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"It is understood that the effectiveness of a change is an end result of how efficiently the change has been implemented and executed by the employees without sacrificing the business objectives. For a company which is planning to launch its set of Organizational Behavior initiatives, it is extremely important that it motivates its employees for them to execute the organizational behavior practices across the board. Professionals understanding Organizational Behavior categorize this as Organizational Behavior Motivation - the factor which seamlessly ensures that employees implement the Organizational Behavior principles day in and out".- http://www.org-behavior.com/organizational-behavior-motivation.php.
Leadership in Organizational behaviour always had a great impact on the people and on their perceptions, leadership, motivational practices and the approaches adopted had major implications on the people and the total outcome of the organisation. The strange appearance of the change as it appears, the outcome and approach applied made me to think about the organizational behaviour process models many times, In this paper I would be discussing about Change management and leadership in organizational behaviour. The various theoretical issues and models, which I encountered like leadership, stakeholder analysis, team structure and technology compatibility will be analyzed and reasoned in relation to Rossett NHS trust.
Meaning of Change management; Difficulties in actual implementation of these planned changes in an organization.
The Change management initiatives for any organization involves coping with the implementing process, adapting to new technologies and benefiting from these practices. Both at the individual level and at the organizational level, adaptation to the change is always been a key to the success of any organization, these change management initiatives have always been a systematic approach. Just like the plants and animals adapt themselves for their survival, both the organisations and the individuals have to adapt themselves in this changing competitive business environment, where success is measured in terms of a quality trait to cope with the change and not as quantified approach.
The failure of change management process in an organization is due to lack of communication between the agent of change and that of people who are affected by that change process, the inability to envision where they are, where want to be and general lack of a leadership qualities of the change agent. Some of the factors that come between change and the successful implementation of change are time constraints, inherent costs involved, organizational culture, inadequate resources, and resistance to change as people don't want to move from their comfort zones.
"An organization will always go through various changes in its lifetime. After all, adaptation is one of the key factors in an organization's survival. There are several well accepted change models of management. All of them have been scientifically proven to be effective in the management of change". - Change Management 100 Success Secrets - The Complete Guide to Process, Tools, Software and Training in Organizational Change Management by Gerard Blokdijk.
Leadership according to J.P kotter can be adopted by 8 step process model for managing and evaluating change implementation.. Leadership in management is about setting established principles, new direction and controlling the group of people in the directed vision and company's competitive advantage.
Create sense of urgency
The company where I worked the pressure for change was mounting on because of less profits margins and falling market share to the highly competitive companies in the market, this affected both the management and the working staff. The pressure was both top-down from the management and bottom-up from the staff as well, but neither of the management nor the staff wanted to adapt to the new way of work process and come out of their comfort zone where they currently placed in, this is where kotter calls for sense of urgency bringing the change agent to motivate people to come out of their comfort zones and initiate change process.
In order to attain goals and pursue objectives one has to know where the organizational energy is mobilized into, every organization has its own unique capability one has to know where they are being channelized or else the organizations change management process loses the thrust. In other words the momentum of change management is lost when the company undermines the issue of addressing its own organizational strengths and weakness.
STRONG TEAM TO DIRECT PROCESS.
According to kotter smooth initiative of change management process can only take place when u have a strong team and equally strong members in it, fulfilling the vital roles of inventor, champion, sponsor and critic.
Change is important for organizations future strategic growth and sucess, Site services Directorate was first to realize the importance of change in oraganizational strategy making process, they championed the role of change inititation in Rossett NHS trust, a sense of urgency was created within by Hotel Services Director Anita Patel, the change management team was created by Deputy Director of Site Services David Stacy, this change was critically acclaimed and backed up by HRM Director who played the role of a Sponsor, the only Critic who was against this change was Finance Manager and the Employees Union.
Motavation is described as the persistent effort to which extent the goal is directed towards, it is important to understand the different forms of charecteristics values for the mordern managers to properly implement in the organization.
MOTIVATING ON VISION
Communication of clear vision motivating people is very important as they are the ones who will effected by this change at the end of day, before implementation of these changes inputs from the staff is considered into account as well.
Apart from communication of vision and motivating the staff was discussed before the proposed changes with the stake holders as well when planning the implementation of changes in my organization, stakeholders mainly the porters, domestic staff and the management, members of staff and the management team initiated the process of taking inputs from these stakeholders necessary in order to implement these changes with respect to the process and the technological changes and upgrades, for future strategic decisions to come in future.
Communicate that new vision
According to kotter the commitment of leaders about the communication of change and how serioulsy they are committed in terms of their proposed inputs will be carefully monitored by the stake holders, as their profits will affected by these change initiatives. However it is important for the leaders to update them at regular intervals and communicate the proposed progress of the changes ,the developments taking place, and addressing any problems or appreactiating new ideas are taken into account of the organization with the stake holders time to time.
Empower employees to act on this vision
It is very important and crucial according to kotter to get the approval and required support from the stakeholders when planing the organizations change management process, the empowerment of the employees, sharing the knowledge and ideas remains the key factor for the sucess of ongoing change. The successful transition of from the old working procedures to the new improved methods creates a healthy environment and builds up the confidence of the employees benefiting the organizations future perspective.
Produce short-term results
According to kotter Short term wins are very important for building confidence in the stake holders as the proposed change is a time consuming process and people could be demotivated from the change activities if it takes too long, it is important for the leader to make sure that people dont slip away from the communicated vision and negate the possibility of losing momentum over a period of time.
To keep the people focused on the change aspects we have devised a reward based scheme and frequently reviewed the staff about the proposed change as it is essential to make sure that the proposed change is in par with the communicated vision in the first instance.
Build momentum using this to tackle tougher change problems
A good practice to apply change in any organization is to share and syncronise with other branches at different places as well , the kind of sucess and change brought was phenominal in terms of customer satisfaction and profits generated.
As per kotter the momentum of the change currently brought in would be killed if we anounce the sucess immediatly, instead the transformed vision of the company shoud be aligned for the future changes to come and equip themselves to tackle tougher change problems.
Anchor the behaviour in the organisational culture
According to kotter it is important for the leader to identify in the organization the gained benefits, which they have achieved from the undergone change as a part of organizational behaviour. It is the duty of the leader to make people understand and convince them the benefits achieved from the new approaches and change the attitude of the people. Making a conscious attempt between the effort and the outcome will always create next generation congregrational leaders who would anchor for new methods of strategic thinking.
Training is an important aspect when initiating new changes in any organization any body who believed they required training on new IS/IT implementation would be given an opputunity to train themselves, we believed the transformation in the change of working procedures was due to the implementation of new IS/IT systems in the trust, this empowered the staff to think at a new innovative perspective. The communication of induced change to every individual is on the part of the organizational culture, the introduction of reward and recognition promotions involved more people and promoted the inherent change.
Stake Holder analysis
Stake holder analysis is to identify the impact, commitment and the appropriate participation of the stake holders on the success of the change initiatives taken place in the organization, stake holder analysis is very crucial for the change process to take place smoothly.
Who are stake holders.
The people who have considerable influence and vested interest in the project are know as the stakeholders, the have the power to influence ant changes that are to take place or any mangement of policies that affect the outcome of the project, thus these people or group of people with power, influence and interest on the project are known as stake holders.
These group of people will have direct or indirect influence on the projected end result of the project, they hold the key power on the majority of the stakes in the company whereby influencing the impact on the proposed change or the significant outcome of the project. Stakeholders have the capacity to affect the organizations policies, actions and the outcomes as well, some of the examples of stakeholders are trade unions, directors, investors, customers, owners, governament who are very powerful in their official capacity as the partners in the project. They can determine the interests from within the organizations or from the outside the project relems.
Considering the fact that there are different types of stake holders when proposing a change management policy it is important to make sure that, the proposed change is communicated to the respective group of people who have varied interests in the project, it the job of the change management team to focus on how effectively and efficiently the proposed change can be communicated to the different people as no two persons have same interests or priorities in common.
The 3 important steps in the identifying stakeholder analysis according to John Hayes are
Identifying the stakeholders: identifying different stakeholders is the first step in the project, the power or influence they have over the proposed change and how they have there priorities and interests affected by these changes and how they can influence on the outcome.
Prioritize the Stakeholders: Prioritizing the stakeholders will help us understand the people with maximum influence on the proposed change and who have the power to either allow or abstract on the proposed change that have vested interest in the ongoing project.
It is important to place all the stakeholders across the grid alignment based on their power and interest, this makes easy for us to understand and prioritize the needs of the stakeholders. Actions can be taken and changes can be managed according to the grid alignment with respect to High or Low importance. For example a stakeholder with high interest and high power we have to manage them closely and carefully and communicate any proposed change and taking inputs from them if necessary, as they have the maximum control on the project. If we have a stakeholder with low interest and power we can monitor and manage them with minimum effort but keeping in contact with them for further changes to take place.
Understanding the key stakeholders: Thirdly we need to be very cautious about our key stakeholder analysis and what their reactions on the proposed change and should engage them in the change and communicate effectively. This can be done by asking key questions to understand these key stakeholders like.
Understanding the stakeholders and analysing their reactions to the proposed changes is the first priority of the change management team, they to be very careful when proposing the changes in the project, communication of the changes across the project and engaging the stakeholders is the key to successful change implementation. For example information they interested in, what are they looking for in general, how are they going to react to the proposed changes and what would you do to win their support, influencing these people and communicating these changes in the best way possible without losing their support.
In order to obtain optimum results it is important to engage every stakeholder to give their feedback on the proposed changes so that a common viable solution can be adopted by both the parties.
In the organizational context one can identify stakeholders at any stage of the projects life cycle which is very important as the time passes on some stakeholders will have more importance then initially presumed, we need to focus on how to engage and manage these stakeholders at any given period of time in the project life cycle.
Effective management of change in an organization can be promoted by Kurt lewin's force field analysis. Those seeking promotion of changes Driving forces and those attempting to maintain status quo Restraining Forces. Organisations are not static in nature they are rather dynamic, shifting the balance between the driving and restraining forces.
Kurt lewin's force field analysis acts on the principle of creating a balance between driving and restraining forces, by identifying our goals we can move towards attaining the proposed changes. By making the driving forces to exceed than the restraining forces, we can effectively implement these changes.
Force field analysis operates in 3 phases:
The Driving forces and the restraining forces of an organisation need to unfreeze in order to bring to a quasi-equilibrium state. In other words the positive forces and the negative forces need to be unfreezed.
An imbalance is introduced by increasing the Driving forces or decreasing the Restraining forces or vice versa, so that the proposed change can be implemented.
The Driving forces and the Restraining forces are brought back to quasi-equilibrium state after the successful implementation of the proposed change known as re-frozen.
Here each length of the arrow depicts the importance of the force which is for and against the change.
Force field analysis can provide insights into corporate strategy implementation and evaluation of projects when applied into various contexts; this is a potentially powerful technique when implementing a change management strategy in the organizations.
I personally applied force field analysis for the implementation of IS/IT project on the Rossett NHS trust. Identification for the triggers for change was easy as the management was the driving force for the proposed change and the employees union was restraining force for the change. The management and the employees union were further subdivided into two teams. The implementation and the adaptation of the change process became difficult when a Business Process Reengineering failed to develop proper IT/IS implementation levers, Rossett NHS trust tried to automate the recruitment process at the company level, but failed to cope up with organizational behaviour of the employees in the trust which lead to the failure of the proposed implementation of changes in the trust because of the following reasons.
Processes were not identified for Redesigning.
The existing processes were not measured and evaluated thoroughly.
IT/IS levers were not identified.
No Prototype design and development was initiated.
No clear vision was developed.
Work/life balance (e)
Improve efficiency (e/m)
Cost reduction (m)
Improved Reporting (m)
Better Service Internal/External (m)
Disruption Job (e)
Little Perceived Benefit (e)
Loss of authority (m)
Force Field Analysis
e - Employees
m - Management
The main restraining force in the company is the employees union team which was getting the least benefit form the proposed changes in the trust, as they were more concerned with the internal communication channels which happens between the teams at a regular basis which would not be happening because of the automation techniques adopted by management team which increased the workload on them, more over they were pretty comfortable with the normal system where human interaction formed major benefit for the process and many jobs were at stake and people started to fear the loss of employment when proposed changes came into place.
Parameters were not properly designed within the organisational context to assess the changes made and the objectives achieved from the changes brought in were short lived and periodic assessment was not done from time to time like, Balance scorecard, Customer Satisfaction etc..
Balance Scorecard: Balance scorecard approach is a management technique which measures to balance the financial perspective of the organisations translating their vision and strategy into action. The strategic performance of the company is measured from both the internal and external processes, when aptly applied this approach transforms the planning into result oriented methods and frame works. It provides performance measurement frameworks for the non-financial performers and enables the managers to execute the strategies.
Financial: Return on investment, Calculations were made based on capital invested, and profits generated.
Customer: Customer satisfaction, payment time, in terms of customer feedback forms for the knowing the quality of the change process adaptation and successful implementation.
Internal Processes: Number of activities, time to select candidate
Learning and Growth: Feedback forms and internal consultations were duly undertaken to assess the staff performance on the new methodologies adopted from time to time, the new system is constantly monitored for the increased throughput and change in staff. RAD models were developed in advance to cope with any problems arising in future through constant learning.
Despite the work pressures and the amount of changes brought in, Teams didn't lived up to the expectations and performance was not well against all odds. The current change management leader adopted the methodologies very inappropriately and applied for least results possible, he was not able to bring in the right changes at the right time and convert the vision into action plan for strategic success of the trust. The proposed changes could not be implemented because of the concerning level of resistance by the employees union which won the UNISON-organised ballot by voting against it by 150 and only 12 staff voted in favour of the change. Thus the proposed changes could not be possibly implemented in near foreseeable future.
Newstrom, John W. & Davis, Keith (1993). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cunningham, J. B. & Eberle, T. (1990). A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign. Personnel, Feb 1990, p.57 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Leader and organizational behaviour by James G. Clawson.