaluation of team performance, evaluation can be carried out by a post review especially in the case of projects post reviews are carried out after the project or even during the project .in order to evaluate team performance against an agreed objective part 2.4 discussion of this report are useful.
The review would involve team briefings , customer briefings ,review against on time achievement cost & quality .Further the effectiveness of the team & its management may also be evaluated , benefits gained by achieving the objective .( reducing wastage by minimizing the level of low quality sweets )too would be evaluated .
Such an evaluation may be vital as a future learning towards setting realistic targets & also as on improving future team performance
3.3 The impact of the team performance in contributing to meeting strategic objectives.
A Successful performance of a team to achieve a strategic objective would allow an organization to achieve a competitive advantage in the business area in which it operates , Motivate other staff members to achieve such results .Optimum utilization of organizational resources .Further this may allow organization to move towards new business areas & develop a performance oriented culture within the organization .
LO 4 are able to apply influencing & persuading skills to dynamic & politics of personal interactions
4.1 Influencing & Persuading methodologies to gain commitment of individuals to a course of action.
Managers & leaders may have to use different methods to encourage subordinates to contribute towards
Carrying out a course of action
For the discussion Huneryager and Heckman theory of Dictatorial to laissez-Faire style is used.
The theory would look into four types of leadership styles which are
A dictator is a leader who decides and enforces his decisions on his subordinates .Generally a leader of this nature may take a no nonsense approach and controls every aspect of his subordinates .This is quite rare in modern organizations ,but may exist in family owned business .This kind of leadership may prompt subordinates to provide 100% commitment mostly due to fear of the leader & over time may lead to de motivation as this kind of environment may be highly pressurizing & stressful which may prompt employees to leave without consideration for rewards .this kind of management was demonstrated by Henry Ford of Ford motor company.
This approach too is similar to the dictatorial leadership style .Under this style too the leader will take decisions & inform his followers of the decisions for all his decisions .This approach also may not work over the long term as employees may feel neglected as their input is not considered in the decision making process .this type of approach was visible from the senior management of Enron.
A leader who listens and discusses issues with his followers incorporates their views but will take decisions by himself .Out of the leadership styles discussed this approach would demonstrate a better chance of encouraging subordinates to provide 100% commitment to a course of action as the views of the subordinates too are considered in decision making which would improve motivation among subordinates .This type of leadership is visible from Sam Walton of Walmart,
Lassiez Faire Leader
This type of leader would basically do nothing he would allow the subordinates to do anything they like. However the leader would only be involved if his leadership is threatened .This type of approach may allow subordinates a high degree of autonomy & may influence people to deliver high level of commitment .However the level of control may be loose & hence there can be situation where the expected outcome may not be achieved .
4.2 Impact of individual Dynamics, Interests & organizational Politics.
Individual Dynamics would play a significant role in terms of securing the commitments of individuals for a specific course of action .For example a person with a charming or inspiring personality may motivate subordinates to achieve a certain goal. E.G ââ‚¬" Jack Welch of General Electricals & Sam Walton of Wall Mart .Further this type of leaders are identified as task masters according to the grid of Robert Blake. A democratic leadership style is seen in this kind of leadership .In most cases it is either a more participative or a consultative approach by individuals of the top management mostly encourage high level of commitment that would lead to better performance.
Further the setup too would play a vital part in creating high level of commitment towards a course of action .Specially in the context of an firm with a matrix structure may have a better chance of achieving targets due to the involvement of a team than a department or functional structure as coordination and communication tend to be low .
The brief report analyzed team based working & firstly discuses on setting performance targets to set strategic objectives , further tools & techniques available to set performance targets are identified & the value of those tools in order to measure current & future performance is identified.
In the second part of this report the discussion focuses on how performance targets can be set to achieve strategic objectives with the application of techniques such as delegation mentoring and coaching to achieve organizational objectives .further the discussion highlights how to evaluate team plans which are developed to achieve an objective.
The next part of the report focuses on monitoring team performance so that activities can be controlled in case the actual performance is deviating from the expected path further the impact of team performance on meeting strategic objectives are clearly mentioned .
Finally the report would focus on identifying methods of persuasion that would drive individuals to perform at an optimum level in a team based environment .Further this part would discuss on how individual dynamics ,organizational structure ,politics would impact on team performance .
Thus it can be said that the report would provide appropriate recommendation on how team based working can be used to achieve organizational objectives & gain competitive advantage in the market.