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Drawing upon examples from management activities undertaken in the seminars and/ or your experiences of team working in organisations, critically address the issues raised in the following quotation:
"...it is often believed that effective managers and problem solvers are born rather than made and have a kind of magical power to understand and transform the situations they encounter.
If we take a closer look at the processes used, however, we find that this kind of mystique and power is often based on an ability to develop deep appreciation of situations being addressed. Skilled leaders and managers develop the knack of reading situations with various scenarios in mind and of forging actions that seem appropriate to the understandings thus obtained."
- Morgan, G. (2006) Images of Organization, Updated Edition, Sage, Page 3.
As well as using examples from your observations and experiences of seminar activities and/ or your work environment, you should also utilise appropriate theory, concepts and readings to underpin your discussion.
Learning outcomes tested
- Understand the concept of leadership and management, and demonstrate sound knowledge and understanding of the concepts, theories and disciplines which underpin business and management and their selected sphere of study. For example, social systems and organisational culture; motivation and reward systems; Leadership; interpersonal behaviour; group behaviour, change management; and stress management. Engage in a systematic identification, analysis and evaluation of all the main variables in a wide range of relevant literature. Further, be able to integrate new knowledge with previous learning and experiences. (Knowledge Domain)
- Conduct research into subject specific leadership and management issues and gather and evaluate evidence/information from a range of sources. Produce a comprehensive, logical and tailored research methodological debate. Effectively undertake both primary and secondary research (Research Domain)
- Demonstrate cognitive skills of critical thinking, analysis and synthesis; and demonstrate the ability to analyse, synthesise and solve complex unstructured leadership and management problems in unpredictable contexts. Deal with complex issues both systematically and creatively, make sound judgements in the absence of complete data. Further, show high levels of personal judgement, interpretation and understanding - making explicit that there are elements of uncertainty and self regulation in critical thinking. (Critical Thinking Domain)
- Able to use established valid evidence to develop coherent, logical argument(s). There is consistent exposition of appropriate argumentation. Argument used as a tool to develop knowledge. The argument(s) constructed are fully persuasive exploring a wide range of complex leadership and management problems. The limitations of the argument will be clearly identified. The student will be able to offer well founded, cautious, personal interpretations - with original insights (Argument Development Domain)
- Demonstrate the ability to express complex and sophisticated ideas fluently and comprehensively at a high level. There is a high level of empathy with the intended audience. The communication style adopted complements argument development and critical thinking throughout. Able to communicate both orally and in writing, effectively and appropriately, using a range of formats and media. Communicate outcomes clearly to specialist and non-specialist audiences. Further, able to effectively communicate results of leadership and management research to peers. (Communication Domain)
A reminder of guidance on referencing and plagiarism
- How do you reference?
- Where do you reference?
- When do you reference?
- Referencing in the Text (In Text Referencing)
- Summarising the Work of Others
- The 1980 study of the speech of witnesses in Carolina court cases investigated whether gender and weakness or lack or power should be conflated in this way (Barr and Atkins, 1981)
- Paraphrasing the Work of Others
- Listing the Work of Others
- Direct quotes (Short)
- Direct quotes (Long)
There are a number of different methods of citing and listing your references or bibliography, but the accepted method of referencing used at University of Wales, Newport is the Harvard System of referencing.
Both references to sources acknowledged in the text and those works which have been of value (for example, for background reading) but which have not been specifically referred to in the text must be acknowledged in the bibliography.
You should reference other's work whenever you draw on it for inspiration, use it as support for a theory or argument, or use it for particular examples.
Referencing in the text or in text referencing is where all the sources (text based and electronic) which you have referred to in your assignment, essay or dissertation are acknowledged (cited). Unintentional plagiarism can occur if you fail to follow the rules regarding in text referencing of summarised, paraphrased and quoted work. Every piece of information you use in the text of your assignment, essay or dissertation that is not part of your own original research, be it an argument, opinion, fact, idea or theory must cited and listed in alphabetical order by author/editor/artist surname at the end of the work in the reference section or list.
Summarising or briefly describing the work of another person.
Where the author name is not cited directly - put authors' name and the year of publication in brackets at the end of the summary. e.g.
Where the author name is cited directly and is part of the sentence -put the year of publication in brackets after the author's name. e.g. In 1980, O'Barr and Atkins's (1981) study of the speech of witnesses in Carolina court cases investigated whether gender and weakness or lack or power should be conflated in this way. Note: For summaries (brief descriptions of work) and for indirect quotations some tutors may ask you to also include a page number. If in doubt, always check.
Paraphrasing the work of another person or putting their theories or ideas in your words and in your own style must be cited. e.g. The original:
Enormous harm had been done to America, and the country was grieving. Many Americans were angry and vengeful. The paraphrased version:
America had suffered greatly and was damaged and sorrowful. A great number of the people wanted revenge. (Poole and Richardson, 2006, p. 126)
This is a straight forward list of studies/reports/research in a particular subject field. e.g. Further studies which have pursued the issue of women's language or powerless language are Leet-Pellegrini (1980), Beattie (1981) and Woods (1989).
There are two types of quotation you can use when writing your assignment, essay or dissertation - the direct or indirect quote. The direct quote is where you use the author's own words directly as it was written in the original work. Sometimes, you do not want to use direct quotations i.e. the exact words of the author, but you can still make reference to what they have written; this is indirect quotation. Direct quotes are also treated differently in the text depending on whether they are long or short.
Short quotes (under 4 lines of prose) should be placed in the body of the text and enclosed in quotation marks. e.g. As Bell (1993, p.23) says, 'Finding information in the first place can be hard enough. Finding it again sometimes afterwards can be even harder unless your methods of recording and filing are thorough and systematic.'
Longer quotations should be preceded by a colon and begin a new line. They should be set off from the text and indented at least or 2.5 cms (1inch). Quotation marks should not be used. You must include the page number of the quoted passage, with both long and short quotations. e.g. Some of the most sensible advice for anyone carrying out a literature search and on keeping records of their findings states that: In the early stages of an investigation it may seem enough to jot down a reference on the back of an old envelope, but old envelopes thrown into a box will not provide you with a reliable resource, and the likelihood is that references will be incomplete and difficult to track down at a later stage. If you are going to need half a dozen references, then scraps of paper may serve, but as your investigation proceeds, you accumulate many sources of information, and an orderly system is necessary from the beginning. (Bell 1993, p.23)
Plagiarism and unfair practice
It is dishonest not to acknowledge the work of other people and you open yourself up to the accusation of plagiarism. The text of this assignment must be in your own words (not even a sentence or phrase should be taken from another source unless this source is referenced or the phrase placed in quotes).
Plagiarism is described as:
- Copying text from internet sources, published works or from lecture notes without full referencing and direct quotations
- Copying another students assignment;
- Collusion - submitting work that has been undertaken by or with others and passing it off as solely your own work;
- Bringing unauthorised materials into an examination, e.g copying from notes, downloading material onto a mobile phone etc;
- Fabrication of data, making false claims to have carried out experiments, observations, interviews or other forms of data collection and analysis.
- Presentation of evidence of special circumstances which is false or falsified or which in any way misleads or could mislead Examination Boards.