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Human resource management plays an important role in the success of organisation to achieve its objectives. HRM has significant position in overall organisation structure and strategic role in overall organisation strategies. As it is clear from the case of Care a non profit organisation, it is quite clear that in the past they were focusing on personnel management, putting too much focus on creation of new posts but hiring employee's haphazardly, ignoring the quality, skills or competence for the required job. Personnel management is a very traditional narrow approach in which hiring and firing was administrative function, people were hired without proper experience and considered as tool rather than resource. Jobs were being allocated without understanding of the requirement of jobs. There was no training development program to improve the efficiency of staff members. People were hired as a reaction of demand rather than anticipating future needs. There were no standard that could be used to assess the performance of employees. Whereas, HRM is strategic management function. It's a system that focuses on knowledge, skill, abilities and competence of staff. HRM has a wider approach; it's an on-going development of employees and continuously identifies the need for organisation. The scope of HRM is wider as it put emphasis on organisation as whole and prepares policies and procedures for development of employees. It's clear from the case study that CARE performance has improved tremendously after the introduction of Human resource management. It has become integral part of CARE structure and provides support as a backbone of organisation. CARE has moved out from Personnel management to Human resource management. Job descriptions are prepared after detailed job analysis. Such job analysis also help CARE to prepare job specification, reward, screening, interviewing, training and development program.
The role of HR practitioners varied according to the size and structure of organisation. There are no and fast rules that defines role and responsibility of HR practitioner. However, normally HR practitioner works closely with line manager and very much aware of organisation strategically needs and requirement. It's also provides help to management to in identifying strengths and weakness of organisation and provide recommendation. HR practitioner provides help in implementing business strategy. at strategically level, HR practitioner design and implement organisation strategies ensuring that strategies are aligned with organisational objectives and help line managers in implementing such strategies. Cooperation lies in the heart of strategy development and implementation. Any new strategy brings change in the organisation and there is always resistance among employees and management to accept such change. HR practitioner prepares grounds and facilitates change in the organisation.
HR practitioner performs different task in the growth and development of organisation. These tasks involves, initially, performing job analysis, prepare job description and job specification. It also involves identifying the need of training at the time appointment of employee or during the job. As mentioned earlier that HRM is on-going function, HR practitioner are responsible for implementing appraisal system in the organisation to evaluate and review the performance of employees. Its function is to establish key performance indicators. One of HR practitioner task is to provide instruction to staff and maintain tidy workplace. They also deal with staff grievances and disciplinary matters. HR practitioner also decides the level and required skill of staff for the required job.
The activities of HR practitioner are formulating organisation strategy, provide ongoing support to line manager and proactive in identifying the need of resource and provide advice to line manager to improve performance and efficiency in work. So far as it appear from the CARE scenario that the HR practitioner. They have recognised the requirement of HRM after facing serious problems and put too much emphasis on HRM. After the implementation of HRM, HRM has proven that it is CARE wise decision and brought significant changes in CARE. Fortune magazine also recognised the change in CARE.
The role and responsibility of Line managers in HR practice
Line managers are responsible for a group of people, they are normally responsible for people management, managing operating cost, providing technical expertise and monitoring process. Line managers have strategic role, operational role and outside of organisation as well. However, the role and responsibility of line manager in HR Practice is to identify the training needs, also highlighting who should be trained and in what manner. Line manager work closely with HRM and some time, there is a danger that line manager involvement may limit the function of HRM. Different reports have highlighted that line manager involvement in HR practice in training and development of employees has positive effect on overall organisation performance and it improves the commitment of employees towards organisation goals. Line manager roles not only restrict to identification of training needs but they also play important role in selection of employees, induction of new employees, employees budgeting and forecasting, performance appraisal, providing feedback for efficiency of disciplinary procedures and evaluation of appraisal. Due to heavy involvement by line managers in HR practice it become joints responsibility of line managers and HR to report and highlight strategic issue. Such sharing and involvement allow HRM to focus on strategically issues of organisation. In case of CARE, a non-profit organisation, facilitating in different ways worldwide, i.e. sponsoring school lunch, maternal health, disaster relief, forestation etc. Even the structure seems not complex but it involves different function and requires greater deal of skills and competence to manage every function efficiently and effectively. It has faced serious problem in human resource. But the top level of management had considered and recognised the need of HRM and given priority in over all organisation structure and strategy. it is clear from the change in CARE human resource development and policies that both line manager and HR practice has worked together in bringing that drastic change in CARE. In a non profit organisation, the reward system is always considered as big problem in the development and also resulted in high turnover along with unskilled recruitment. But HR practice and line manager in CARE has overcome this problem efficiently and effectively by raising staff salaries to attract skilled people and providing training and development to meet organisation objectives.
M1: Strategies to determine that employees understand their job description
A good performance appraisal helps the organisation to improve productivity with limited resources. The productivity as much important for the CARE a non profit organisation as much for a profit making organisation. No organisation wants to a pay more to inefficient worker. However, in CARE case it was being done at the early time. Performance appraisal is very useful technique to assess employee performance and allow equitable treatment among employees. Organisation can easily postpone the appraisal until a real danger knocks its doors. Though, it is effective measurement technique that is used to evaluate the performance of staff. There might be resistance among employee who do not perform efficiently and effectively and create barriers in appraisal. However, HRM should promote the atmosphere of discipline, equitable treatment and non-bias attitude towards them, ensuring that it is best for both of them.
CARE can use several performance appraisal techniques to assess employee performance and to ensure that employee fully understand their job description and working according to the job description. It includes the following techniques
Critical incident method
Weighted checklist method
Paired comparison analysis
Graphic Rating method
Performance ranking method
Management by objectives
Trait behavioural check list
Every strategy has benefits and limitation. For CARE, management by objective, a very well known and more comprehensive technique, in which staff member establish the objectives with the help of managers and decide the time period in which they have to achieve or trait behavioural checklist techniques is most appropriate. Trait behavioural checklist technique is less time consuming and less biased as compare to other techniques.
In the modern business world every organisation has efficient and effective training and development programme in place. Human resource is considered as asset rather than a tool. Organisations have considered the fact that investment in employee will improve the performance of organisation in meeting its objective and also improve employee morale. There are different ways available for staff training. At very first step CARE HRM must decide the goals of training programme, length of training and the depth of training that is required to fully understand the job description. A formal training will include the following aspects.
At first stage organisation is decide the goals of training. Organisation should bear in mind that it's an investment rather than expense. There should be a clear consensus on level and depth of training programme. How the training will be provided.
Time and Cost/Benefit Analysis
Time is the biggest constraint in any development programme. Probably organisation don't have unlimited time. So the training programme should be precise, efficient and effective. HRM must provide a detail cost benefit analysis of training to top level of management.
Management and trainee commitment
There should be clear consensus between management regarding training programme and its objectives.
Training material should be concise and to the point. Trainer should consider that putting too much burden on new employee will be stressful for both of them. The Quality of training is very much dependent on commitment of both parties.
Location of training has important place in any training programme. Hence, the selection of location depends on nature of job and training programme. It could be on job training or off job training.
At the end of training, HRM should establish evaluate the performance of employee to ensure that trainee fully understand the requirement of job and how to perform in best manner.
For a new employee, a formal training programme should be in place. CARE can consider workshops, seminars, e-learning, video or manuals depending on the nature of training programme. It depends on nature of job. Each method has its own benefit and limitations.
The objective of human resources planning is to ensure that there are sufficient numbers of competent and motivated employees to meet an organization's need now, and for the foreseeable future.
The use of an HRMS in strategic corporate decision-making should result in improved:
understanding of the human resources implications of business/operational strategies;
awareness of the experience, knowledge and ability in the organization's employees;
selection/development of potential replacements for key/vulnerable positions.