Key differences between managers and leaders

5379 words (22 pages) Essay

15th May 2017 Management Reference this

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LEADERSHIP

Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This guide will help you in the leadership.

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For inspire your workers into high level of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continue work and study. Good leaders are continuous working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are not resting on their happiness.

Before we get started, let’s define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.

Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, value, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader.

*The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership

· Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.

· Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:

Types of leaders:

There exist many types of leaders in the organization some of them are as follows:

Leader by the position achieved:

These are the leaders who perform development activities in the organization these leaders lead people because of their position achieved by success in organization

Leader by personality, charisma:

Charisma: charisma is quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he or she is set apart from the ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural superhuman or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. The personal charm of the person influences us. These types of leaders are known as charismatic leaders. Mahatma Gandhi was also an example of charismatic leader. The charismatic leaders have the ability to carry the masses with them. They have a great deal of emotional appeal. Swami Vivekananda was another charismatic leader.

Some characteristic of charismatic leaders are

– Followers accept the leader unquestioningly.

– Followers obey the leader willingly.

– Followers belief is similar to the leader’s beliefs.

– Followers trust the correctness of the leader’s belief.

Leader by moral example

These leaders are having a special type of status in the organization they are goal oriented having some moral values towards the organization and as well as in the social life.

Leader by power held

These leaders are special type of leaders having position/designation in the organization they are been given authorities and responsibilities to handle the group in any manner. They seem to be strict to some extent to achieve goal they can even punish the employees if the expected task was not found by the individual.

Intellectual leader

Intellectual leader is the one who has medium-term perspective. He has an inside out where his main focus is on his own organization. His main function is to develop organization’s systems and processes. He reconciles conflicting interests. He develops and champions a strong culture. He ensures effective running of whole organization by using and innovating corporate knowledge and recruiting and retaining talent.

Leader because of ability to accomplish things:

The leaders of this quality are hard worker, having the great ability to handle the situation as well as conflicts between the employees they are more commonly oriented to their goal their skill results in achievement of the goal.

Visionary leader:

Visionary leader is the one who has a long-term perspective, who is externally oriented and has a broad interest in industry, economy, regulations, and politics. His tasks include forming a mission statement, vision and values. He is supposed to transform and structure the organization to ensure survival and growth. Example of visionary leader can be a director, senior executive, chair and head of school, senior partner etc.

Fulfillment leader:

Fulfillment leader is the one who has a short-term perspective. He is a knowledge expert who is result oriented and who has customer service thinking. He pleases the customer by delivering results on time. He makes continuous improvement by unlocking individual potential and optimum usage of resources.

Autocratic and democratic leader:

An autocratic leader takes decisions and imposes them on the group, expecting group members to put them in to effect without questioning the reasons for them. The democratic leader, on the other hand, encourages the members of his or her group to share the decision making process and sees himself as a coordinator of group effort, rather as the decision taker.

Transactional Leader

Transactional leaders are the ones who take the initiative in offering some form of need satisfaction in return for something valued by the employees, such as pay promotion, improved job satisfaction or recognition. The leader sets clear goals, and is adept at understanding the needs of employees and selects appropriate, motivating rewards.

There various other types of leader are similar to these types only all the leaders act as per the situation in the organization.

Why the leaders are required although there are manager’s to organization? Or manager’s V/S leader’s

MANGERS

LEADERS

Focus on things :

Mangers mainly focus on the things like what is to be done for the organization, what will be the results etc.

Do the right things :

The managers perform their task in right way.

Plan :

Managers mainly do planning, what is too done, for whom to be done, when to be done they are responsible for defining the goals etc.

Organize:

Managers organize they way to allocate resources, assigns tasks, and goes about accomplishing its goals. In the process of organizing, managers arrange a framework that links all workers, tasks, and resources together so the organizational goals can be achieved

Direct :

Directing is the process that many people would most relate to managing. It is supervising, or leading workers to accomplish the goals of the organization.

Control :

The controlling function involves the evaluation activities that managers perform. It is the process of determining if the company’s goals and objectives are being met. This process also includes correcting situations in which the goals and objectives are not being met.

Follow the rules :

Mangers follow the rules having set of standard to achieve the goals.

Focus on people:

The leaders focus on people how they will perform the task in effective and efficient manner by motivating the employees.

Do the right things:

Leaders also perform the task in the right way because they are also goal oriented.

Inspire:

The leaders inspire the people working in the organization for the achievement of plan.

Influence:

Leaders influence the people of the organization to allocate the resources, perform the task and accomplish the organizational goal.

Motivate:

The leaders motivate the employees by giving rewards and awards for the accomplishment of goals.

Build:

Maintain a level of consistency in the organization between the employees for the goals.

Shape entities:

By motivating, influencing leaders make the entities(employees) to be developed in all activities such as in terms of organizational needs as well as in the social life and personal life also.

“Power” is a measure of an individual’s potential to get others to do what he or she wants them to do, as well as to avoid being forced by others to do what he or she does not want to do.

Powerful managers gain and maintain really sizable amounts of power by moving into positions that control key contingencies for their organizations. They do so because they recognize that as long as their organization has to compete with others to get support from its environment, those who can manage the most problematic environmental contingencies are really the most important people in the organization. Everyone in an organization must depend on a powerful manager, and that situation gives him or her great deal of power!

Where do leaders get their power that is their capacity to influence? Work actions or decisions five sources of leader power have been identified legitimate, coercive, reward, expert, and referent.

Legitimate power and authority are the same. Legitimate power represents the power a leader has as a result of his or her position in the organization. Although people in positions of authority are also likely to have reward and coercive power, legitimate power is broader than power to coerce and reward.

Coercive power is the power a leader has to punish or control. Followers react to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if they don’t comply. Managers typically have some coercive power, such as being able to suspend or demote employees or to assign them work they find unpleasant or undesirable.

Reward power is the power to give positive rewards. These can be anything that a person values, such as money, favorable performance appraisals, promotions, interesting work assignments, friendly colleagues and preferred work assignments, friendly colleagues and preferred work shifts or sales territories.

Expert Power is power that’s based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. If an employee has skills, knowledge, or expertise that’s critical to a work group, that person’s expert power is enhanced.

Referent power is the power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or personal traits. If I admire you and want to be associated with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you. Referent power develops out admiration of another and a desire to be like that person.

Most effective leaders rely on several different forms of power to affect the behavior and performance of their followers.

If you want to get things done in a group or organization, it helps to have power. As a manager who wants to maximize your power, you will want to increase others dependence on you. You can for instance increase your power in relation to your boss by developing knowledge or a skill that she needs and for which she perceives no ready substitute. But power is a two way street. You will not alone in attempting to build your power bases. Particularly employees and peers will be seeking to make you dependent on them. The result is a continual battle. There is evidence that people respond differently to the various power bases. Expert and referent power are derived from an individual’s personal qualities. The power of your boss may also play a role in determining your job satisfaction. One of the reasons many of us like to work for and with people who are powerful is that they are more pleasant- not because it is their native disposition, but because the reputation and reality of being powerful permits them more discretion and more ability to delegate to others.

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LITRATURE REVIEW -Over the past century, there has been a lot of work and thought given to the development of various leadership theories. From that work, we have got transformational leadership, situational leadership theories, and behavioral theories. But very little has been written from a theory standpoint about ethical leadership.

Part of the problem stems from the fact that the word “ethical” describes a constraint placed on the leader, and not their approach to leading. In some way, this was addressed by Burns in his description of transactional leaders. Some people use the term “ethical” interchangeably with the word “moral” – a concept addressed by Burns.

Ethics and leadership both seem to be abstract and ambiguous-so imagine what happens when we discuss ethical leadership. Ethical leadership is not about how to lead to reach specific goals, but what ethical affects leadership has. Ethics are not morals themselves but the meaning of moral ways and actions. Ethics do not decide, nor do they take decisions away. They serve as a means of guidance-to find answers, make decisions, and know how to justify them.

Leadership is about those who are in a position to make decisions; create opinions and attitudes. It is more than just managing. Because leaders have to lead by example, their words, actions, and values play a huge role in their success. Responsibility and credibility are two of the most important elements of leadership; each is deeply based on the interaction with others. Because every action, even the smallest, has an impact, ethics is always part of the decision-making process. Ethics are not a cookbook for great decisions. Leaders know that every decision has to be carried by responsibility and credibility. To be recognized as a leader requires exuding trust. Remember that for many the values and ethics of the leader have to match their own understanding of those.

Fenwick Feng Jing, Macquarie University, Australia Gayle C. Avery, Macquarie University, Australia- Both researchers and practitioners have devoted considerable attention to the potential effects of leadership on organizational performance. Despite increased research into the leadership-performance relationship, major gaps still remain in our understanding. This paper reviews the published literature and identifies these gaps, highlighting implications for future research into the leadership-performance relationship.

Leland and Bailey-(US BANK) Customers love and cherish companies that treat them the way they want to be treated. Sometimes customers will even pay more to get good service. Effective communication and the established relationship with the customers are the essence of customer service. Every interaction with a customer or potential customer is an opportunity for gathering feedback, searching out needs, and implementing changes that can make an organization more customers centric. One key to business success is customer loyalty.

Leadership Styles: Relationship Between Employer And Employee-

Chris Harrison is a self employed contractor. He works out of Newfield New York. He was interviewed on two different occasions about a month apart with the aim of finding out how he felt about his work. During these two interviews a major sociological theme emerged. Chris believes that his leadership style reflects the relationship that he has with his workers and the productivity that they get done.

(McShane S & Travaglione, ) When mentioning leadership, what often come to people minds are an individual leader, extreme power, high responsibility, orders and respect from others. In most documentation, leadership is considered to be a broad term that involves leaders, followers, influence process, goals, tasks, people and changes.

Jeffrey Horey- More and more, organizations are using competency frameworks to describe the Expectations and requirements of their leaders. But the methods, definitions, and results of leadership competency modeling vary greatly across organizations. For leader development purposes, a competency framework that focuses on the functions of leadership will help align training, development, and performance management processes and better communicates how Leadership contributes to organizational success. It is particularly important to focus on the Behavioral aspects of leadership in an organization that promotes only from within and expects all its members to become leaders.

Katherine A decelles- Charismatic leadership and its powerful effects on followers and organizations have been widely studied by management scholars. Charisma as the special power of a person to inspire fascinating, loyalty etc. As a basis for research scholars often draw on max Weber’s definition of charisma as an individual personality quality in which the leader is considered extraordinary and treated as endowed with supernatural powers or qualities.

F.Williams Brown- A study involving 440 university faculty members in 70 different academic departments explored the relationship between transactional and contingent reward leadership behaviors by university department chairs and faculty satisfaction result indicated that the idealized influence factor of transformational leadership was significantly more predictive of desired organizational outcomes than predictive in the setting. The unique characteristics of the employment arrangements and psychological contract between faculty and their institutions may make charismatic, relationship-oriented leadership a key determinant of department chair effectiveness.

W.K KELLOGG- Leadership for institutional change initiative the author argue for expanding the conventional notion of leadership required for higher education change. In addition to completely envisioning, organizing, and enacting change, we believe that change agents must become more familiar with the philosophical and scholarly traditions associated with the substance of intended change.

Richard POWEEL- This study examines the self reported leadership practices of a group of principals in South Africa. All subjects completed the leadership practices inventory which measured five characteristics of leadership practice, challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way and encouraging the heart.

MARY SUE POLLEYS- This article addresses the need for institutions of higher education to be involved in the development of leaders who believe that power and authority are for helping others grow. A description of the servant leadership programs at Columbus state university is offered as one university’s effort to address this need. Students commit to leadership development through academic study, extensive community service and monitoring. The purposes of this paper are to explain the servant leadership philosophy and how it interfaces with major leadership theories and to describe how the philosophy is being applied through the CSU program.

Michael F. Beaudoin- The proliferation of instructional technology in the past decade, particularly In higher education settings is having a profound impact on how teaching and learning now occurs, and is transforming the means by which institutions and support an emerging worldwide market across time and distance yet leadership.

Schools today face unprecedented challenges and pressures, which have changed our understanding of what it takes to be an effective school leader. More than ever before, schools must be responsive to diverse constituencies outside the school walls. Parents, community groups, businesses, and the government all make demands-many of which conflict with one another (DuFour, 2003). At the same time, students’ social and emotional development, as well as their academic growth, has come to be seen by many as an essential school responsibility (Bencivenga & Elias, 2003). Given these pressures, it is not surprising that new programs that promise to help schools address a variety of critical issues are being developed all the time. New programs and policies are constantly introduced by external sources as the latest solution to low-performing schools and student achievement. Fullan (2000, 2001) warns school leaders that there is no magic solution to making schools successful. Rather, leaders should make an effort to learn good leadership practices to help ensure that whatever changes and change process they do adopt are as successful as possible.

FINDINGS- There is different perception of scholars and managers regarding leadership but according to my point of view when organization face new challenges there should be effective work in the organization. You have new ideas in your mind regarding different new challenges and manager would take decisions from the lower employees also. Leader helps organizations to achieve current objective by providing tasks to the employees or subordinates. Organization needs strong leadership and strong management for effectiveness. In today’s world leaders to challenge the status to create visions of the future, and to inspire organizational members to want to achieve the visions. We also need managers to formulate detailed plans, create efficient organizational structures, and see day to operations. Leadership plays an important role in understanding group behavior; it is the leader who usually provides direction to the employees towards goal attainment. But the charismatic leaders are the qualities of the individual’s personality by virtue of which he or she apart from ordinary people and treated as supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional power or qualities. Are Charismatic leaders born with their qualities? Or can people learn actually how to be charismatic leaders? The answer to both questions is yes.

It is true that individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. Charismatic leaders willing to take high risks, and engage in self sacrifice to achieve the vision. Transformational leadership and charismatic leadership both are same. Leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. If the person is doing great job in the organization then there are rewards given to the subordinates for the good performance. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership and when this trust is broken it can have serious adverse effects on group performance. Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership.

After analyzing the whole term paper on developing leadership in an organization I could derived that leadership is most important commodity for any organization that’s leads success of the organization because leadership is consent with leading people, influencing people, guiding people, commanding people.

For to become a successful company, what company need too, improve standard of its employees, create new ideas, go above and beyond its mission, and exceed the set goal and objectives, and should understand how to develop leadership qualities in their employees.

For the best leadership in the organization the leader must progress slowly to come over financial and cultural progress this needs because of every organization is having different culture, different norms and laws and should proceed step by step not directly.

Come Fly with Me: A History of Airline Leadership:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article introduce a new book looks at the history of the U.S. aviation industry through the eyes of its entrepreneurs, managers, and leaders-men like Pan Am’s Juan Trippe and Southwest Airlines’ Herb Kelleher-each emerging at different stages of the industry’s evolution from start-up to rebirth.

Can the “mask of command” coexist with authentic leadership:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article list out some elements of authentic leadership they are:”(1) pursuing purpose with passion: Authentic leaders must first understand themselves and their passions, (2) practicing solid values: values are personal, but integrity is required of all leaders, (3) leading with heart: it means having passion for your work, compassion for the people you serve, empathy for the people you work with, and the courage to make difficult decisions, (4) establishing enduring relationships: people insist on access to, as well as openness and depth of relationships with, their leaders, (5) demonstrating self-discipline: this requires accepting full responsibility for outcomes and holding others accountable for their performance.”

Uncompromising leadership in tough times:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: Articles relates as companies batten down the hatches, we need leaders who do not compromise on standards and values that are essential in flush times. Fortunately, such leaders do exist. Their insights can help other organizations weather the current crisis.

The Authentic Leader:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: The article relate that best leaders are not the “follow me over the hill” type, Rather, they’re the people who lead from the heart as well as the head, and whose leadership style springs from their fundamental character and values.

How important is “Executive intelligence” for leaders:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article was published on july 5th . It relates that Leadership talent is enjoying a perceived “seller’s market,” As we select and train future leaders for all levels of our organizations, how much effort do we really spend assessing executive intelligence as opposed to personality and style?

Asian and American leadership styles. How are they unique:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article tells business leadership is at the core of Asian economic development, the American and Asian leadership styles, while very different, also share important similarities.

In today’s world, business organizations need effective leadership in order for them to continue to be successful. Without this, organizations cannot function correctly or achieve company goals and visions. Effective leadership is dependent upon the role of the leader and whether or not they can ensure their employees meet company objectives and standards. This assignment will critically examine the role of leadership as a contributing factor to contemporary organizational success.

Effective leaders are made not born. If an individual has the desire and will power, then they can become a successful leader. Leaders develop through a never-ending process of learning, education, training and experience.

In order to inspire people to achieve higher levels of work, there are a few things a leader must be, know and do. These do not come naturally however are acquired through continual work and study. Effective leaders are individuals who are continually working and studying to improve their leadership styles and skills).

How to Promote Leadership Qualities within the Workplace?

For to become a successful company, company need to improve standard of its employees, create new ideas, go above and beyond its mission, and exceed the set goal and objectives, and should understand how to develop leadership qualities in their employees. To promote leadership qualities at workplace

Good leadership qualities compromise of team building, helping others, improving strategy and come up with new ideas without being asked to do so, and leadership is not about the firing orders to perform forcefully, making demands. Gather and discuss identify what leadership qualities are within the organization.

Form a leadership committee, once the leadership is properly defined put a leadership recognition program who will select employees who are displaying the leadership roles in the organization. The leadership committee should provide the rewards to employee displaying leadership by conducting a survey by asking the employees opinion on what forms of recognition and rewards they would like to receive. Some good ideas of rewards are designated parking spots, bonus compensation, certificates and plaques, free lunch with CEO etc.

Employees should be provided leadership training; the training should include information, strategies and techniques on developing leadership qualities. The procedure for selecting the employees for rewards by leadership committee is to do an outstanding job of displaying leadership characteristics and qualities.

Organization should treat the employees as like leaders, the managers and supervisors should be trained with new styles, methodologies and approaches for dealing with their employees in mentoring fashion. The dictatorship, authoritarian, or micromanaging should be avoided.

Firstly ask the employees firstly to evaluate themselves and then getting feedback from their managers, rather than the managers evaluate the performance without the employees input this will make the employees aware about lacking of their leadership qualities.

An organization should develop an annual plan, mission, statement, goals and objectives for every employee of the organization from top level to lowest level. Stress the importance of how all job position and classification are important from the lowest paid to the highest paid position.

Promote from within the organization rewarding and promoting employees who display leadership qualities.

Role of Leadership – Within each business organization, the role of the leader varies depending upon the requirements of their job. Most leaders take on the role of a planner, an organiser, a controller, a communicator, a delegator and a coach. Leaders also take on the role of accepting responsibility for reaching an organization’s goals.

The basic job of the leader is to win the energy and commitment of people at all levels of the company towards improving the performance of the organization as a system. This means, they will need to develop their ability to release the intelligence, creativity and initiative of people throughout the organization, particularly those who have been traditionally executed, and then to integrate those initiatives towards an agreed vision of the future and to solving the problems encountered on the way.

There are a number of principles of leadership that leaders must follow including:

Knowing themselves and seeking self-improvement;

Being technically proficient;

Seeking responsibility and taking responsibility for their actions;

Making sound and timely decisions;

Setting the example;

Knowing their people and looking out for their well-being;

Keeping their people informed;

Developing a sense of responsibility in their people;

Ensuring that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished;

Training their people as a team; and

Using the full capabilities of their organizations.

Leaders are clear about their business values and beliefs. Strong leaders set an example and build commitment. They keep people and projects on course by behaving consistently with these values and modeling how they expect others to act. Leaders also plan and break projects down into achievable steps, creating opportunities for small wins. They make it easier for others to achieve goals by focusing on key priorities.

Leaders must recognize that they do not have all the answers. They must be willing to listen, reflect, and learn, openly and honestly, and reach across conventional boundaries to embrace new knowledge and new ways of leading. These leaders we can confidently follow, for they will be sufficiently generous and assured to lead the way into emotionally unc

LEADERSHIP

Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This guide will help you in the leadership.

For inspire your workers into high level of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continue work and study. Good leaders are continuous working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are not resting on their happiness.

Before we get started, let’s define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.

Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, value, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader.

*The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership

· Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.

· Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:

Types of leaders:

There exist many types of leaders in the organization some of them are as follows:

Leader by the position achieved:

These are the leaders who perform development activities in the organization these leaders lead people because of their position achieved by success in organization

Leader by personality, charisma:

Charisma: charisma is quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he or she is set apart from the ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural superhuman or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. The personal charm of the person influences us. These types of leaders are known as charismatic leaders. Mahatma Gandhi was also an example of charismatic leader. The charismatic leaders have the ability to carry the masses with them. They have a great deal of emotional appeal. Swami Vivekananda was another charismatic leader.

Some characteristic of charismatic leaders are

– Followers accept the leader unquestioningly.

– Followers obey the leader willingly.

– Followers belief is similar to the leader’s beliefs.

– Followers trust the correctness of the leader’s belief.

Leader by moral example

These leaders are having a special type of status in the organization they are goal oriented having some moral values towards the organization and as well as in the social life.

Leader by power held

These leaders are special type of leaders having position/designation in the organization they are been given authorities and responsibilities to handle the group in any manner. They seem to be strict to some extent to achieve goal they can even punish the employees if the expected task was not found by the individual.

Intellectual leader

Intellectual leader is the one who has medium-term perspective. He has an inside out where his main focus is on his own organization. His main function is to develop organization’s systems and processes. He reconciles conflicting interests. He develops and champions a strong culture. He ensures effective running of whole organization by using and innovating corporate knowledge and recruiting and retaining talent.

Leader because of ability to accomplish things:

The leaders of this quality are hard worker, having the great ability to handle the situation as well as conflicts between the employees they are more commonly oriented to their goal their skill results in achievement of the goal.

Visionary leader:

Visionary leader is the one who has a long-term perspective, who is externally oriented and has a broad interest in industry, economy, regulations, and politics. His tasks include forming a mission statement, vision and values. He is supposed to transform and structure the organization to ensure survival and growth. Example of visionary leader can be a director, senior executive, chair and head of school, senior partner etc.

Fulfillment leader:

Fulfillment leader is the one who has a short-term perspective. He is a knowledge expert who is result oriented and who has customer service thinking. He pleases the customer by delivering results on time. He makes continuous improvement by unlocking individual potential and optimum usage of resources.

Autocratic and democratic leader:

An autocratic leader takes decisions and imposes them on the group, expecting group members to put them in to effect without questioning the reasons for them. The democratic leader, on the other hand, encourages the members of his or her group to share the decision making process and sees himself as a coordinator of group effort, rather as the decision taker.

Transactional Leader

Transactional leaders are the ones who take the initiative in offering some form of need satisfaction in return for something valued by the employees, such as pay promotion, improved job satisfaction or recognition. The leader sets clear goals, and is adept at understanding the needs of employees and selects appropriate, motivating rewards.

There various other types of leader are similar to these types only all the leaders act as per the situation in the organization.

Why the leaders are required although there are manager’s to organization? Or manager’s V/S leader’s

MANGERS

LEADERS

Focus on things :

Mangers mainly focus on the things like what is to be done for the organization, what will be the results etc.

Do the right things :

The managers perform their task in right way.

Plan :

Managers mainly do planning, what is too done, for whom to be done, when to be done they are responsible for defining the goals etc.

Organize:

Managers organize they way to allocate resources, assigns tasks, and goes about accomplishing its goals. In the process of organizing, managers arrange a framework that links all workers, tasks, and resources together so the organizational goals can be achieved

Direct :

Directing is the process that many people would most relate to managing. It is supervising, or leading workers to accomplish the goals of the organization.

Control :

The controlling function involves the evaluation activities that managers perform. It is the process of determining if the company’s goals and objectives are being met. This process also includes correcting situations in which the goals and objectives are not being met.

Follow the rules :

Mangers follow the rules having set of standard to achieve the goals.

Focus on people:

The leaders focus on people how they will perform the task in effective and efficient manner by motivating the employees.

Do the right things:

Leaders also perform the task in the right way because they are also goal oriented.

Inspire:

The leaders inspire the people working in the organization for the achievement of plan.

Influence:

Leaders influence the people of the organization to allocate the resources, perform the task and accomplish the organizational goal.

Motivate:

The leaders motivate the employees by giving rewards and awards for the accomplishment of goals.

Build:

Maintain a level of consistency in the organization between the employees for the goals.

Shape entities:

By motivating, influencing leaders make the entities(employees) to be developed in all activities such as in terms of organizational needs as well as in the social life and personal life also.

“Power” is a measure of an individual’s potential to get others to do what he or she wants them to do, as well as to avoid being forced by others to do what he or she does not want to do.

Powerful managers gain and maintain really sizable amounts of power by moving into positions that control key contingencies for their organizations. They do so because they recognize that as long as their organization has to compete with others to get support from its environment, those who can manage the most problematic environmental contingencies are really the most important people in the organization. Everyone in an organization must depend on a powerful manager, and that situation gives him or her great deal of power!

Where do leaders get their power that is their capacity to influence? Work actions or decisions five sources of leader power have been identified legitimate, coercive, reward, expert, and referent.

Legitimate power and authority are the same. Legitimate power represents the power a leader has as a result of his or her position in the organization. Although people in positions of authority are also likely to have reward and coercive power, legitimate power is broader than power to coerce and reward.

Coercive power is the power a leader has to punish or control. Followers react to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if they don’t comply. Managers typically have some coercive power, such as being able to suspend or demote employees or to assign them work they find unpleasant or undesirable.

Reward power is the power to give positive rewards. These can be anything that a person values, such as money, favorable performance appraisals, promotions, interesting work assignments, friendly colleagues and preferred work assignments, friendly colleagues and preferred work shifts or sales territories.

Expert Power is power that’s based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. If an employee has skills, knowledge, or expertise that’s critical to a work group, that person’s expert power is enhanced.

Referent power is the power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or personal traits. If I admire you and want to be associated with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you. Referent power develops out admiration of another and a desire to be like that person.

Most effective leaders rely on several different forms of power to affect the behavior and performance of their followers.

If you want to get things done in a group or organization, it helps to have power. As a manager who wants to maximize your power, you will want to increase others dependence on you. You can for instance increase your power in relation to your boss by developing knowledge or a skill that she needs and for which she perceives no ready substitute. But power is a two way street. You will not alone in attempting to build your power bases. Particularly employees and peers will be seeking to make you dependent on them. The result is a continual battle. There is evidence that people respond differently to the various power bases. Expert and referent power are derived from an individual’s personal qualities. The power of your boss may also play a role in determining your job satisfaction. One of the reasons many of us like to work for and with people who are powerful is that they are more pleasant- not because it is their native disposition, but because the reputation and reality of being powerful permits them more discretion and more ability to delegate to others.

LITRATURE REVIEW -Over the past century, there has been a lot of work and thought given to the development of various leadership theories. From that work, we have got transformational leadership, situational leadership theories, and behavioral theories. But very little has been written from a theory standpoint about ethical leadership.

Part of the problem stems from the fact that the word “ethical” describes a constraint placed on the leader, and not their approach to leading. In some way, this was addressed by Burns in his description of transactional leaders. Some people use the term “ethical” interchangeably with the word “moral” – a concept addressed by Burns.

Ethics and leadership both seem to be abstract and ambiguous-so imagine what happens when we discuss ethical leadership. Ethical leadership is not about how to lead to reach specific goals, but what ethical affects leadership has. Ethics are not morals themselves but the meaning of moral ways and actions. Ethics do not decide, nor do they take decisions away. They serve as a means of guidance-to find answers, make decisions, and know how to justify them.

Leadership is about those who are in a position to make decisions; create opinions and attitudes. It is more than just managing. Because leaders have to lead by example, their words, actions, and values play a huge role in their success. Responsibility and credibility are two of the most important elements of leadership; each is deeply based on the interaction with others. Because every action, even the smallest, has an impact, ethics is always part of the decision-making process. Ethics are not a cookbook for great decisions. Leaders know that every decision has to be carried by responsibility and credibility. To be recognized as a leader requires exuding trust. Remember that for many the values and ethics of the leader have to match their own understanding of those.

Fenwick Feng Jing, Macquarie University, Australia Gayle C. Avery, Macquarie University, Australia- Both researchers and practitioners have devoted considerable attention to the potential effects of leadership on organizational performance. Despite increased research into the leadership-performance relationship, major gaps still remain in our understanding. This paper reviews the published literature and identifies these gaps, highlighting implications for future research into the leadership-performance relationship.

Leland and Bailey-(US BANK) Customers love and cherish companies that treat them the way they want to be treated. Sometimes customers will even pay more to get good service. Effective communication and the established relationship with the customers are the essence of customer service. Every interaction with a customer or potential customer is an opportunity for gathering feedback, searching out needs, and implementing changes that can make an organization more customers centric. One key to business success is customer loyalty.

Leadership Styles: Relationship Between Employer And Employee-

Chris Harrison is a self employed contractor. He works out of Newfield New York. He was interviewed on two different occasions about a month apart with the aim of finding out how he felt about his work. During these two interviews a major sociological theme emerged. Chris believes that his leadership style reflects the relationship that he has with his workers and the productivity that they get done.

(McShane S & Travaglione, ) When mentioning leadership, what often come to people minds are an individual leader, extreme power, high responsibility, orders and respect from others. In most documentation, leadership is considered to be a broad term that involves leaders, followers, influence process, goals, tasks, people and changes.

Jeffrey Horey- More and more, organizations are using competency frameworks to describe the Expectations and requirements of their leaders. But the methods, definitions, and results of leadership competency modeling vary greatly across organizations. For leader development purposes, a competency framework that focuses on the functions of leadership will help align training, development, and performance management processes and better communicates how Leadership contributes to organizational success. It is particularly important to focus on the Behavioral aspects of leadership in an organization that promotes only from within and expects all its members to become leaders.

Katherine A decelles- Charismatic leadership and its powerful effects on followers and organizations have been widely studied by management scholars. Charisma as the special power of a person to inspire fascinating, loyalty etc. As a basis for research scholars often draw on max Weber’s definition of charisma as an individual personality quality in which the leader is considered extraordinary and treated as endowed with supernatural powers or qualities.

F.Williams Brown- A study involving 440 university faculty members in 70 different academic departments explored the relationship between transactional and contingent reward leadership behaviors by university department chairs and faculty satisfaction result indicated that the idealized influence factor of transformational leadership was significantly more predictive of desired organizational outcomes than predictive in the setting. The unique characteristics of the employment arrangements and psychological contract between faculty and their institutions may make charismatic, relationship-oriented leadership a key determinant of department chair effectiveness.

W.K KELLOGG- Leadership for institutional change initiative the author argue for expanding the conventional notion of leadership required for higher education change. In addition to completely envisioning, organizing, and enacting change, we believe that change agents must become more familiar with the philosophical and scholarly traditions associated with the substance of intended change.

Richard POWEEL- This study examines the self reported leadership practices of a group of principals in South Africa. All subjects completed the leadership practices inventory which measured five characteristics of leadership practice, challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way and encouraging the heart.

MARY SUE POLLEYS- This article addresses the need for institutions of higher education to be involved in the development of leaders who believe that power and authority are for helping others grow. A description of the servant leadership programs at Columbus state university is offered as one university’s effort to address this need. Students commit to leadership development through academic study, extensive community service and monitoring. The purposes of this paper are to explain the servant leadership philosophy and how it interfaces with major leadership theories and to describe how the philosophy is being applied through the CSU program.

Michael F. Beaudoin- The proliferation of instructional technology in the past decade, particularly In higher education settings is having a profound impact on how teaching and learning now occurs, and is transforming the means by which institutions and support an emerging worldwide market across time and distance yet leadership.

Schools today face unprecedented challenges and pressures, which have changed our understanding of what it takes to be an effective school leader. More than ever before, schools must be responsive to diverse constituencies outside the school walls. Parents, community groups, businesses, and the government all make demands-many of which conflict with one another (DuFour, 2003). At the same time, students’ social and emotional development, as well as their academic growth, has come to be seen by many as an essential school responsibility (Bencivenga & Elias, 2003). Given these pressures, it is not surprising that new programs that promise to help schools address a variety of critical issues are being developed all the time. New programs and policies are constantly introduced by external sources as the latest solution to low-performing schools and student achievement. Fullan (2000, 2001) warns school leaders that there is no magic solution to making schools successful. Rather, leaders should make an effort to learn good leadership practices to help ensure that whatever changes and change process they do adopt are as successful as possible.

FINDINGS- There is different perception of scholars and managers regarding leadership but according to my point of view when organization face new challenges there should be effective work in the organization. You have new ideas in your mind regarding different new challenges and manager would take decisions from the lower employees also. Leader helps organizations to achieve current objective by providing tasks to the employees or subordinates. Organization needs strong leadership and strong management for effectiveness. In today’s world leaders to challenge the status to create visions of the future, and to inspire organizational members to want to achieve the visions. We also need managers to formulate detailed plans, create efficient organizational structures, and see day to operations. Leadership plays an important role in understanding group behavior; it is the leader who usually provides direction to the employees towards goal attainment. But the charismatic leaders are the qualities of the individual’s personality by virtue of which he or she apart from ordinary people and treated as supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional power or qualities. Are Charismatic leaders born with their qualities? Or can people learn actually how to be charismatic leaders? The answer to both questions is yes.

It is true that individuals are born with traits that make them charismatic. Charismatic leaders willing to take high risks, and engage in self sacrifice to achieve the vision. Transformational leadership and charismatic leadership both are same. Leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. If the person is doing great job in the organization then there are rewards given to the subordinates for the good performance. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership and when this trust is broken it can have serious adverse effects on group performance. Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership.

After analyzing the whole term paper on developing leadership in an organization I could derived that leadership is most important commodity for any organization that’s leads success of the organization because leadership is consent with leading people, influencing people, guiding people, commanding people.

For to become a successful company, what company need too, improve standard of its employees, create new ideas, go above and beyond its mission, and exceed the set goal and objectives, and should understand how to develop leadership qualities in their employees.

For the best leadership in the organization the leader must progress slowly to come over financial and cultural progress this needs because of every organization is having different culture, different norms and laws and should proceed step by step not directly.

Come Fly with Me: A History of Airline Leadership:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article introduce a new book looks at the history of the U.S. aviation industry through the eyes of its entrepreneurs, managers, and leaders-men like Pan Am’s Juan Trippe and Southwest Airlines’ Herb Kelleher-each emerging at different stages of the industry’s evolution from start-up to rebirth.

Can the “mask of command” coexist with authentic leadership:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article list out some elements of authentic leadership they are:”(1) pursuing purpose with passion: Authentic leaders must first understand themselves and their passions, (2) practicing solid values: values are personal, but integrity is required of all leaders, (3) leading with heart: it means having passion for your work, compassion for the people you serve, empathy for the people you work with, and the courage to make difficult decisions, (4) establishing enduring relationships: people insist on access to, as well as openness and depth of relationships with, their leaders, (5) demonstrating self-discipline: this requires accepting full responsibility for outcomes and holding others accountable for their performance.”

Uncompromising leadership in tough times:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: Articles relates as companies batten down the hatches, we need leaders who do not compromise on standards and values that are essential in flush times. Fortunately, such leaders do exist. Their insights can help other organizations weather the current crisis.

The Authentic Leader:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: The article relate that best leaders are not the “follow me over the hill” type, Rather, they’re the people who lead from the heart as well as the head, and whose leadership style springs from their fundamental character and values.

How important is “Executive intelligence” for leaders:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article was published on july 5th . It relates that Leadership talent is enjoying a perceived “seller’s market,” As we select and train future leaders for all levels of our organizations, how much effort do we really spend assessing executive intelligence as opposed to personality and style?

Asian and American leadership styles. How are they unique:

Source: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/topics/leadershipstyle.html

Analysis: This article tells business leadership is at the core of Asian economic development, the American and Asian leadership styles, while very different, also share important similarities.

In today’s world, business organizations need effective leadership in order for them to continue to be successful. Without this, organizations cannot function correctly or achieve company goals and visions. Effective leadership is dependent upon the role of the leader and whether or not they can ensure their employees meet company objectives and standards. This assignment will critically examine the role of leadership as a contributing factor to contemporary organizational success.

Effective leaders are made not born. If an individual has the desire and will power, then they can become a successful leader. Leaders develop through a never-ending process of learning, education, training and experience.

In order to inspire people to achieve higher levels of work, there are a few things a leader must be, know and do. These do not come naturally however are acquired through continual work and study. Effective leaders are individuals who are continually working and studying to improve their leadership styles and skills).

How to Promote Leadership Qualities within the Workplace?

For to become a successful company, company need to improve standard of its employees, create new ideas, go above and beyond its mission, and exceed the set goal and objectives, and should understand how to develop leadership qualities in their employees. To promote leadership qualities at workplace

Good leadership qualities compromise of team building, helping others, improving strategy and come up with new ideas without being asked to do so, and leadership is not about the firing orders to perform forcefully, making demands. Gather and discuss identify what leadership qualities are within the organization.

Form a leadership committee, once the leadership is properly defined put a leadership recognition program who will select employees who are displaying the leadership roles in the organization. The leadership committee should provide the rewards to employee displaying leadership by conducting a survey by asking the employees opinion on what forms of recognition and rewards they would like to receive. Some good ideas of rewards are designated parking spots, bonus compensation, certificates and plaques, free lunch with CEO etc.

Employees should be provided leadership training; the training should include information, strategies and techniques on developing leadership qualities. The procedure for selecting the employees for rewards by leadership committee is to do an outstanding job of displaying leadership characteristics and qualities.

Organization should treat the employees as like leaders, the managers and supervisors should be trained with new styles, methodologies and approaches for dealing with their employees in mentoring fashion. The dictatorship, authoritarian, or micromanaging should be avoided.

Firstly ask the employees firstly to evaluate themselves and then getting feedback from their managers, rather than the managers evaluate the performance without the employees input this will make the employees aware about lacking of their leadership qualities.

An organization should develop an annual plan, mission, statement, goals and objectives for every employee of the organization from top level to lowest level. Stress the importance of how all job position and classification are important from the lowest paid to the highest paid position.

Promote from within the organization rewarding and promoting employees who display leadership qualities.

Role of Leadership – Within each business organization, the role of the leader varies depending upon the requirements of their job. Most leaders take on the role of a planner, an organiser, a controller, a communicator, a delegator and a coach. Leaders also take on the role of accepting responsibility for reaching an organization’s goals.

The basic job of the leader is to win the energy and commitment of people at all levels of the company towards improving the performance of the organization as a system. This means, they will need to develop their ability to release the intelligence, creativity and initiative of people throughout the organization, particularly those who have been traditionally executed, and then to integrate those initiatives towards an agreed vision of the future and to solving the problems encountered on the way.

There are a number of principles of leadership that leaders must follow including:

Knowing themselves and seeking self-improvement;

Being technically proficient;

Seeking responsibility and taking responsibility for their actions;

Making sound and timely decisions;

Setting the example;

Knowing their people and looking out for their well-being;

Keeping their people informed;

Developing a sense of responsibility in their people;

Ensuring that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished;

Training their people as a team; and

Using the full capabilities of their organizations.

Leaders are clear about their business values and beliefs. Strong leaders set an example and build commitment. They keep people and projects on course by behaving consistently with these values and modeling how they expect others to act. Leaders also plan and break projects down into achievable steps, creating opportunities for small wins. They make it easier for others to achieve goals by focusing on key priorities.

Leaders must recognize that they do not have all the answers. They must be willing to listen, reflect, and learn, openly and honestly, and reach across conventional boundaries to embrace new knowledge and new ways of leading. These leaders we can confidently follow, for they will be sufficiently generous and assured to lead the way into emotionally unc

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