Training has been defined by Wilson (2005) as a "planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities". The main purpose of training is to satisfy the current and future requirements of the organization by enhancing and developing the abilities of its employees. Kraiger (2002) states "how organizations develop their employees can be a competitive advantage or disadvantage to them." However in order to achieve the organizational competitiveness through training, the leaders in organizations should think strategically about the ways in which their company develops its employees capabilities.
According to Dessler (2006) "Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs" Training a key element of improved organizational performance enhances the level of individual and organizational competencies. Goldstein and Gilliam (1990) has also agreed to the above and stated that training will be a tool which enables the employees of the organization to gain knowledge and skills to meet the environmental and organizational challenges.
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According to Cole (1999) training is mainly focused on job tasks. He further argues that proper training not only enhances the efficiency and safety in operation of machines and equipments, but enhances the abilities of sales force through changing attitudes and developing skills, built effective teams, quality standards and management capabilities in organizations. Armstrong (2009) states "Training is the use of systematic and planned instruction activities to promote learning".
Development has been defined by Wilson (2005) as "the growth or realization of a person's ability, through conscious or unconscious learning. Development programmers usually include elements of planned study and experience, and are frequently supported by coaching or counseling facility". Singe (2010) states development is a process designed to help employees' to grow. Development has also been defined by Dessler (2002) as "any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills."The writer agrees with the argument since training and development not only enhances job performance but helps to develop the personality of the employees which enables them to become good employees and better people at the same time.
According to Decenzo and Robbins (1996) development is future oriented and mainly concentrated on improvement on education of the employees. They have further stated that improving education means enhancing the analytical skills and sound reasoning process whilst enable to understand and interpret knowledge than obtaining motor skills. To Armstrong (1999) management development is a process which contributes to grow the managers effectively to meet the present and future needs thereby to achieve business success.
Mullins (2005) and Singe (2010), both state "Training helps to reconcile the gap between what should happen and what is happening between desired targets and standards and the actual level of work performance." The writer agrees with Dessler (2002) who states having high potential employees doesn't guarantee they'll succeed." Because if the employees do not get clear instructions or if they don't have an idea what the organization requires them to do, they will not do anything productive at all. Therefore, good training is vital.
2.3. Training and Development and job satisfaction of employees
According to Mullins "Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which can be mean different things to different people". Even though job satisfaction is generally linked to motivation, it is not as same as the motivation. Mullins (2005) states the level of job satisfaction depends on the following factors;
Personalities of individuals, knowledge, education, attitudes, sex, age, marital
Relationships with superiors and peers, chances for interactions, working norms etc
Different values perceptions, believes due to cultural factors
Structure, culture, working conditions, employee relationships, nature of work, management styles etc
Political, social, economical, technical factors
He further states one or several of the above factors effect job satisfaction of employees depending on the circumstances. Training and development could have an effect on the personal and the organizational factors such as enhancing knowledge, education, attitudes, and relationships. Therefore training and development also could be linked with employee job satisfaction.
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It has been universally accepted fact that satisfied employees' performed better than unsatisfied employees. Research carried by Lowry, Simon and Kimberley (2002) has stated that job satisfaction of employees who received continuous training and development from their organizations are comparatively higher than those who had not. Enhanced skills and techniques obtained through training and development enables employees to obtain more appreciation and positive recognition from their employees that resulted in enhancing job satisfaction.
I believe in a competitive environment, people with a technical know-how are capable to be effective and efficient are assets to any organization. Many organizations try to attract people with these qualities from their competitors to achieve long term competitive advantage. These competencies could also be achieved through training and development. Alawiyat (2010) who has conducted a research on training a motivational tool for job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia has stated that training affects many important areas of productivity, quality, effectiveness and commitment that play an important role in organizations development. He has identified that opportunity to learn new skills is one of the most important factors that influence job satisfaction.
2.4. Training and Development and Job Performance
In many industries the balance of power is shifting to the customer. Customers are better informed and better prepared than ever before. This creates greater challenges for the employees who interact with the customers. When customers have more recent information about the pricing and features of a competitor's product, that discrepancy makes it difficult the sales representative to position and sell the product appropriately. Kraiger (2002) states "The way in which service providers deals with customers greatly influences a company's reputation and performance". Therefore it is vital the service providers equipped with adequate knowledge, skills and empowerment to meet the customer challenges.
Training and development in organizations is mainly aimed at improving performance and productivity of employees. As stated by Dessler (2006) "Training plays a key role in the performance management process." Enhanced skills and techniques obtained through training and development enables employees to obtain more appreciation and positive recognition from their employees which could have an impact on their performance. According to Bergman (1994 cited in Alawiyat, 2010, p. 21) training helps to increase the productivity in organizations. "Productivity increases are usually manifested as improvements in employee performance (eg increase skill, increased initiative, reduced absenteeism), improvements in production measures and improvement in quality and customer satisfaction" (Alawiyat, 2010 ) .
According to Mali (1978 cited in Babaita 2010) "productivity is a measurement of how well resources are brought together in achieving the expected results and having highest level of performance with least expenditure." The effectiveness of the usage of input in order to produce goods and services is generally refers as productivity and is often measured as output/ input. Quantity, quality, defects, in output are the generally the measures of productivity of industries engaged in production and manufacturing. However in service oriented organizations specially in banking industry, employee performance could be measured through turnaround time of customers, quality of service, number of mistakes, customer complaints, level of innovativeness, flexibility, good interpersonal skills, customer satisfaction etc. Employees are the most important channel of delivering service. They are the main pillars of outcomes which should be placed in a conducive environment to come up with full invoke potential to augment organizational performance in an effective and efficient manner.
Most human resource professionals are formally engaged in recognizing the potentials and efforts of their employees to obtain maximum outcome. I agree with Khan, et al. (2011) who refers that "employees are a critical link in delivering superior service and customer satisfaction". He further states that employee satisfaction and productivity are two important factors which could create excellent service quality to customers to strive business excellence. Research on staff training and development and its effect on organizational performance conducted by Olaniyan and Lucas (2008) have stated "training, not only reduces the supervision of the manager, it improves the drive, initiative and quality of the work of employees and assist them to achieve the goals and objectives of organization".
Most researchers believe that organizations which focused on delivering a superior service quality for their employees should serve their internal customers first. According to Kraiger "Building the right knowledge is essential. But employees must also have the right skills to interact with customers effectively". There should be an internal environment which supports customer consciousness among staff members. Albrecht (1998) indicates that "there is a tripartite relationship between the service organization, employees and the customers". Most of the organizations have now realized that their employees are the key factor of achieving the long term competitive advantage (Asif and Sargeant, 2000). In a competitive environment, people with a technical know-how are capable to be effective and efficient are assets to any organization. Many organizations try to attract people with these qualities from their competitors to achieve long term competitive advantage. These competencies also could be achieved through training and development.
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In recent years, increased attention has been devoted by organizations on training and development of employees, in order to enhance the customer service standards and incur heavy expenditure on the same. However most of the organizations do not have a clear understanding what they expect from training and development and therefore fail to connect training with the overall organizational goals and strategies. Therefore prior to making heavy investments the organizations should analysis the importance of training programs to the work force. If not proper assessing of training needs there are chances that the organizations could make mistakes. Wasted training is a common problem for many organizations due to lack of proper assessment. A training is required to an employee when found that the employee lack potentials that are essential to deliver the expected performance. Lack of sufficient knowledge and expertise, monotones management, or any other personal or official issues could be causes for a low performance of an employee. Das (2010 cited Mani, 2010, p.210) has stated that "all these problems spotted can be tackle by providing a effective training program to the right employee at the right point of time"
Goldstein and Gillian (1990) emphasize the importance of training and development programs with measurable results. Kraiger (2002) states "to improve the measurement of training impact, organizations must go beyond smile sheets and obtain a baseline measure of learning and transfer."Measures of transfer include observation of behavior, manager or peer ratings, attitude surveys, or objective indicators of sales, quality, productivity, or internal or external customer satisfaction. It is said that any evaluation is better than no evaluation. There are instances where training has failed. It may be because training and development is not the exact remedy or appropriate solution for the problem.