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However natural born leaders have some skill: Foundational Skills: these skills are main and basic of skills. Self awareness, ability to rapport and ability to clarify expectations are some foundational skills that gives strong foots to any leader. Leadership direction skills: Leaders always walks in when people don’t know what to do, so they must have the ability to direct people, and develop others as leaders. Leadership influence skill: Leaders must have skill to influence people to follow them and also create a motivating environment through which people come to know what to do. (Warren Blank. W, 2001).
Review of Leadership definition:
A leader is man who has the abiliy to get other people to do what they don’t want to do, and like it. (Harry S. Truman)
According to Daft, R. (2005)
“Leadership involves influences, it occurs among people, those people intentionally desire significant changes, and the change reflect purposes shared by leaders and followers.”
Leader ship can also be defined as:
“Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes.” (Clarence, R. J. 1993)
These definitions defines the four integral elements of leadership, those are as follows:
Mutual purposes (Clarence, R. J. 1993)
Leadership is process which leads to ultimate completion of any job. The leader influences his team to achieve SMART goal:
Specific: what actually objective is all about.
Measureable: must be able to measure whether you are meeting the objectives or not.
Attainable: Are set objective achievable?
Realistic: be Realistic while setting your objectives.
Time: when do you want to complete the specific objectives?
Effective leadership helps the team to achieve the objectives and carry their tasks and duties.
Leader ship is a new and modern direction to the organizations and to the management of these organizations. Leaders are figurehead who is indulging in the tasks and delegation of these duties but technically leader acting as figurehead is not a leader but sometimes it viewed as figurehead. Leadership and management are sometimes gives same meanings but it can be said that A leader is person who manages the managers too. (Antonakis. J, 2004).
Review of Leadership Theories:
In the history philosopher raised the question “What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?” and to answer this question and underlying research gave recognition to Leadership and its importance.
The need to answer this question some philosophers came up with different theories:
The first theory or leadership term is all about of:
The Great-man Theory
Great man theory was first attempt to define leadership. Great Man theory gave foundation to all theories. This theory defines that there is a belief that all leader are exception people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead. (Bolden, R., Gosling, J. 2003). This theory derived from the notion that all leaders are great man, and these leaders are from a noble back ground and some from lower classes but all lead. This approach says that “A leadership perspective that sought to indentify the inherited traits leaders possessed that distinguished them from people who were not leader (Daft, R. 2005).”
After Great Man theory philosopher tried to accompany leadership theory with some qualities and declared that theory as:
The Leadership Trait Theory
The Trait theory arose from the “Great Man” theory as a way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders. Research on leadership is based on the psychological notions. These qualities or traits associated with the leadership and all focus was on discovering these traits. Symbolizing leader and to study their characteristics.
According to Daft, R. (2005) “Trait theory distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence and appearance.”
However, there are some assumptions associated with this theory:
Leaders are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are part of their personalities and suits to these leaders.
Who are good leaders can mix and match some traits and can adopt combination of traits.
Stogdill (1974) identified the following leadership traits and skills.
Adaptable to situations
Alert to social environment
Ambitious and achievement-orientated
Diplomatic and tactful
Fluent in speaking
Knowledgeable about group task
Organized (administrative ability)
Dominant (desire to influence others)
Energetic (high activity level)
Tolerant of stress
Willing to assume responsibility
Table Leadership Skills and Traits (Stogdill, 1974)
There are also some terms related to trait theory that success and failure identified four primary traits by which leaders could succeed or ‘derail’.
It defines that manager may often defensive about their failures and tries to overcome their mistakes rather than admit them. McCall & Lombardo (1983) says, that are some trait theory enables leaders with some extra leadership qualities. These qualities may be categorized under;
These leaders are emotionally stronger, self confident, can work under stress, and they have more insight towards future.
These leader have ability to own their mistake if they commit any.
These leaders have good interpersonal skills and they can attract others by ensuring them that he is the most suitable leader for them.
They have more insight into different areas related to their fields and they can always come up with comparisons.
Behavioral leadership theory deals with the sills and traits according to their categorization. This theory says that leaders can learn skills with time and they can develop their selves with time.
According to Hellriegel, D. & Slocum. J.W (2007)”Behavioral theory focuses on what leaders do and how they do it.”
Behavioral theory has defined into two parts:
Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor (1960) says that Theory X & Y are two types of people that are being influenced by management style.
The average person dislikes work and don’t work if they are not being supervised.
Theory y assumes that employees are ambitious, they always ready to take responsibilities and to work at their own.
It is mandatory to force the employees to work and make sure that organizational objectives are being met.
Here employees works willingly and tries to add their role and takes towards the organizational objectives.
There must be threat of punishment and being panelized within an organization.
Here, when employees take the responsibility then they tries to exercise their imagination and creativity in their jobs.
In this theory employee prefers to being monitored and controlled rather to take responsibility.
Theory Y assumes that the average human beings willingly takes responsibilities and like to be their own managers to seek more.
Theory X assumes that people are not ambitious and they are forced but to secure their jobs.
Theory Y assumes that employees are more ambitious and willingly performs their jobs.
Table Theory X and Y (McGregor, 1960)
(Blake & Mouton, (1964) states that “Management grid provides a key for unraveling and solving managerial problems.” This model discusses that leaders are concerned with their people but they want work to be done.
Management Grid introduced two dimensions of:
concern on people, and
concern of production
Each dimension can define 9 different strengths and leads to 81 different possible leadership styles. Following graph entails this model; these styles are categorized as Improvised management Style, Country Club management Style, Middle of the Road Style, Produce or perish Style and Team Style.
Situational and contingency theories
Contingency theory states leadership in terms of an individual’s style of leadership and the responses of the group, It says that no leadership style is appropriate in all kind of situations, so it depends on number of variable and leadership styles.
Fiedler (1967) says that this is no single way to lead, different situations requires different leadership style. This kind of leadership style makes it contingent as it can be possible that one best way of leading is effective in one situation and the same leadership style fails in another situation.
According to Hellriegel, D. & Slocum. J.W (2007) “situational leadership theory states that the style of leadership should be matched to the level of readiness of the followers.”
Situational Leadership Model.gif
Leadership style refers to a leader’s behavior and aptitude. It includes philosophy, personality and experience of the leader Ornstein. A, Lunenburg, C.(2008).
This high-task and low-relation style where employees are low in motivation as well as low in ability.
This is high-task and high-relation style where employees have motivation towards works but have low ability.
This low-task and high-relation style where employees have ability to work but motivation level is low.
This is low-task and low-relation style where employees are high in ability and motivation towards work.
Transactional Theory and Transformational Theory
According to Mitchell (2008)”The Transactional leader is charismatic and his or her style revolves around the empowerment of subordinates.”
Transformational leadership has completely different approach as it talks about values and motivation to take them to a high level through its different behavioral elements which included charisma and inspiration towards anything. Transformational leaderships believes that employees must be aware of the importance of given task that ultimately motivates them and they have focus on team or group to enhance the productivity.
According to Mitchell (2008)” “Transactional leader one who recognize what followers wants from their work, attempts to help subordinates achieve success, rewards appropriate leave of behavior and respond to followers self interest as long as they doing the job well.”
In transactional leaderships when any task or job defines to employees it is considered that now employees are fully responsible of these tasks without considering that they have full resources and power to perform that tasks and in result when job is not at level then they are punished, in comparison if they succeeds to perform tasks then they are being rewarded as the assumption of this theory based on the motivation through rewards and punishments.
Comparison of Leadership Model:
This theory talks about the born leaders, that they are meant to be leader.
While in trait theory it defines that leader have different qualities like they have courage, charisma, interpersonal skills, etc.
This theory observes the actions of the leaders and says that some skills can be taught to leaders with time.
Situational and contingency theory
This theory says that no leadership style is appropriate in all kind of situations.
Transformational and transactional Theory
This theory bases on reward and punishment system, it all depends upon how employees performs the job.
There are different model begin used by different organizations they have developed their adaptive model os leadership. Ever organization is different to other so the process and nature of business varies, on these basis leadership competency frameworks also varies. Followings are some example of different organization having leadership competency frameworks.
Philips Leadership Competencies
Philips’s leadership frame work shows that they have define balance approach, stating the importance of tasks, and must identify the results obtained through followers. Competencies are as follows.
Show determination to required results
Focus on the market find better ways
Demands high performance in performance
Shows commitment to objectives and mission
Develop themselves and others.
Vodafone Global Leadership Competencies
Vodafone has defines following leadership competencies:
Development of International team
To be commercialese
Above key attributes are parts of leadership competency framework.
What is an effective leader- Qualities:
John C. Maxwell (2010) has entailed differ 21 qualities of leadership which are followings:
This describes that one should take actions and back up the talks, character of one leader gives him lasting success and it give strong success.
This quality is all about giving hope and courage to his followers, and this quality makes a leader more trustworthy.
A leader should be committed to his objective and mission. Leader must be stick to his commitment because all the followers are depending on him.
A good leader has the quality to communicate effectively. He must consider what message he is going to convey and what mode of communication he must use to convey his message.
A god must not to stick on the current qualities but he must upgrade himself continuously. He must tries to learn and improve him and tries to accomplish more than expected results.
A good must be courageous and make realize his followers that they can do this.
A good leader must have judgmental skills.
A good leader must be focus towards its interests and consideration and look into the differ alternative of the possible issues coming into his way of leadership.
A good leader must be generous and must to give his resources to his follower, whatever the need of situation. Maxwell believes the one who don’t lend his resources and becomes greed then he who is not a leader.
Good leaders have ability to take initiatives and tries towards change.
A good leader must be a good listener, he must listens to his followers and even to his competitor as there is always a message in their talks.
A good leader must be passionate about his mission.
A good leader must have positive attitude towards his followers as this attitudes defines his course of action.
A good leader must be a good problem solver, he must anticipate problems, to locate alternatives.
A good leader must be familiar with followers and tries to build relations as it says that formula of success is to get along with people.
A good leader must be responsible as in leadership journey there will be multiple responsibilities.
A good leader must follow rules and tries to be he own ruler.
A good leader serves, serves his followers.
If a leader want to stay successful then he must be teachable, that who is he? What is your sole purpose?
It is the main power that leads the leader towards his mission, a a good leader must intent his vision.
‘Leaders are born, not made’. This is a statement which proves to be true when we see some great individual in the history who leads in such a way that is impossible to get from bookish knowledge but there is always some skills that can make one a good leader (Warren Blank. W, 2001).
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