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The main aim of this report is develops the knowledge and skills needed to work with and lead people. The report will recognize that leadership operates within the internal framework of organizational values, culture, policies and practices. It will also recognize that, externally, leadership should meet the requirements of current legislation and ensure ethical and environmentally friendly behavior.
The report discusses documentation to select and recruit new members of staff, evaluation of contribution to the selection process as a leader, evaluation of legal, regulatory and ethical consideration to the selection process and implications from task one. Task two discusses differences between leadership and management, comparison of leadership styles for different situations and the way to motivate staff to achieve objectives. Task three discusses the team work and benefits of team working for the organization, identification of team conflicts and evaluation of effectiveness of the team in achieving the goals. Task four discusses the importance of performance evaluation and evaluation of the process of performance evaluation.
The outcomes of the report are to explore recruitment, selection and retention procedures, to understand how to build winning teams, evaluate the styles and impact of leadership and analyze the work and development needs of individuals considering performance monitoring and assessment.
Table of Contents
An organization's success depends very much on the people working in it, and recruiting the right people is a key factor. Organizations with effective recruitment and selection processes and practices in place are more likely to make successful staffing appointments. In competitive labour markets this is a major advantage that well-organized businesses will have over their competitors. It is important, therefore, for learners to appreciate that the processes and procedures involved in recruitment and selection to meet the organization's human resource needs are legal. This unit aims to develop learner knowledge and understanding of the impact of the regulatory framework on the recruitment process.
There are many benefits for both the individual and the organization of working in teams for both the individual and the organization, most importantly that the task is carried out better and more efficiently. An understanding of team development and the leadership function is crucial when working with others. A motivated workforce is more likely to be efficient and can contribute to the long-term profitability of the business. In this unit learners will examine these key areas and appreciate how an effective team leader can motivate and develop individuals within teams.
Sometimes when people work in teams they have their own types of communication, which can affect others and cause conflict or tension. In this unit learners will have the opportunity to develop their own leadership skills as well as building on the skills and knowledge needed to manage and lead people and teams in an organization. Learners will explore ways to manage teams and individuals as well as motivating staff to perform better whilst meeting the aims of the organization.
2.0 Task 01
2.1 Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment is the process of attracting finding capable applicants for employing and staffing them according to their qualification and experience to the company where availability or at the post where vacancy is available. The vacancies for the social enterprise indentified. Following are the vacancies.
For Social enterprise to find the right characteristic and recruit the potential candidate, firstly the organization develops the job description for the vacancy position.
The accurate job description is a key point, in order to attract the right candidates however it should not be too prescriptive that might put off the right people from applying by appearing to rigid in the organization's expectation of the applicant. Other than the job description will be send out the person specification when advertising the vacancy. Person specification will provide information on the skill, qualification, aptitudes and attitudes that the organization is looking for from the candidate. The Job description and person specification is part of the job analysis that the can help the recruitment finding the right person for the organization.
The media that can be use for advertising the vacancy for the external recruitment are newspapers and internet.
Once the recruitment process is being done it is time for the selection process. In order for the organization to recruit the right person it needs to have a systematic selection process. Following are the process of selection.
Once received the applications from candidates will be sort in to three parts possible, not possible and marginal. It will be easy for short list the candidates.
Using the information that is being used in the application form the candidate can be short listing to decide which one that will go through the next process. This method is usually very helpful for a vacancy that attract large candidate. If there are sufficient applicants for the purpose it has been suggested that they should be short listed.
The candidate that being short listing will be invited to come for interview, there are two type of interview being done for the selection psychology interview and general knowledge related to the task. With interviewing a managing director can has interaction with the user in regards to find more about themselves and how they interact with people. It is something that can be finding out by reading the CV or the application form.
After the interview the candidate is need to do the written test there are two type of test which is job related test and the psychometric test. The attainment test is use to measure the knowledge of the candidate in regards to the vacancy while the psychometric is use to determine the mental states and personality test of the candidates. These tests are very important to determine if the candidate is suitable for the organization or not. The candidates who passed the test will be select for the social enterprise.
2.1.3 Job Description of Fund Raising Manager
Job Description : Fundraising Manager
Reports to : Managing Director
â€¢ Manage and lead the Fundraising Team to raise 1Mn, developing and implementing a
fundraising strategy for Back-Up in line with the organization's changing needs.
â€¢ Lead on new initiatives including major donors and regular giving.
â€¢ Contribute to the overall running of the charity as an active member of the management team.
Specific Areas of Responsibility:
â€¢ Develop and implement an effective fundraising strategy, in line with the organization's five
â€¢ Grow income over the next 5 years and improve the sustainability of the organization by
proactively securing funds from new income streams.
â€¢ Maintain fundraising base and build on existing relationships with donors, volunteers and
â€¢ Continuously improve the effectiveness of existing fundraising operations.
â€¢ Positively contribute to the management team and the effective running of the charity.
2.1.4 Job Specification of Fund Raising Manager
Qualification and Experience
â€¢ Educated to degree level or equivalent
qualification or experience
â€¢ Experience of managing one or more people
â€¢ Wide experience of working in a fundraising
â€¢ Experience of developing and delivering
â€¢ Working in a small
â€¢ Experience of
managing a fundraising
â€¢ Experience of writing
Key skill and competency
â€¢ Proven fundraising skills in at least one of the
areas of major donor, regular giving or legacy
fundraising, with the ability to achieve financial
â€¢ Excellent organizational skills.
â€¢ Ability to plan, balance and cope with competing
â€¢ Excellent written and verbal communication
â€¢ Excellent presentation skills
â€¢ Excellent staff management and interpersonal
â€¢ Ability to motivate and enthuse staff, colleagues,
volunteers and external supporters
â€¢ High standard of computer competency and
â€¢ Knowledge and
understanding of key
issues in disability
â€¢ A creative and proactive approach to all areas of
â€¢ Commitment to delivering a high quality service
â€¢ Strong team working orientation, with the ability
and social skills to work collaboratively with staff
at all levels.
2.2 Contribution to the Selection Process as a Leader
As a leader it is vital to help and interact in the selection process since it is very critical and important matter of choosing right people for the right place. Indeed, it is very crucial with today's people attitudes and behaviors. And it is good when you are contributing as an outside person to HR division as it may lead to a better selection process. As to see, why this contribution is so important, it is a common error done by most companies, assigning wrong people top wrong seats. Not everyone has multitasking skills so the employer must know to place them accordingly, identifying their specialties and skills. As a leader, it may help to control and have an influence towards these shortcomings done by HR, so that assures a quality bunch of people with successful organization.
A leader can influence and participate in selection process in several ways and in several stages. It is not necessary to be a part of first stages such as general exams or interview over the phones, yet for a final or major interview it is vital. Final interviews let you to select the best out of best which you can chose the bunch you want as the leader in the particular organization. The interviewees also will have an impression that they are chosen by the mail important character of the group /company. Hence, they also know that they are chosen carefully so they should deliver the expected put come by giving their 100% commitment towards the work.
Participating and contributing in the selection process would also enhance the HR process, because they know that their selection is over looked by their leader. This will lead to better HR practices and better selected employees which will have a long term positive impact on the overall organizational culture.
By involving in the selection process may also give the opportunity to give the right package for the right person so that they will be retained with the company in long run. Finally, it is an important aspect of selection process, is to get involved the leader as it is not happening in big companies regularly.
2.3 Legal, Regulatory and Ethical Consideration to the Selection Process
In term of creating and HR policy for recruiting new staff and filling out vacancy there are legal and ethical considerations that need to take account. This is related to the government law of recruiting worker.
The disability Discrimination law
Organization is not allowed to discriminate worker against their disability. If that person are capable of doing the job regardless they are disable the organization are not allowed to disqualify them as long as it will not disturbing the company operation. For example people that are blind are capable to answering and taking order through phone but they are not inconvenience to deliver the orders as it will slow the business down.
Diversity and Employment
Organizations are not allowed to dismiss employee for their gender or race and must able to prevent discrimination and support diversity. Race and gender should not be use to dismiss someone as long as they capable to do the job done.
Employee right and duration of employment
In Sri Lanka employee are entitled to have health care packages that provided by the company, the pension fund when employee retired and the annual leave provided for each employee. These are only few employee rights that need to be accommodating by the HR policy. It is already been written in government legislation for the workforce and every company need to comply by these regulation.
3.0 Task 02
3.1 Skills and Attributes for Leadership
Leadership can be defined as one's ability to get others to willing follow. There are lot of attributes and skills to contribute to a leader which can be explained in several ways.
"Solidarity", is a skill you need to practice, a real leader always knows how to be in a group and how to work with them. When you know how to respect others automatically the leader also gets the same in return. A true leader does not have to take an effort to be a leader, others will effortlessly follow him. Modesty is an attribute which leader participates in work, and decision making. Being modest is a good attribute for a successful leader. Having the Self - Confidence is a key fact since leaders should trust themselves before leading the followers.
Taking 'Initiatives' is a necessary quality in a leader since it is vital to lead the team. A successful leader always looking for creative and innovative ways to perform the assigned tasks .This is a skill which will lead the organization in a good way. A leader should have a 'passion' for what he/she is doing. Being passionate will create a positive impact on the followers too. Having mentioned that, being a "Symbol" is a very important fact since every leader is a symbol. Different leaders also have different symbolic approaches and their unique skills which make them a symbol in the particular environment.
Apart from the above attributes a successful leader should bear skills such as, communications skills, negotiation skills, and interpersonal skills inoder to maintain a successful relationship with the followers and to gain attention. A leader should be a great listener, a great planner, an organizer and he/she should set the example to others. Great leaders are not only leaders they are followers too. They say the leader should follow the people too, the only one can become a true leader.
Working with the team is more important than leading them. This means solidity. As example, when the organization plans for activity which donates books and stationeries to school children, as a leader, should work with them to plan the event, coordinate and organize. A leader always makes the team to get the necessary output.
Being passionate about what you do also, can inspire others. A leader without a passion is just a taskmaster who orders things. Passion is to believe in what you are doing and what your company is doing. As an example the company objective is to improve youth well-being which leader should believe in him and the company. Taking necessary initiatives when conducting the youth project such as, identifying their educational and social requirements, giving suitable solutions, counseling are initiatives can take as a leader. Being a role model is a thing which drives the team for success.
Being creative also specially needed when it comes to social enterprises since the objectives are driven by members or the community. Launching the project to improve the well-being of youth does take lot of creative ideas and innovations to perform the company objective. As an example, for unemployed youth, can create a session or consultation how to improve their skills and how to face job interviews with confidence, etc.
When it comes to the skills, being a great listener plays a huge role. To be a great communicator, first he/she should be a great listener, if all need is to talk, and then I am not a leader. Keeping the team motivated is listening to them and understanding their requirements and issues. When listen more, can respond more effectively and get to the heart of things much faster. Being the leader to conduct the project, being brave and honest is also very vital. As an example, if the project your team has worked on for 8 months just got shelved. What should I do?? Should the leader ignore the problem or maybe it is a time to change the strategies and change the project. A brave and honest leader will take the team forward in a critical situation like this.
To know the people is another leadership skill which makes a great team. Being their leader, it is good to know their personal attributes, preferences and simple personal things such as birthdays, marriages, anniversaries, etc. This will create a family atmosphere in working environment especially when conduction a hard project throughout months and years. Delegating the work also a skill which a leader should have, as the leader cannot do everything. The key to delegating successfully is giving the team ownership of the work leader assign them. They have to feel there are doing the project in their own, not just because they are ordered to do so by the company.
As a conclusion there are lot of leadership attributes and skills which contribute to the social enterprise, the most important thing is to be a true leader. Being a symbolic person in what you are doing is very important as true leader never take an extra effort to shine a leader. Leaders are always shining stars which make others journey is more easier and successful one.
3.2 Leadership and Management
Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, a leader is the spearhead for that new direction. Leadership is more abstract when considered separately from management. Leadership is guiding a person or group toward the best results. It is having sound understanding to determine and ability to articulate visions and goals. Leadership is in par with management, but takes on precedence for strategic management and long-term success.
Management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established. Management is planning and organizing projects and operations, allocating resources to minimize costs and maximize benefits, directing practices and procedures, establishing controls to measure the effectiveness and efficiencies, and motivating subordinates. Management is concerned with present activities and the immediate results of those activities.
Following are the main roles as a leader in organization.
Required at all levels- Leadership is a function which is important at all levels of management. In the top level, it is important for getting co-operation in formulation of plans and policies. In the middle and lower level, it is required for interpretation and execution of plans and programmes framed by the top management.
Representative of the organization- Leader has to represent the concern at seminars, conferences, general meetings, etc. His role is to communicate the rationale of the enterprise to outside public. He is also representative of the own department which he leads.
Integrates and reconciles the personal goals with organizational goals- A leader through leadership traits helps in reconciling/ integrating the personal goals of the employees with the organizational goals. He is trying to co-ordinate the efforts of people towards a common purpose and thereby achieves objectives.
Manager's role as a leader is very important to the organization. Manager has to ensure that the objective goals of the organizations are achieved. The day to day business is run smoothly and to remove any obstacle which come on the way. That is what comprises the objective role of a manager and most of the time we find managers are bogged down with this party only. The most important role of a manager is to identify, nurture and groom employees who would ultimately becomes future leaders of the organization.
In order to be an effective manager need to use formal sets of knowledge as well as trusting your "gut feelings" as a person. On the technical side, need to be able to problem solve, use specialty skills, and apply applicable training. On the other side, need such skills as being able to understand others and think quickly.
There are four general functions of management. They include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. All four functions are immensely important and no one function is better than another. These four functions must be coordinated to have management operate as a whole. Managers must continue to check on the functions to make sure that they are being achieved and constantly updated.
3.3 Leadership Styles
Autocratic Leadership Style
This is also known as Authoritarian Leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, how it should be done and when it should be done. Can see a clear division between the leader and followers. This type of leaders makes decisions independently with a little or no input from the rest of the team. Under this leadership style decision- making is less creative. Abuse of this style is usually called as "bossy, controlling, and dictatorial". This can be positively applied in a situation where the team has only a little time to decide and the leader is the most knowledgeable person in the group. As an example, when company has given a project to accomplish within 2 weeks where it need lot of extra wok to fulfill with minimal time frame such as conducting work shop for young people who expects jobs in private sector. In this case, you need to find the lectures, to send invitations, to create an awareness of the project, to contact the suppliers, to book the place, seating arrangements, coordination, etc. The team has only two weeks to create everything and they should make the awareness program too .In a critical scenario like this, autocratic leadership style would be very much appropriated.
Laissez - Faire Leadership
This is known as 'Delegative Leadership' too. This type of leaders offer very little or no guidance to the team of followers and leave almost all the decision- making part to the members. Under this leadership style the team is very less productive and highly demotivated. This is not a style to use so that can blame others when things go wrong. Rather, this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. This can be used wisely but often misuse it. This can be used when the followers are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done, how and when. Some tasks are being performed well when it is delegated wisely. As an example , when your company gives you a project to collect data samples and to do a survey regarding the number of unemployed young males and females , their educational qualifications , family backgrounds , their skills and weak points ,etc.
This is a task where you can ask the team to make a questioner in order to get the answers and to perform the survey. Comparing to autocratic leadership this is more motivating the followers since it is a chance to show their colors to the leader.
Also called as 'Participative Leadership', this style involves the leader including one or more team members in the decision-making process. However, the leader should maintain the final decision-making authority. This style is not weakness of a leader, rather it is a sigh of strength that your followers will respect you as their leader. This style is often used when you have a part of information and your team has the other part. Using this style makes the leader to interact between the team than the other two styles. And it is a scenario where you and both team is working together to achieve the final outcome. Comparing to other two styles this is identifies the "Most Effective Leadership Style". As an example a lending projects for employed young people for their future homes. This is a situation where the leader and the team, both have to make decision in order to fulfill the project. But the final decision making is under the leader as it affects the company funds.
3.4 The Way to Motivate Staff to Achieve Objectives
Motivation is one of the primary concerns and challenges facing today's supervisors and managers. This article will introduce you to techniques for creating a proper motivational climate. Staff members are the key to success, and motivation affects employee performance that ultimately affects the departmental, divisional and organizational objectives. Only satisfied employees lead to satisfied customer. Offer good salary package, ensure job security and non financial rewards such as better working environment, provide training programmes, are some of motivation factors to achieve organizational objectives. Following are the motivation factors that can be used for the social enterprise in order to achieve objectives.
One way is to create an environment that encourages and promotes the employees' self-motivation. Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it. The challenge is to give them a reason to want to do it because doing it will satisfy a need they have.
Another example is to meet with employees individually on a regular basis to evaluate where they are in reaching their objectives. Provide suggestions for getting back on track if the employees are having difficulty. Adjust the details of the objectives as necessary to make them more realistic.
Encourage creativity in employees to help them achieve goal objectives. Creating a supportive work environment that promotes risk-taking while showing employees that trust their talents and ideas. The ability to get innovative may motivate some employees to continue working toward organization objectives.
4.0 Task 03
4.1 Benefits of Team working
Teams are groups of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose
and hold them mutually accountable for its achievement. Ideally, they develop a distinct identity and work together in a co-ordinate and mutually supportive way to fulfill their goal or purpose. Task effectiveness is the extent to which the team is successful in achieving its task-related objectives. Shared goals are most likely to be achieved through working together and pooling experience and expertise. Successful teams are characterized by a team spirit based around trust, mutual respect, and helpfulness and at best friendliness.
Following are some of benefits of team working for the organization.
Improvements in participants' confidence, attitudes, motivation and personal satisfaction.
Greater clarity in expressing ideas through group discussion.
Better understanding by individuals of the nature of their contribution - and of the needs of other team members. With a team in place, there is clear division of labor across the organization. Everyone is responsible for certain tasks, which are carried out with upmost professionalism.
More efficient use of resources. Members of team specializes in a particular area of work, everyone comes in with a distinct contribution in forming the team. This leads to optimized output and quality delivery of project.
Greater optimism - by focusing on positive outcomes and putting less weight on problems.
A wider range of ideas rather than individuals working in isolation.
More effective responses to changes - improved trust and communication help a team to adapt to new circumstances.
Conflict starts when an individual perceives that someone is negatively affecting, or about
to affect, something they care about. It occurs as a series of episodes between those involved,
with each episode shaping how the conflict is subsequently perceived and managed.
Although conflict is popularly thought of as involving a win-lose struggle, many conflicts
in the workplace occur between individuals who share similar end goals but disagree over
the means by which they can be achieved.
Following are the causes of team conflict that would arise in project work.
â€¢ Poor or no communication
â€¢ Lack of problem solving skills or getting to "root cause"
â€¢ Lack of clarity in purpose, goals, objectives, and team and individual roles
â€¢ Uncertainty about or lack of resources and sources for help and support
â€¢ Poor time management
â€¢ Lack of leadership and management
â€¢ Lack of skills and abilities in team members
â€¢ Personality conflicts and personal problems
It is very important to remember there are many strategies we can use in a conflict. Depending on the individual and the personality, each of us tends to habitually use some strategies than others. Most effectively to resolve conflict should use the most appropriate for that particular conflict situation. Whether it is habitual strategy or not best thing would be to use the appropriate one. Following are the major strategies to overcome the problems of the team.
Bargaining, negotiating, conciliating
Bargaining is the parties perceive that they might be able to increase the resource pie by trying to come up with a creative solution to the conflict. View the conflict as a win-win situation in which both parties can gain something which would be better than nothing. This can be handled through collaboration or compromise of a team which leads to resolve the situation.
Within a negotiating situation, there are certain rules that relate to conflict. If the parties ignore these rules, the negotiation is likely to break down into futile argument with little result for either party.
Conciliation usually takes place with all parties co-present and in a carefully arranged setting. Their intervention is limited to influencing the progression of the dispute through their expert use of language and deep understanding of conflict processes. Their reputation for impartiality and behavior within the conciliation process provides the conciliator with their mandate for controlling the exchange: it is not a mandate for setting the agenda of the dispute itself. This mandate enables the conciliators to take the initiative in response to the situation. Their use of techniques and strategies is specifically designed to position themselves so that they may most effectively help parties resolve their conflict.
Integration / collaboration
Collaboration involves two or more organizations working together on multiple issues and goals in a long-term commitment. This is the highest and most difficult level of working with others, involving formalized organizational relationships. There is a long-term commitment and a focus on a range of issues of wide concern. Turf protection can be high and the ability to let go of control over the direction of the group is critical. Involved organizations share resources (develop, implement, and evaluate programs), establish policy, and jointly conduct educational programs. The core values of collaboration are mutual respect, a valuing of difference, and a high level of trust. This is a good strategy to overcome a conflict.
Getting agree from other party and give the problem to solve within the team
Getting agreed from other party is also a tactful method to overcome a conflict situation especially when the first party is going in the right direction. Getting yes may be a very difficult situation within a team but it is a good way to end a conflict. As a leader, can explain the situation and can convenience them to get the Yes and then to resolve the conflict. By giving the problem to solve within the team also a good strategy since it makes the team calmer. The team will have a confidence and happiness because they have given the opportunity to resolve the issue, and up on failure to resolve they might take the leader's side. This is a win-win situation if it goes in a correct way.
4.3 Effectiveness of the Team
Following are the methods that can be evaluate the effectiveness of the team in achieving the goals.
Based on their performance
If the team is highly performing the team would produce excellent business results. When observe them can see open-ended dialogue and group interaction, participation in meetings. Organization can witness ongoing and public tracking of their performance, regular evaluation of their process, innovation and continuous learning. They can observe public rewards and group support for team members that they are not is able to deliver. Finally, can observe a collective result. Based on these factors can evaluate the team performance.
Observing where the team members all pull in the same direction for the sake of the team can see the team functioning properly or not. Great things are possible within a good team. There are few things that can evaluate in this situation. Whether the team achieves absolute trust in each other, trust is the bedrock of any high performing team. And can see whether they accept a conflict as a productive thing. And relentlessly pursue total commitment is another function a leader should consider when evaluation a team. Understanding accountability for what it is, not a buzz-word is a toughest of these functions. It requires to team members to be accountable for their objective no matter what the individual performance is. And a high performing team should know which results really matter for the achievement. If the team is showing all these functions, then it can be considered as a performing team.
Interview, observation process
Interview and observation is very useful when performance monitoring and data indicate results are not being accomplished as planned, when implementation problems are suspected but not understood. This can helps to identify the performance is poor or required inputs are absent. Organization can see whether the tasks are being implementing according to the standard required for effectiveness of the team. This can be used to evaluate more clearly than the other methods by seeing the visible outcome of the team .By interviewing the team together or one by one can help to identify the matter if there is a problem exists. This is a good method when the other methods are difficult to use for evaluation.
5.0 Task 04
5.1 Performance Evaluation Techniques
While the performance appraisal process isn't exactly a favorite amongst managers, it is helpful to know that there are several different types of performance appraisal strategies to choose from. Knowing there are options available should give you the flexibility to find the right type of appraisal method for each department or even specific employee within your organization. Here are a few different types of appraisal methods:
360 Degree Feedback
This method of appraisal involves allowing other employees to fill out a questionnaire detailing their experiences with a specific employee. The feedback of peers can be reviewed by the manager and considered during the appraisal. The process involves a 'Focus Person', eg: the subject of the 360 feedback, receiving feedback from various work associates. An in-depth report then provides insight into the views of these various groups and forms the basis for a follow-up discussion, which may also lead to further development activities, particularly in the context of leadership skills training.
This upward performance appraisal program provides an opportunity for supervisors to obtain feedback from those they supervise. The intent is to assist with further development of the supervisor in an environment where modern day managers are expected to be good leaders of people in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives. It is developmental in nature. The goal is to improve morale at all levels, increase productivity and efficiency, and support the development of greater customer satisfaction.
Critical Incident Method
Under this method, the manager prepares lists of statements of very effective and ineffective behavior of an employee. These critical incidents or events represent the outstanding or poor behavior of employees on the job. The manager maintains logs on each employee, whereby he periodically records critical incidents of the workers behavior. At the end of the rating period, these recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers' performance.
Managed by Objectives (MBO)
Management by objectives (MBO) is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources. It aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to identify their objectives, time lines for completion, etc. MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the process to reach objectives.
Importance of Performance Evaluation
Formal performance evaluation plans are designed to meet many organizational and individual
needs. They provide systematic judgments to support salary increases, promotions, transfers,
demotions and terminations. They are a means of assessing and communicating job performance status to a subordinate employee and suggesting needed changes in behavior, attitude, skills or job knowledge. They are also used as a basis for a supervisor to coach and counsel the individual as well as to identify and deal with performance deficiencies.
Performance Appraisal information is used to find out whether an employee requires additional training and development. Deficiencies in performance may be due to inadequate knowledge or skills. For e.g. a professor may improve his efficiency by attending workshops or seminars about his subject. Performance appraisal helps a manager to find out whether he needs additional training for improving his current job performance.
Proper performance evaluations also provide important legal protection for the employer.
Performance appraisals lay the groundwork for discipline and, if necessary, legally defensible
termination when problems with an employee cannot be resolved. Performance appraisal also enables managers to coach and counsel employees in their career development.
The appraisal process helps in human resource planning (HRP). Accurate and current appraisal data regarding certain employees helps the management in talking decisions for future employment. Without the knowledge of who is capable of being promoted, demoted, transferred, laid off or terminated, management cannot make employment plans for the future.
5.2 The Factors for Planning and Conducting Performance Evaluation
Performance appraisal evaluation is a HRM activity used to determine the extent on which the employees are performing the job effectively. These techniques vary depending on the level of supervisory, job role and the passivity of the job role. Depending on each individual these techniques can be picked and can be changed the performance evaluation system if the desired outcome is not visible. As examples, for middle level managers and above, 360degree technique can be used while others are facing different techniques as managed by objectives etc.
Job performance reviews should be conducted on a regular and consistent basis. Reviews can be done annual or biannually, so employees are aware of the process. While some employers believe that one performance review per year is enough to keep the employees motivated, others see the entire employee review process as a burden. Whether it is a burden or an enjoyment, employers should aim for provide a review at least once per year.
In an organization all the level of employees will be evaluated. Form trainees to middles level managers, senior managers, heads, and even the board of directors. This gives a clear view of the effectiveness of overall organization including the top level. A successful organization always has a good performance evaluation system regular and unbiased system. This helps to achieve the organizational goal as the final outcome.
5.3 The Process of Performance Evaluation
The steps of performance evaluation are establishing performance standards, communicating standards and expectations, measure the actual performance, compare the standards, provide feedback to the employees and finally take corrective action to improve the performance.
Once organization select the appropriate process of performance evaluation method of organization, it is significant to evaluate whether the process of evaluation effect positively or negatively. Following are the ways to evaluate the process of performance evaluation.
Discuss with employees
The effectiveness of process of evaluation can be done by employees and gets their feedback regarding the performance evaluation. That can be done through ways such as employee survey, interviews with employees etc.
By observing whether the appraisals are given to employees on time, completion of appraisal happening on time and ratings and rewarding are given on time to respective employees and observing the process and the final outcome can lead to evaluate the performance evaluation system correctively.
The main aim of this report was developed the knowledge and skills needed to work with and lead people. Its consist of appropriate recruitment, selection method for the organization, differences between leadership styles and management, conflict management, building winning team in organization and performance monitoring and evaluation.
Task one prepared the documentation to select and recruitment new staff for the social enterprise, discussed contribution to the selection process as a leader and Legal, Regulatory and Ethical Consideration to the Selection Process. It has been identified that the organization has a sound understanding of what processes need to be used in order to achieve effective recruitment and selection.
Task two discussed the skills, attributes that needed as a leader, to lead the social enterprise, differences between leadership and management, discusses leadership styles of democratic, autocratic, laissez - Faire and discussed employee motivation towards to achieve objectives. It has been identified leadership is about setting a new direction for a group; management is about directing and controlling according to established principles. However, someone can be a symbolic leader if they emerge as the spearhead of a direction the group sets for itself.
Task three explained benefits of team work, conflict management and effectiveness towards to achieve the goals. It has been identified the team need to work out how to change their current behaviors to be more in line with the target. This involves assessing the behavioral gap and producing an action plan for the team to implement.
Task four explained importance of performance evaluation, factors to be consider planning and process of performance evaluation. . It has been identified performance appraisal provide a formal, recorded, regular review of an individual's performance so can plan for future development. In this way the chances of organizational growth increases. so as profit will also in gain.