Effect Of Training On Employees Turnover Management Essay

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Training is the bridge used by the company to bridge between the company employees and the technology needed or available in the company, in order to assure mastering of employees a specific skill needed by employee's job and identified by training needs assessment conducted by the company

Training playing a vital role in the development of the company and acts as vertical column for the growth of the business of any company through acquiring its employees skills needed for performing their jobs in the desired and planned way by the company, so the acquired skills has a direct impact on the company productivity and give a comparative advantage to the company to compete in the changing economy climate nowadays.

There are many factors affecting training, but the most important factor is the company commitment towards training and development to its employees which will create Trust Bridge between the company and the employees, which enhance and support the relationship between the company and the employees

Employee's turnover is a serious problem facing company due to the financial implications starting from advertising, recruiting, selecting and training, but that not all but also the company product quality and cost also will be affected

Employee's turnover has many causes as, salary, management, benefits, working environment and training, some of it called push factors or internal factors created by the company and some other factors called pull factors or external factor where employee leave for better salary package

Training has a direct effect on employee's turnover; mainly it's positive and minimizes the turnover rate but sometimes it's negative as employees leave to another company as a result of acquiring new skills seeking another company paying higher salary or benefits

Research Objective

The objective of the research is to identify what is meant by training, the role of training in an organization, different methods of training, identify factors affecting training process, detect the effect of training on employee's turnover

Research question

Training has a vital and direct impact on building employee's capacity, improving employee's performance and employee's competences which subsequently has a positive impact on the organizational performance (R., Dec2010 ), therefore Organization with high attention to provide training with a well-designed and suitable training to employees' to build the capacity of the employees' through professional trainer, will assist and contribute on employees' job satisfaction and minimize turnover ratio (Louden, Sep2012 ) as employees' turnover is a disaster for the firm as it's become difficult to keep a constant and fruitful production flow (Shamsuzzoha & Shumon, 2007), thus .the research will try to answer the following question

What is the effect of training on employee's productivity?

1. What is training?

Training is an essential tool for the organization to achieve its objectives, through acquiring its employees the needed skills, information and knowledge in order to master their profession including the new technology and new equipment used by the company (Borchert, 2002), So Training is a transferring process of skills and knowledge needed by a job and more change employees'' behavior and attitude in a way matching organization objectives and goals, through training plan designed by the organization (Louden, Sep2012 )

Training is a continues process starts with identify the needs for training followed by plan training according to that need , implements training program and finally evaluate training outcome to measure its effect on the employees performance and productivity (Faulkner, Aug/Sep2004)

Figure Training as a system

Faulkner, M. (Aug/Sep2004). Managing Training. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management, Issue 42, page ii


System and Culture

Training is the bridge between people and technology transfer by which people learn how to use a certain technology in a professional way (Karthik.R, Feb2012).

Training is a process is not an occasion where it starts before trainees joining the training and continue till physical achievements appear in work premises, where the main objective of training to get outcomes appear clearly in work place (PIKE, Jan/Feb2011 ).

The mechanism of acquiring employees, skills, knowledge, behaviors and attitude to increase his work performance is called training, and also training is not only used to upgrade staff skills or knowledge but also to maximize their skills (R., Dec2010 )

1.2 How to create an Effective training

For an effective training program a well-defined training objective should be set in order to meet the trainees' expectation as well as the company expectation from the training (Lermont-Pape, May/Jun2002)

The first step creating a successful training is determining which training method is suiting your needs and organization , after that the company should starts to think about the next step ,which is training evaluation and measure the impact of training on the company (COHEN, September 2001)

So before the company starts to develop training and development training program the training human resource experts should put in his mind the following question:

What is the level of the employees? What do they need? How to train them? Getting key management commitment? (How to Develop the Best Training Initiatives., Aug2005 )

Effectiveness of training is mainly affect by some element which is related to the employees' themselves as their readiness and willingness to be trained and improve their skills which are very important and must be checked before going through the training process , some examples of these elements are job expectation , work routine available resources for accomplishing the employees goals in the firm ,availability of compensation and rewarding systems , well planned training programs , the existence of feedback system in the organization and finally the existence of motivation system in the firm which act as a catalyst for improving employees' performance and productivity (Bouloutian, Dec2009 ) , Training duration affect the quality of training's outcome, where two days training has no remarkable effect on the worker's progress or productivity (Melanie K. Jones & Paul L. Latreille, Mar2009 Supplement)

Training effectiveness is hardly affected by the selection criteria of trainees which should be shown on the trainee before starting training to assure that the acquiring of information and knowledge will be delivered to the trainee and these selection criteria consist of the trainee's willingness to be trained, the trainee's capabilities to perform what she/he will be trained on, and the existence of the motivation to be trained (Faulkner, Aug/Sep2004)

Setting training objective and expectation for training is the most important step but to reach successful training top management support and commitment are they key factor for that success, the top management support and commitment could be shown in providing financial resources, training facility, and encouraging participant by attending first day training (How to Develop the Best Training Initiatives., Aug2005 )

Any successful training program consist of four major steps starting from designing training program designed to train people's mind and that could be achieved through constructing training program composed of practical training rather than theories in order to acquire the trainees the lacked skills needed by each trainee and consequently each job, furthermore the trainer himself should be confident and qualified enough to provide a continuous support and convincing feedback to the trainees during training session , second step revising training process to assure that the training has been built on outcomes or finding and that can be confirmed through revising training session duration , practice versus theory distribution along the training sessions, the trainer performance , the trainer's provided support to the trainee and feedback and finally the capability of the trainees to apply all acquired new skills on their work premises skillfully and according to their firm standard's, third step is monitoring the performance of trainee in their work premises through conducting a follow-up to the employee performance on their work premises to assure the transfer of skills as a result of attending training program and to take corrective action related to training if the employees are not performing according to the desired or planned outcome from training and finally evaluate training and it should be measurable indicators for achieving training objective as increasing in employee's productivity , (BREWER, May2010)

One of the important factor affecting the effectiveness of training is Training need analysis which is the first step in constructing a training program in order to identify the employee's skills shortage related to their job in the organization (Borchert, 2002), where it is a continuous activity of collecting and analysis information in order to decide what kind of training is needed, consequently what kind of training program should be designed to meet that needs, (Brown, Winter2002)

Training needed assessment contain a list the whole skill and competences needed to perform the job , job knowledge ,job tasks , job procedures, for better and non-biased result the company better relay on external assessors , employees' supervisors and experienced employees. Participating of some employees could be very constructive in designing training program, so all of these components are formulating a good training program, (How to Develop the Best Training Initiatives., Aug2005 )

The need for developing an effective and a successful training program will lead t to identify precisely the organization's problems which will give a clear idea to the management and human resource department about the kind of problem facing the organization and which kind of training must be implemented to solve that problem , (Brown, Winter2002)

In the framework of developing an effective training program with a high quality, training should involve essential training elements which are:

1- Training needs assessment: where the trainees skills need are identified training

2- Develop training material: preparing the training document needed for the course matching the trainees training needs

3- Training program implementation: choosing the proper training method

4- Training evaluation: create a feedback mechanism in order to take a corrective action concerning training material, training method, trainer, training venue and future needs for employee's development

5- Sustain employee's training plan : developing employee's training plan must be sustained in a way that the employee's training needs is met also training needs assessment isn't conduct once but its ongoing process in order to register that needs in the employee's training plan (Nanda, Oct2009)

Figure Essential Element for training program

Training evaluation

Training program implementation

Develop training material

Training needs assessment

Sustain employee's training plan

Nanda, V. (Oct2009). An innovative method and tool for role-specific quality-training evaluation. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol. 20 Issue 10, and p1032

successful training involve many steps one the important steps that should be taken in consideration is1) making the training very precious through narrowing the selection criteria and not making it open for everyone 2) the selection should cover employees who need that knowledge and skills either once immediately or as soon as they finish the training to improve their performance 3)Manager could act as an instructor during training not for the whole period but even for a very short time.4) manager and trainees should sit together and have an open discussion about the training content , training objective and their expectation and that should be documented and reviewed once training is finished to see to what extent is the training plan is valid and realistic and take the necessary changes needed 4)measuring the training impact is an essential step to verify the wither training was useful or not and is it recommended to train other employees within the same methodology or not and could be attained through technical supervision from the trainer during employees performing in the workplace and focus group interview5)further training for what has been trained to build on transferred the knowledge and the skills (COHEN, September 2001)

1.3 Factors affecting training process

Training should not only be based on technical aspects but also training on the organization culture especially for new employees in order to digest the overall objective and to get adopt easy to the company culture (Burke, Sep72)

Management support is one of the factors affecting training process because as long as it thinks that training is losing money (Brown, Winter2002)

People involvement in practical or interactive training process rather than theory training the more effective training is (PIKE, Jan/Feb2011 )

Training duration has an effect on the training's quality outcome, where training duration less than two days has no physical effect on the worker's productivity, worker's outcome quality and worker's performance (Melanie K. Jones & Paul L. Latreille, Mar2009 Supplement)

Training objective is one of the most important factors affect the training outcomes, where company available resources and the trainees needs are put in consideration during the designing of the training itself in order to achieve training objective (Karthik.R, Feb2012).

Identifying employee's training needs, identifying the training objectives, identifying employee's skills gab, nominating proper training methods, developing training material and as it's a continues process so it has also a role at the end of training through measuring level of employees progress after acquiring the new skill in order to either enhancing training or taking corrective action that will be achieved through diagnosing the trainees weakness through conduct training need assessment which is considered to be one of the factor affecting training (Roberts, Mar2010 )

There are 6 factors may affect the training outcome , The first factor is identifying what is behind implementing training and the final outcome is an important step before starting a training, The second factor is the methodology used during implementing the training in other words the know how transfer methodology, The third factor is the practical training portions should be more than theoretical training portions , The forth factor Monitoring the trainees performance and actions to assure the transfer of the skills and knowledge in the desired or needed way ,The fifth factor is providing a continues support to the trainees and the sixth documentation of the whole training process starting from the training material till the cost benefit from the training, which gives a clear analysis for the benefit of training in terms of money and in terms of increased productivity to be viewed by the top management (Granger, Nov/Dec2004)

Lack of management support is one of the barriers facing training in a company , to overcome that barrier management should be involved through acquiring their approval and support and that can be achieved through identifying the need for training and the positive and profitable impact on the firm after conducting training ,another barrier is the missing of employee's technical data which shows his competences in order to be compared to those skills acquired after training and it would be would be easier to have a such data to have an employee's skills comparison after implementing the training in order to check the effectiveness of the implemented training session, finally identifying the budget and advantages of training for the management in terms of cost benefit analysis , showing the management the benefit of solving problem facing the company using training and the cost of conducting training to solve the problem compared to other solution (Brown, Winter2002)

Also Training need assessment is a very important factor affect the success of any training, But sometimes training needs assessment is skipped before conducting training due to the following reasons:

1. No other alternative solution rather than training

2. Lack of understanding the role and the components of training needs assessment

3. Training and development representative is not present on the stakeholder meetings

4. Mandatory implementation for training

So why training needs assessment is skipped although it's crucial role in training? Here are training and training needs assessment myths and their cure:

Myth number one: Training is the first solution

Cure: Examine earlier analyzing

Myth number Two: Time consumed by assessment is too long

Cure: Minimize Assessment process taken time through merging steps, reuse of the available and existing data and explain efforts to different training stakeholders

Myth number three: Assessment is not the management

Cure: Create cooperative tactic through linking and involving different managers from different departments

Myth number Four: Assessment is very complicated process

Cure: Train on how to conduct an assessment

Myth number Five: Assessment is very expensive

Cure: Select the most suitable method for your budget

Myth number Six: Absence of strong representative for supporting the implementation of the assessment

Cure: Acquire seniors and experts trustworthiness

Myth number Seven: Training plan is mandatory and solid

Cure: Assess training during the implementation (Roberts, Mar2010 )

1.4Training role in an organization

Why we the company train? The company trains to deliver satisfaction to the employees, delivers ethics, retaining its employees, decrease employees turnover and finally keeping customer with the company needs satisfied employees. (How to Develop the Best Training Initiatives., Aug2005 )

Training has a vital role in developing the organization as it helps the organization's employees to change their performance in a way to adopts the organization's new technology or strategy (Burke, Sep72), so training has a positive impact on the quality of the firm's output by which the employees are trained to do a specific job with a specific quality (Borchert, 2002),

Training and development contribute highly in the improvement and success of the firm as in now a day the competition between companies needs qualified staff capable to be trained and to implement the company strategy to achieve the company goal on national and international level (Faulkner, Aug/Sep2004)

The benefit of training to organization is clearly shown during the economy changing where each company must be ready to meet that changing climate, through qualifying its employees with the needed skills, knowledge and competences in order to get acquainted with the new used technology. (COHEN, September 2001) , in the same line company training is used to train the employees' to adopt the economic change and that not only as a result of acquiring new skill but due to the self-confidence they gained and self - enthusiasm and theses leads to create a worker capable to innovate which helps him to do his work in a smoother way , complete his job in shorter time , (Unknown, Mar2009)

Training has a vital and direct impact on building employee's capacity, improving employee's performance and employee's competences which subsequently has a positive impact on the organizational performance (R., Dec2010 )

Training plays an important role in improving employee's productivity and enhances their ability in performing their job as assigned.(Unknown, Mar2009)

Training develop the sense job importance to employees, and become aware how much their job is important to their company and also training train the employees' (Unknown, Mar2009)

Training is an important tool in increasing employee's productivity, product quality, and decrease the time taking in performing jobs, where the increased competition between companies increased the need for skillful worker and training plan for upgrading existing workers (Karthik.R, Feb2012)

The final goal for any organization is purely financial goal in that case the only solution to attain that goals is increasing productivity and profit so employees' training is the solution to upgrade the employees' skills, minimize employees' turnover and will which will affect the company position in the market (COHEN, September 2001)

Also in another words raining save time and save money which will impact on company's increased productivity (Unknown, Mar2009)

1.5 Training methods

Selecting training methods is based on the training objective and skills needed but before starting a training program a certain steps should be taking in order assure a proper selecting for training method and these steps are:

1. Training needs assessment to identify the employee's skills gap

2. Link and match training methods suitable to the trainer's competences and strengths

3. Time and money are should be handled efficiently

4. Preparing training facilities, training material and training room (Weiss, Oct2012 )

Training program should be planned and structured to overcome the gap between the existing skills and the demanded skills by the organization (Borchert, 2002)

Training should not be only based on technical aspects but also training should oriented to train the employees on the organization's culture especially for new employees and also different software and information technology used by the organization itself (Cline, Fall2007)

Company can provide training using three different methods each method is selected according to the training objective and company resources ,

the first methods to recruit a training expert to develop a training program and train the company employees , the second method is also recruit a professional trainer to develop training program and train the company employees but a co-trainer from the company side is accompany the professional trainer, The third method is the company develop training program and train its employees by itself using qualified and experienced employee , in the third method the company minimize the training cost and the training program is oriented and touching the weakness of the company and the real needs of the company, the problem which may face the company the unavailability of a very high qualified employee working within the firm (COHEN, September 2001)

Another training method used by Some organizations through using of their own expert by conducting different methods of training for its staff as, 1.in-comapny training where training is conducting inside the firm itself after providing all needed requirements for implementing a training course, 2. On the job training where training is conducted on the production line and 3. Finally peer training where a qualified employee provide information and skills needed to new employees (Douglas, 2006)

Employee training can be conducted in different methodologies which gives the company the chance to select what is suitable for it in terms of money and time , the first method of training is in-company training where training is implemented in workshops or class rooms inside the company using a company trainer or bringing external trainer to train the organization staff , second method sending the organization staff to be trained in external training centers , third method is self-learning method by which the organization provide a manual to the employees and they start learn by them self but this applicable in non-vocational training , fourth method peer training where a person is selected by the organization due to his deep understanding and capability to train his colleagues on the organization's needs , fifth method is a mix between two training methods where the organization select a qualified person from the organization to be trained in an external training center and comeback and train the organization's staff (Foster, Feb2012 )

Another training method can be used by the company through recruiting and external trainer will develop training program for the company based on the prepared checklist by the company with the needed skills and an instructor who is the company trainer will do the training the advantage of the internal trainer that he puts his hand the real problem and knows what could succeed and what will not every succeed (COHEN, September 2001)

There are different training methods could be applied where each methods has its advantage and disadvantage as , E-learning which give the trainee the flexibility in time and place where its available seven days , 24 hour, so e-learning is considered as a good method for soft skills but when it come for teambuilding training as an example it's hard for the trainee to acquire the needed skills, another method is training classroom but here the participants are not at the same level of knowledge which affect level of benefiting from the training and another method is cross-training where experienced employee train , guide and sharing his knowledge with a new employee (Messmer, Oct2005)

Cross-trained training method is based on transfer training using experienced employees, this method not only aims to improve the employees efficiency but also improve the whole company's division and subdivision capabilities and skills which appears in the enhanced communication between the employees and company's customers as a result of gained self-confidence by training . (Unknown, Mar2009)

Selecting the proper training method for the company's employees may vary according to the needs, resources training venue, training material and some of these training methods are:

1. T-group training method: it is a kind of training where trainees explore their internal insight in a shapeless training situation by which trainees know each other and know how they are perceived by other, and that kind of training help the company in supporting its organizational change, but that training tries to change the participants but not the workplace environment.

2. Technological training method: its vocational training used to train employee's on new and existing technology in order to increase employee's performance and efficiency which will have a positive impact on company productivity and reduce production cost.

3. Cross training method :it's a method of training trainee on how to perform more than one job in his department serving his department, that kind of training create an employee with multi skills, full understanding with his work procedure, team productivity become much higher and work overload can be controlled with few number of employees

4. Seminars Training methods :it's a method of training oriented to train manager on how to improve his staff performance and productivity, seminars are very useful method for training large number of trainees, advanced training with high quality for manager is introduced in seminars training and tailored made training on the company needs to assure the participants full understanding of company approaches and strategies, but seminaries have some disadvantages as it can't build technical or vocational skill , participants involvement is the main key for seminar success , conducting assessment and setting object should be taken in consideration and given a priority in order to meet participants expectation and finally high cost (Weiss, Oct2012 )

2. Employee's Turnover

Turnover is the ratio of number of leaver to total the number of company's employees in a specific period and also Turnover rate is not consistent with a fixed reason and different from one company to another but it's noticed that the rate of turnover in private is higher compared to governmental companies; turnover rate is high whenever unemployment rate is low (Shamsuzzoha & Shumon, 2007)

Employees' emotions presented on employee's job dissatisfaction and lack of company commitment push the employee to search for another job and leave the firm (Shamsuzzoha & Shumon, 2007)

2.1 Factors affecting employee's turnover

There are many parameter affecting the employees' turnover many researches have been conducted to identify the relation between employee's turnover and , job satisfaction ,organization commitment , work satisfaction, work stress, work environment , type of relationship between managers and employee, organization commitment toward employees 'career development ,the outcome of each research was different due to the difference in location , culture and , country but the reasons could be categorized into the following categories follow :

Demographic Reasons: age, income, education, religion, race, nationality, marital status, gender, number of children and education.

Personal Reasons: family commitment, children's school and social status

Push Factors / Controlled Reasons: it's the reasons which make the employee leaves the company and it could be limited or controlled by the company and push reasons could be referred to reasons caused by ,Employee's organization : the organization offered salary , compensation system , rewarding system , organization culture , type organization management relationship with the employees , organization location , organization growth and organization fairness, Employees Attitude: employees emotion towards his workplace it is expressed in employee's job satisfaction or job stress.

Job satisfaction is a the sum of positive or /and negative emotions of an employee's towards his workplace or job thus satisfied employees leaving probability is less

Organization Commitment: the relation between employee and his organization is create as push reasons for employee to leave. It is a mutual relation between organization and employee, where the organization seeks committed employees to it and not only qualified employees and also the employee is seeking an organization committed to develop his competence, his career path and to offer him benefits

Pull reasons : its uncontrolled factors which companies cannot control where the employee move to a another company due to higher salary package , existing of career path development , interesting job, desired or different culture , existence of life-work balance, good reputation and good management (Shah, Fakhr, Ahmad, & Zaman, June 2010)

Figure The relationship among the independent and dependent variables, forming the theoretical framework Theoretical Framework

Personal Factors

Pull Factors

Push Factors

Turnover Intention




Dependent Variable

Independent Variables

H1: There is relationship between personal factors and turnover intentions

H2: There is relationship between pull factors and turnover intentions

H3: There is relationship between push factors and turnover intentions

H4: Personal factors will have significant contribution in turnover intentions

H5: Pull factors will have significant contribution in turnover intentions

H6: Push factors will have significant contribution in turnover intentions

Shah, I. A., Fakhr, Z., Ahmad, M., & Zaman, K. (June 2010). Measuring push , pull and personal factors affecting turnove rintention:A case of university teachers in Pakistan. Review of Economic Business Studies , Volume 3,Issue3, p173

Two variables cause employee's turnover varies, first variable is the external environment to the company as politics, government regulation , economy …etc. and the second variable is the company its self as job offered, the occupation, salary, company size, management, work environment, place, recruiting process, rewarding and companion system, but there is another important factor which is the employees themselves how they see their company and their feeling toward their job and working environment , that leads to a relation between job satisfaction and company commitment as a factors affecting on employee's turnover , although there is no significant relation between company commitment and employee's satisfaction but satisfaction leads to commitment and commitment leads to satisfaction (James & Mathew, July - September, 2012.)

Personal Satisfaction:

Opportunities for Personal Growth, Job Security, Fair Pay, Challenging Job, Promotion Prospectus, Independent Thought and Addition in Job

Retention Strategies:

Rewards and Recognition, Training and Development Opportunities, Mentoring/Coaching Sessions, Career Planning, Flexible Work Time, Employee Suggestion Plans, Stock Investment Opportunities, Annual Performance Appraisal, Financial Support, Contract Agreements, On-site Day Care Facilities.

Intention to stay

Welfare Benefits

Salary, Leave Benefits, Health and Related Benefits, Retirement Plan, Non-Monetary Benefits

Organization Culture:

Career Development Program, Good Communication Channel, Leaving Opportunities, Equal Growth opportunities

Figure : the Causal Model - Dashed Pathways (-) Represent Presumed Influences of Satisfaction

James, L., & Mathew, L. (July - September, 2012.). Employee Retention Strategies:IT industry. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, P.81.

Good salary also represents a portion of the whole picture of factors affecting employee's turnover, but actually employee's training plays a vital role in employee's mastering his performed job which will reflect on increasing his ambition to progress and to promotion in his work trying to achieve more than what his was expected as a result of his success and of course will limit employees turn over. (BURROVV, Oct2006)

There are different reasons that cause employees to leave some of them called pull reasons when the employee finds another job with better package, existence of career advancement, and benefits and another cause called push reasons when the environment inside the firm is not good and cause employee's dissatisfaction which will push him to search for another job because of his satisfaction, also management is one of the causes that make employees leave the job when the working environment is not friendly and the relationship with the management is not good employees leave to another firm but management should take some preventive procedure to limit the turn over one of them is providing training to their production lines managers, in order to limit the rate of turnover within their workforce , providing job security as , job appraisal and focus on employees upgrading and development (Shamsuzzoha & Shumon, 2007)

Reasons for employees' turnover could be, job dissatisfaction, poor rewarding system, low salary and low compensation, (Ahmad Dardar, Jusoh, & Rasli, Aug2011)

The reasons may affect the employee's turn over are vary from the compensation system in the company, involving employee's in competitive work atmosphere to explore their competences ,leadership style and management, existence of employee's career path and development and providing decent work environment (Lu, Jun 1999)

2.2 Effect of Employee's Turnover on the Organization

Company training, company benefits and career path development are playing a vital role in creating healthy and helpful work environment, where employees become confident and satisfied with their work ,which will impact on the organization performance, and maintaining such environment will effect on limiting employee's turn over , increase job satisfaction and consequently customer satisfaction (BURROVV, Oct2006)

Employees' turnover is a disaster for the firm as it's become difficult to keep production flow as it is planned in terms of quantity and quality (BENSON, S., MOHRMAN, FINEGOLD, & ALBERS, 2004) , which will affect the success of the firm's production and consequently affect negatively the investors' trust in the firm, Employee's turnover affects the success of the firm's production and consequently affect negatively the investors' trust in the firm (Shamsuzzoha & Shumon, 2007)

Turnover not always has a negative impact on affirm but sometimes turnover has a positive effect when replacing employee with low performance with another one with higher performance or replacing retired but we should take in consideration the cost of turnover as it costs money for recruiting , selecting and even training ,Workforce, machines, equipment and strategic management are all component of firm productivity in order achieve firm targeted productivity, (Shamsuzzoha & Shumon, 2007)

All organizations need to meet challenging economic change, consequently the need of recruiting and keeping even existing skillful employees is increased to meet that change, so turnover has a negative effect on the organization productivity as loosing qualified employees and adding a cost of recruiting, selecting and training to new employees which leads to raise cost of production and accordingly product price will be increased (Krell, April 2012)

Productivity is affected by employee's turnover, where employee turnover can act as an obstacle to organization to achieve its planned productivity a good example of the effect of turnover on the productivity can be shown clearly in the readymade garment sector where any small number of job leaver directly affect the production and even the replacement costs money and time and here is some difficulties faces replacement.

• The time taken to adopt the new worker with the work environment and company culture and lack of skills

• Time consumed by the co-worker to support the new worker

• Training provided in terms of quality and duration to new employee may not matching the training need for that job. (Shamsuzzoha & Shumon, 2007)

One of the consequences employee's turnovers is the financial impacts, because turnover has a cost and that cost is very high, in nowadays economic change companies with high rate of employee's turnover will have low customer satisfaction where employee's turnover will create also customer turnover (Hyden, May2009)

Employees' turnover has a cost and that cost is much higher than salary they paid, recruiting process involves advertising , recruiting , selecting and training that's is the cost of replacement or recruiting employee leave which will reduce the company revenue (BENSON, S., MOHRMAN, FINEGOLD, & ALBERS, 2004)

2.3 Relation between training and employee's turnover

Some companies take initiatives and action toward preventing worker turnover through conducting market survey and bench mark the market in order to provide their staff their real market value not only money but also training and career path development (Lu, Jun 1999)

Employee turnover and its disaster impact on the firm drives the company to provide an effective training and development program , turnover has a cost which is very expensive , that cost includes conducting interviews and implementing training program to employees , and the money lost due to the customers dissatisfaction due to the lack of work experience by new workers . (How to Develop the Best Training Initiatives., Aug2005 )

Companies in the track of keeping their worker provide their staff different career path to choice between them, bonus and rewarding system, high quality training programs, shadowing training, flexible working hours , 4 days' work per week , paying tuition fees for those who wants to get master degree and sharing company profit. (Lu, Jun 1999)

In China Training has great impact on the employee's turnover and that's through creating career path development resulting in giving the employee the chance to be promoted and move to another company branch abroad (GROSS & CONNOR, Jun2007)

Designing training should be done in a way serving the job itself and acquiring the employees skills need by the job only and not higher skills rather than its needed by the job, as in that case this training becomes a main reason of leaving to another job as the employees have competences more than it is needed in the job and lacking the career advancement. (Ryan, Jun 2007)

Emphasis on employees' training and development is the tool for preventing employees' turnover, where management should give an attention to employees' development through diagnoses employees' competences, strengths and weakness rather than the whole team performance and could be achieved through developing channels for employees' feedback to improve the organization through constructive suggestion by the employee is one of the ways to decrease employees' turnover. (S.BENSON, FINEGOLD, & MOHRMAN, 2004)

Organization with high attention to provide training with a well-designed and suitable training to employees' to building the capacity of the employees' through professional trainer , will assist and contribute on employees' job satisfaction and minimize turnover ration (Louden, Sep2012 )


Training has a direct impact on the employees himself, although that impact may be positive on the firm or negative, the benefit degree for both employee and the firm depends on the quality of training delivered

Authors agreed upon the vital and important role of training in the developing of the company business, using different method of training depending on the resources and the objective, and all agreed about the importance of setting training objective before conducting training, because setting training objectives means that the company should conduct training need assessment and linked to job required skills in order to meet company production plan on the specified time and within the required quality

Training content and training method are based upon skills lacked in employees and that could be identified though conducting training need assessment.

Different training method were mentioned by the authors could be classified to in- company training or external as T-group training method, Technological training method, Cross training , Seminars Training methods and e-learning, each method has it advantage and disadvantage depending on the objective of the training

Implementing training program should follow a certain process starting from conducting training need assessment to identify the skills gab, selection of a homogenous trainees with close skills, selecting a professional trainer, preparing training material serve the objective of training, providing the suitable training equipment, preparing a proper training venue and establish a continues feedback mechanism to take corrective action on the implemented program or enhance it.

Company productivity is affected by training where trainees become capable to perform tasks according to job standards , and when productivity increased employee salary will be increased which will contribute in limiting the employees turnover.

Turnover is one of the serious problem facing companies development, the authors didn't agree on a constant variable or factors that make employees leave work, but they classified to pull , push and personal factors, push factors are those created by the company and its controllable as, not providing good working environment, low salaries, poor benefits, no career development, no career advancement , poor management , no life-work balance , boring job , while the pull factors is controllable where its controlled by the employee himself as moving to another job offering better package, looking for existence of career advancement , better working environment or better position, location , company reputation , company growth , while personal factor is mainly touch the employee personal life as , his kids education ,family commitment ,his health

Turnover is higher among young people compared to elder or old worker and also higher in private companies rather than governmental companies

Company which gives care to training and development are suffering less from employee's turn over compared to those company who are not giving the same care

Satisfied employee don't leave their company but to reach that satisfaction mode the company must exert effort to reassure its employees that they are its partner and he should share commitment, training is the first method by which the company build trust bridge between the firm and the employee, who will start to think that he is one of the company assets and play an important role in the company and his leave wouldn't be easy

Turnover has a cost and that cost is expensive to the company as the company will start to advertise searching for new employee, recruit, select and training, but the company lose doesn't stop at that point but even the production in terms of quality and quantity will be affected and consequently the company may loses it comparative advantage which could be the price or the quality till the new employee get acquainted to the work environment, work procedure and company quality standards

Employee's turnover not always has a negative effect on the firm as in some time replacing employees with low performance to be replace with higher performance employee, old people and replacing retired employees

Training and turnover has a strong link where as much as the employee gain skills that will reflect on his satisfaction and reducing turnover where job satisfaction is a the sum of negative or/and positive emotions of an employee has towards his job, and when the employee is trained he will be satisfied as his contribution will be tangible and the company will reward him either with direct or indirect compensation

Research Gap

Although there are many researches on the impact of training on the employee's turnover, a little has been written about the impact of non-technical programs on employee's turnover.