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This report is based on the different publications which are on different methods to improve productivity and the efficient use of capital for waste reduction and energy conservation.
In the present-day businesses are striving hard towards improving their chances of survival in the highly competitive environment. The concentration is made upon improving efficiency in the business process through deployment of efficient human resources. Lean management is also made to cut down cost of operation and avoid wastage to support the development, growth and sustenance of the business in the long run. Owing to this reason different research has been made over time to accomplish these various concerns of the business process. The main motive is kept towards reducing cost of operation and wastage. This research examined the six different articles in which different tools such as Lean, Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) are used to enhance the productivity and reduce the wastage. Research also shows the efficient use of capital by Auckland waste management for the energy conservation and minimization of the waste.
The research made by Mahmood and Shevtshenko (2015) clearly reveals that the lean production system and its various tools are applied to enhance productivity, reduce cost and maximize customer value. Thus, the target of the organization towards accomplishing long term sustenance and growth can be achieved through focusing on the Value Stream Mapping (VSM), Pull system (Kanban) and dedicated flow. These tools can help in reducing wastage and gathering inventory stocks that adds to the cost of operation (Mahmood & Shevtshenko, 2015). That case study is inventory is considered as an input and lean tool are used to reduce the inventory and improve the productivity. Lean production tools such as Value Stream mapping, KANBAN are used to eliminate the waste in inventory and focus on the enhancement of the productivity and adding value to the customer. The study is based on Mental manufacturing company which was producing copper strips for electrical application. The company that faces some internal challenges such as high work in progress low quality, long deliveries time, lot of scrap that initiate the company to adopt lean system to increase productivity and quality by minimizing inventory levels. By implementing lean WIP (Work in progress) inventory reduce from 1026 tons to 800 tons. On of the consequence of this study is that it is not easy to implements lean only in the production line people must be ready for the change in the whole organization for effective results. Every department like sales, logistics, marketing will affect by implementing any change if any of this resist lean will not sustain.
According to Dana (2011), the use of Kaizen management system should be made to improve efficiency and quality of outcome. Therefore, continuous improvements are required to be made in the production process so that the issues related to cost reduction and high productivity can be dealt effectively (Dana, 2011). KAIZEN method is used by the organization for continuous improvement and productivity enhancement. It also improves the communication barriers in the organization and helps to achieve organization’s objectives. The below given figure shows the KAIZEN system.
By the analyzing the article it shows the reason behind the wastage is lack of knowledge to do the job effectively and efficiently. KAIZEN helps the company while engaging the employees in the process for improvement.
Auckland council has further developed and presented a waste management and minimization plan which could help in producing and removing wastage. The concentration is made upon applying such techniques and methods which could support zero waste production (AucklandCouncil, 2018). They set out vision of Zero waste by 2040. Auckland council has spend $113 million in reduction of the domestic waste services including the collection of reuse, inorganic and recycling waste. Every year Auckland Council also spend more than $8 million in the maintenance of old landfills. This is just the visible cost but as explain by giving the example of Iceberg, many more hidden costs are involved below the surface that affect the environment as well as economy.
Auckland management has proposed a waste management and minimization plan to achieve the efficient and effectiveness in waste reduction. It also building a relationship with other public sectors to achieve zero wastage. San Francisco and South Australia has also economic benefits by adopting Zero Waste policies. South Australia achieved around AU$7.8 million by their Zero waste program. The state government also invested in the resource efficiency and providing benefits in economic growth.
Gabcanova (2011) further gave importance to the human resources of the organization which can efficiently apply new policies for reduction of wastage and improvement in production. This way the success of the organization depends upon the productivity of the motivated employees who work hard and smart for the accomplishment of target goals and objectives (Gabcanova, 2011). Oyedepo (2012) supported the idea of developing energy efficiency and conservation measures so that the sustainable energy development could be attained. This way the deployment of various energy saving tools and techniques could help in declining the cost of business operation (Oyedepo, 2012). According to Walport and Boyd (2016), the mindset is required to be changed from managing waste to increase in resource productivity. That is the use of wastage and waste and area should be made such that the efficient deployment of available resources could be made to achieve the most desired outcome and gains for the society (Walport & Boyd, 2016). Energy is the very factor of production along with the land, labor and capital. This research is based on Nigeria by efficiently use of energy conservation. This country is describing as more natural gas island rather than oil. In Nigeria, people use thermionic, thermoelectric that helps them in improving the fuel saving. But on the other hand, they use incandescent bulb that consume more energy than energy efficiency bulbs. They are also depleting the woods for cooking purpose. There are some recommendation given to conserve the energy in Nigeria such as, subsidized pricing should be stopped in Nigeria, Energy efficiency projects should be organized, provide education to the people and explain them about the benefits of saving energy. This will help the people to save the energy and conserve the environment.
The research made by different researchers listed in the earlier column supports different ideas for reducing waste and improving efficiency of the organization. However, there is some clear format or methods that have been described by the researcher which should be followed. Also, the deployment of one method is just not enough to get control over the wastage or could contribute in improving productivity of the business process. Because change is everyone’s responsibility. In fact, the alignment of the various methods should be directed towards reducing wastage and improving productivity. That is the deployment of energy efficient machines, efficient human resource, lean production system, kaizen and various other techniques are required to be applied such that they help accomplish the target goal of reducing wastage and improving overall productivity of the business. Finally, the research did not concentrate on maximization of profits, improved sales and other factors which are equally important part of business.
In conclusion, the reduction in wastage and improvement in productivity are among the key topic of concerns for the present business concerns. There are various methods that have been identified by researchers around the world to accomplish this motive. However, integration is needed to be applied among these factors so that the most desired outcome in the form of wastage reduction and higher productivity can be obtained.
- AucklandCouncil, 2018. Working together for Zero Waste. Draft Auckland Waste Management and Minimisation Plan , pp.1-124.
- Dana, G.B., 2011. Kaizen method in production management. In International Scientific Conference YOUNG SCIENTISTS., 2011.
- Gabcanova, I., 2011. The Employees – The Most Important Asset in the Organizations. Human Resources Management and Ergonomics, V, pp.1-12.
- Mahmood, K. & Shevtshenko, E., 2015. Productivity improvement by implementing lean production approach. In 10th International DAAAM Baltic Conference. Estonia, 2015. Tallinn.
- Oyedepo, S.O., 2012. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Measures: Tools for Sustainable Energy Development in Nigeria. International Journal of Energy Engineering, 2(3), pp.86-98.
- Walport, S.M. & Boyd, P.I., 2016. From waste to resource productivity. Government Office for Science.
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