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Different Leadership style could affect a person's motivation. Leader does not necessarily related to hierarchical position. It's clearly definition would figure out of an idea of the one who will lead. Who is the leader? It is hard to separate out theories and concepts of Leadership and Motivation. The leader must know how to motivate people and getting people consistently to give their best, helping them to grow to their fullest potential. There are many theories of motivation and the leader could choose their own style of leadership in order to give the best result.
The motivation theory is concerned with the operation that describes why and how human behaviour is activated and directed. In organizations must be able to attract and motivate the employees, and to a large extent these objectives are through the organization's reward to achieve.
There are three writers who consider the functions performed by management, it enables us to define management and explore how thinking has changed through time.
Frederick Taylor (1856-1917), he considered money is the main motivator for workers therefore scientifically investigate how jobs are done through 'work study'. By using 'price rates' to pay the workers and this kind of method was widely used. Businesses saw the advantage of raising productivity level and lower unit cost. But if adopt this scientific management will lead to losses the labour skills. As the duty is the same and the workers might find it is very boring. And it will lead to decrease workers morale. Moreover, Taylor did not treat workers as people and he stated money is very important to them as many of them almost lived on the breadline.
Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949) he believes the workers are not just cares about the money. They can have been better motivated by their social needs whilst at work. He set out an experiment to investigate how changing light and working conditions would affect productivity. At the end of the experiment, his results proved that greater communications and improved the relations could lead to an increased of productivity. It has also stated that social needs in the workplace must be recognized and the communication is vital and understanding of the informal needs of the workers.
Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000) argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce which would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygiene factors). Motivator's factor includes sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility and intrinsic rewards. Besides, Hygiene factor includes the company policy, supervision and working conditions. Therefore, motivators are to do with the job and Hygiene factors 'surround' the job. Herzberg has also come up with a policy called 'job enrichment' which making the job better, allowing workers to use their skills and abilities and also to plan and make decisions over their work. Job enrichment also included bringing variety into jobs through job rotation and job enlargement. Those that are critical of Herzberg felt it was just a way of making people do more in the cooperation.
When goals are eventually accomplished or milestones are reached, many people like to be able to get a reward or benefit. Some goals create by personal satisfaction upon completion naturally such as learning, growth, and self-esteem. Additional rewards such as salary increases, bonuses, and celebrations are also good reminders that individual are delighted of what they are doing. Rewards work so well as the motivating tools that worker will goes out their way to make sure they use it and develop these kinds of things that they are rewarded.
The work atmosphere in general has a lot to do with employee motivation. Typically managers that treat employees in a friendly manner are adopting to get more of a positive comment. You want to work at a company with individuals that enjoy their work and like their surroundings. Employees will compare themselves to others to make sure they are being treated in a way that they perceive as fair. If an employee thinks that they are not being treated fairly, they will have a lack of motivation to work hard. Everyone likes to have a little independence and to be useful while they are working. Certain control is always needed, but flexibility is appreciated. Employees and co-workers are also happy when they feel like they are fit it in a group and are able to be themselves. This would goes back to the basis needs that human strive to fulfill.
The main factors which affect the motivation of workers are pay levels, job security, promotional prospects, being given responsibilities, working conditions, fringe benefits, participation in decision-making and working in a team.
There are two basic theories of motivation: Taylor's scientific management, theory X and Y, and Herzberg's two-factor theory. We can divide these to main two theories: content theories and process theories. Content theories focus on what actually motivates people, they study the needs that must be satisfied in order for the employee to be motivated. Process theories, do not concern the needs which must be satisfied in order to achieve motivation, but instead they are concerned with the thought-processes that influence workers' behaviour.
In order to be a leader, it is important to understand what motivates the employees around you. It is necessary to discover the fundamental needs that employees, co-workers, and bosses have. All people have a need for a basic income and necessities. Additionally, they need a deep social connection and friendships. People want to fit in somewhere and feel as if they belong. Another large category of human need is the need for growth and challenges. A worker would get attract to a job by high salary and may find their job dissatisfying if they are unable to have friendships and connect with other people at work. It is much easier to lead and motivate if you understand what people's undeniable needs are.
Autocratic leadership style is the employees just need to accept an order from the leader without receiving any explanations. In this situation the power is concentration in the leader, the employees without any voice. Managers do not trust subordinates, all decision making and organization goals set by management to make and enforce. The distrust between the upper and lower levels will make workers fear and difficult to meet a variety of psychological needs. However, Autocratic leadership also has advantage. Sometime it is the most effective way to use, if in the appropriate conditions to use it is when leader have all the information to solve the problem and short on time, then your employees are well motivated. The autocratic style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If leader have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the democratic style.
Democratic leadership style by spend time to listening the opinions and suggestions from the employees in order to establish trust and loyalty. Employees through has their own personal goals and working methods to express their decision making, which can improve organizational flexibility and responsibility. Employees in a democratic system, they determine their own goals and clearly understand how to achievable and what is impossible. If the leader does not know how to do, then the employees need to be able guidance and recommendations of the leader. But the democratic leadership style also has shortcomings, that is the impact of work atmosphere is small than other style. It's an intolerable result is endless meetings, because its need thoughtful and same decision. Therefore, they only can do is to arrange lot of meetings.
The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the "hands-offÂ¨ style. In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decision. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. The leader cannot do everything. He must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.
Motivation and leadership
Leadership style is one of several key factors that affect motivation levels. Autocratic that means the leader's central idea to be company's gist. The staff will think their leader is talented and can make their company strong. So, employees have motivation do the job, moreover, they will be interested in it. The motivation will increase. However, if staff don't have chance to say their idea when the leader's idea is wrong, they will revolt against leader. At this time, it will detract from levels of motivation. In a word, autocratic will detract from levels of motivation. The style of democratic encourages participation in decision-making. Most staff is satisfied with this type of leadership. Because leader should take other's idea before make decision. This leadership can promote increase of motivation. Also leader employees can make decision, and leader must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. Employees will agree with it. As a result, it can improve motivation.
Prior to this, I have said that leadership is one of several key factors that affect motivation levels. May be wage also influence on motivation? People who don't love money are very little. So, leader can give employees much more wage, the employees will be interested it. The levels of motivation will rise. May be bonus having an effect on motivation. The bonuses have appeared, staff will spend more time doing this work, and the productivity will increase. Motivation may be effected by it.
Both leadership styles have their advantages and disadvantages for the organization as a whole. On one hand, democratic decisions may benefit the work morale of team members and have a positive effect on the climate within a hierarchical organization. On the other hand, democratic decisions may result in ignoring more efficient but less socially accepted options and have a negative influence on the team results. Sometimes autocratic decisions may undermine work morale. However, by making an unpopular decision, leaders might be able to reach team goals in the most efficient way which benefits both leaders themselves as well as their subordinates.
In our experiment, we find that autocratic and democratic decisions appear to be equally profitable for both teams as a whole. Nevertheless, while leaders receive essentially the same payoff from autocratic and democratic decisions, ordinary players earn much more money from democratic style rather than from autocratic leadership decisions. Furthermore, the ability to increase people's motivation is not always used in the right way. Leadership should not be based on lies, trickery, or manipulation. When leading other individuals it is important that they are all getting a benefit out of their own actions and it is very important to be honest and treating others well at all times.