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The world economy continues to grow, science and technology increasing updates, which provide enormous wealth for the whole society, these advances have brought more uncertainty to the society, especially in management circles, what kind of management is the most good management, there has been no conclusion, and what kind of leadership or leadership style is the best, there is no unified opinion. it give the managers and leaders an extremely serious challenges and tests with rapid changes in the world, in the background of the social environment in this growing trend of globalization, the business environment faced diversified information, it appear transformational leadership theory in late 70's in the twenties century, the theory proposed make the leadership had a major revolution.
Transformational Leadership Theory
Follow the leadership traits theory leadership theory, leadership contingent theory, Transformational leadership is a leader type that the American political sociologist James â€¢ McGregor â€¢ Burns proposed in the 80's in the last century (Bass, Riggio, 2006). Transformational leadership theory has the very inclusive nature, the theory describes its leadership role in the process, it is a very useful theoretical and practical significance theories.
In general, transformational leadership theory links the roles of leaders with subordinates and trying to improve both motivation and moral character between leaders and subordinates. Transformational leader who have leadership set an example by their behavior, concern for the needs of subordinates to optimize the interaction among members of the organization (Northouse, Northouse, 2009). At the same time, it change in the organization's atmosphere by create and promote a common vision in the organization, to create from the, and it promote adaptive changes in the organization by efficiently complete the process of the organization's objectives.
Idealized influence refers to the behavior that enables others to trust and worship and to follow, It includes leadership behavior become a model for subordinates, award subordinate recognition, respect and trust. These leaders generally have recognized high standards and strong ethical charismatic, deeply loved and trusted by subordinates (Martin, Epitropaki, 2001). Everyone agree and support vision planning that the leader advocated and high hopes for its career success.
Leaders express their high expectations to his subordinate, encouraging them to join the team and become a member of the team share the dream. In practice, the leader use of teamwork and emotional appeal to unite the efforts of subordinates in order to achieve team goals, So the obtained performance is much higher than the performance that workers struggle for self-generated interests.
It means to encourage subordinates innovation, challenge them; including the leader infusion new ideas to subordinate, inspire subordinates and encourage subordinates express new ideas with new tools and new methods to solve work problems. it generate the formation of stimulating in the sense of beliefs and values of subordinates Through intellectual leadership inspire (Simon Moss,2009).
Personalized care is means care of each subsidiary, value personal needs, abilities and aspirations, patience and careful listening, and training and guidance to each of a subordinate under different circumstances of each subsidiary and the to distinguish needs. Then, Transformational leaders like a coaches and consultants to help employees cope with the challenges in the process of growth.
How the Transformation leaders motivate employees
Transformational leadership improves the level of staff input on the mission and enhances performance by demonstrating charismatic behavior and encouraging behavior. Compare with subordinates with transactional leadership, subordinate job performance is better with transformational leadership, it have higher job satisfaction, and less role conflict. The enterprise managers should be more developed as transformational leadership.
â-Building shared vision
A good leader should be good at establishing a common vision for the enterprise. Shared vision is like the banner and soul of an enterprise, as ubiquitous as the air, enveloped in the organization, it can produce trickle, unite as one force that can motivate members to achieve the goals ahead. However, some enterprises often ignore shaping a common vision ¼Œthey not realize the tremendous business benefits perhaps because of shared vision gives ,the common vision make a thought, impractical , and unreal feeling (Gooty, e tal ,2009).
In fact, the shared vision makes employees go beyond their own efforts to achieve greater goals. But establishment of the shared vision need each employee participates in, which involves a different world view, values integration. The vision established by the staff to participate in represents the hopes and aspirations of all employees, with great appeal, which can stimulate the creativity of staff, and have enormous enthusiasm for innovation to achieve the objective of promoting enterprise development.
â-Create a learning organization
Innovation is the key to continue winning high ground, creating a learning organization has become a trend. Everyone has the will and motivation to learn, in a strong organizational learning environment, this will be fulfilled with the desire to achieve, employee satisfaction, job performance will improve (Peterson, e tal, 2009). With continuous improvement of staff knowledge, their thinking will be more comprehensive, it will encourage them to use new methods and new tools to solve work problems. This is a reflection of transformational leadership in the "intelligence excited,"ã€€
â-Use effective incentives
Personalized care required leader's different treatment and different interest for each employee according to the circumstances. The world is not exactly the same two people; each person's situation is different (Hoyt, Blascovich.2003). Organizations can implement flexible benefits system to meet the different needs of each person; each person's potential into full play through tailor-made for everyone, career development planning. each person grow as a "complete person . " through training and education, In addition, the employee stock ownership plan, innovative award scheme, capacity priority programs, job rotation schemes also regarded as effective incentives .
â-Combine with the transactional leadership and transformational leadership
Transactional leadership and transformational leadership is a different point on the continuum, rather than independent of each other. While theory of transformational leadership have a positive effect, but because of its abstract concept, it not have a good operation in practice (Hacker, Roberts, 2003), therefore, the manager only combine with transactional leadership and transformational leadership, and penetrated the transformational leadership in the transactional leadership behavior, so that shared vision will be able to get the best expression.
The reasons that followers resist transformational leaders
Employee's difficult trade-offs between the personal interests and the overall interests of the company. In general, business transformational leadership's goal is to pursue the maximization of the overall interests of enterprises, which is consistent with the fundamental interests for all stakeholders within the organization, but maximize organizational benefits need a stakeholder to achieve an effective combination, which is bound to all the rights and interests subject to re-distribute within the organization (Wolfram,Mohr,2009). Thus, the vested interests of some groups and individuals may be lost. This requires the corporate staff should have sense of overall interest, and look at the meaning of change from the organization's overall interests and global interests. However, in reality, a number of followers resist the transformational leadership for their own personal interests and short-term interests.
Employees doubt their ability that change is a threat to their own. Organizational change is often accompanied by changes in technology and personnel changes. Each change implement is put forward higher requirements for all of the employees within the enterprise (Weichun, e tal, 2009). Advanced production line of metallurgy, the establishment of the office automation, new technologies are requiring employees to continuously upgrade their knowledge and ability to adapt to the needs of business change. Some employees worried that their technology is outdated. Once an enterprise changes its position, they will be eliminated or challenged, so they prefer the status stable.
A case study
Gerstner became the CEO of IBM in 1993, Gerstner felt that, IBM would be a company with excellent culture traditionally, the excellent characteristics of culture maintained IBM's continued outstanding. But when Gerstner took over IBM, IBM has been out of these basic beliefs of actual culture. Gerstner have more sensitive feelings on IBM and cultural shortcomings. Gerstner began his IBM's overall reform In order to restore IBM culture. Gerstner did not start to take disruptive cultural change strategy. It implements corporate culture change from Customers.
First of all, on the first client meeting, Gerstner declared that it implement the company's priority strategy begin with customer orientation, meanwhile ,it give more freedom to researchers to enable them to boldly implement research programs based on customer. In Gerstner's initiative, IBM has implemented a warm embrace; require 50 senior managers to visit one of the largest customers in each of at least 3 months. Warm embrace culture change program is the first step, and in this step, Gerstner integrate cultural ideas of the members in the enterprise through the operation behavior, which reduce the resistance of its cultural change objectively. In this process, Gerstner make corporate members believe that their business integration can create greater value which will directly benefit their own, and, if they can not achieve good business integration, the company will face a huge crisis. Gerstner zoom and focus the company's crisis, which makes members believe that maintaining the status stable is a very bad thing.
At the same time, Gerstner has decisively to treat the personnel who resist the corporate change. Gerstner also cleverly designed to the detail, such as reward, recognition. It make members can be effectively encouraged on the spirit in the material.
Each factors of transformational leadership, including leading torque, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration which are closely linked with job performance, and can predict job performance of employees. In fact, transformational leadership encourages subordinates to complete the more difficult goal, and solve the problem from new and different perspective, while promoting self-development staff. As a result of the leadership influence, employees have the motivation of the work from the heart with the commitment of leaders, he completes the task according to their level of development and achievement of objectives and potential significance, culminating in the completion of its over- expected performance. In other words, transformational leadership can help subordinates to achieve maximum performance levels by directing subordinates transcend self-interest and instill subordinate about the organizations common values.