Customs excise department Mauritius | Free essay | Management essays
|✅ Paper Type: Free Essay||✅ Subject: Management|
|✅ Wordcount: 5387 words||✅ Published: 1st Jan 2015|
CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY.
- To study the process of training and development in place at the Customs and Excise department (Mauritius) by gathering and analyzing data.
- To highlight its strengths and weaknesses.
- To provide some recommendations in the light of the findings where Training and Development can be improved to contribute effectively toward achieving the objectives of the Customs Department.
All kind of people will at some point or need training. This is because overtime organizations change techniques, equipment, and knowledge change and people change. Whether they are executives, managers, supervisors or secretaries, technical specialists, production workers, scientists, artists, doctors, lawyers, instructors, security guards, clerks, sales persons or custodial workers, all at some time will need to know new information, acquire new skills, and develop new attitudes to successfully master the changes in their work environment.
(Carolyn Nilson 1990)
If competitive success is achieved through people, then the skills of those people are critical. Consequently, one of the most obvious implications of the changing basis of competitive success is the growing importance of having a work force with adequate skills. Historical studies show that between 1929 and 1982, education prior to work accounted for 26% of the growth in the productive capacity of the United States, with learning on the job contributing to an additional 55%.It seems clear that “learning in schools and learning on the job are by far the most important factors behind economic growth and productivity in this century, and will determine the nation’s economic prospects in the next.”(Competitive Advantage Through people by Jeffrey Pfeffer p.17)
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More businesses are seeking to improve their performance by focusing on improving the asset under their nose; their people. Companies must come up with a scheme that provides planned approach to setting and communicating business objectives and developing people to meet them. There must be a commitment from top management to develop all employees, a review on needs and planning for the training and development of all employees; training and development from recruitment and through out their employment; and an evaluation in the investment for training. Investing in people creates a win-win situation where the company benefits from improved performance and employees through the development of careers opportunities. This results in the creation of an environment that will continue to aid the company’s growth and enhance the development of the people.
Industry is no longer drawn to the comparative advantage of abundant natural resources, but instead to pools of human skills. American and British governments neither promote the education nor the training in depth nor the infrastructure foundations necessary for the post electromechanical society.” Henry Ford.
Japan effectively maintained its competitivity through training. Japanese workers received rigorous basic training, plus firm level of training and follow up training. In addition, companies use activities such as job rotation to achieve more flexible work practices and to contribute toward preparing multi-function workers.
Many western organizations have been convinced of the potential of training after noticing its success in Japan. Moreover, studies in the United States have proved empirically that there is a link between adoption of training programs and productivity goals. Many researchers outside Japan have also found conclusive evidence between training and increased productivity. Germany’s training culture was a main reason for its economic culture. In U.K, in 1995 British Telecom announced that seven million pounds investment in management and training is estimated to have brought a 280 million pounds return to the company. Motorola in the U.S is known to spend 1% of its sale or, 2.6% of its payroll on training and the training of employees of its key suppliers. It has been reported that Motorola gets a return rate of 30 times of what it invested in dollars. (Extracts from study by V.Appanah, L’Express 23 July1996)
Malaysia has around 400 government and 1500 private training centers, and about 1200 of the centers run approximately 6000 courses, leading to the National Vocational Qualifications. The government of Malaysia wants employers to incorporate investment in human capital in their strategic objectives. (http://.bermana.com accessed 21.02.06)
“With the advancement in all spheres of life, the need for qualified professionals has become the call of the hour. The highly skilled manpower needed to run the industries, R&D institutions and services sector comes from institutions of higher technical education. To become a knowledge superpower the country need to overhaul the university system and set a target to raise the number of science PhDs from the current 5000 a year to 25000 in 10 years. (Laxmi Narain Agarwal, chairman of Shri Ramsaroop Memorial College of Engineering & Management) India Today Dec.2005 issue.
CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW
What is Training?
Training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or a range of activities. Its purpose in the work situation is to develop the abilities of the individual to satisfy the current and future manpower needs of the organization. (Manpower Service Commission 1901)
Training is an evolving concept, it is an organized systematic series of activities designed to enhance the individual’s work-related knowledge, skills and understanding and/or for motivation. GOETH & DAVIES
Armstrong 1995 said Training means investing in people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make best use of abilities.
The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skills and behavior emphasized in Training programs and apply them to their day to day activities. (Raymond A. Doe 1999)
Organization gets things done when people do their jobs effectively. To make this happen the job holders need to be well trained. A number of people are likely to be involved in this training by identifying the needs of the Organization and of the individual, by selecting and designing appropriate training to meet these needs, by delivering and assessing how effective it was. It is not only the trainers who are involved in the process: personnel managers, supervisors and job holders are all likely to have a role to play.
The difference between Training, Education, Induction and Learning.
Education has been defined as activities which aim at developing the knowledge, skill, moral values and understanding required in all aspects of life. It is a broad umbrella covering several pertinent issues. Its purpose is to provide the conditions essential to young people to develop an understanding of the traditions and ideas influencing the society in which they live. (Red et Al 1994).By education we generally mean the broadening or deepening of the knowledge base of people or groups of people, often accompanied by some form of accreditation. Education is to do with reframing, refining, or developing the mind, and so also can affect people’s attitudes and values. (Tony Miller, co-author of (measuring the impact of Training and Development on the bottom line).
Induction is the process of entry into jobs. It is about methods employed in helping employees to cope with a new job in a strange organization. The aims of the induction process are to:
- To make the employee efficient as quickly as possible.
- To encourage the new employee to become committed to the organization and thus less likely to leave quickly.
- To familiarize the new employee with the job so that the feeling of being ‘out of place’ is quickly dispelled.
Learning is a natural process in which we all engage. From birth, humans like all animals, learn and develop, and this learning and development leads to skilful and effective adaptation to and manipulation of the environment, which is one element in a much-quoted definition of intelligence (Wechler, 1958, in Ribeaux and Popleton, 1978:189)
Most of us have learned a good deal more out of school than in it. We have learned from our families, our work, and our friends. We have learned from problems resolved and tasks achieved but also from mistakes confronted and illusions unmasked. Intentionally or not, we have learned from the dilemmas our lives hand us daily. (Daloz, 1986: 1) Learning is defined as a change in capability whether of individuals, teams or organizational units themselves.
Learning is the most powerful, engaging, rewarding and enjoyable aspect of our personal and collective life. Learning enables the individual to meet the demands of change.
The role of training.
The role of training is to support the delivery or organizational goals and ensure that the policies of administration are effectively implemented. Effective training aligned to organizational objectives can improve operational performance, promote corporate identity, provide job satisfaction, combat public dissatisfaction and fulfill legal obligations.
There is no doubt that the future organization should be a learning organization and the future employee one who is continually seeking to develop him or herself. Lifelong learning means continuous adaptation. Increased knowledge and improved skills enlarge the individual’s capacities to adapt to the environment and to change that environment.
In today’s competitive world everyone agrees that training and development should be geared towards achieving business goals and objectives. The role of training is also to:
- Provide job satisfaction
Improve customers’ satisfaction.
A Learning organization is one where there is a deliberate management of learning processes. In a few words, according to consultant and writer Bob Garatt the characteristics of a learning organization are:
- Learning organizations encourage at all levels of the organization to learn regularly and rigorously from their work.
- They have systems for capturing learning and moving it where it is needed.
- They value learning and have the capacity of continuously transform themselves.
Knowledge refers to what individuals and teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge) as well as company’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge).
Knowledge management is the process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tool, processes, systems, structures, and culture to improve the creation, sharing, and the use of knowledge. Knowledge management can help companies to get products and services, and attract new employees and retain current ones by giving people the opportunity to learn and develop.
“Emotional intelligence is a master aptitude, a capacity that profoundly affects all other abilities, either facilitating or interfering with them” Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence.p.80
The term encompasses the following five characteristics and abilities:
- Mood management.
- Managing relationship.
In companies, the inclusion of Emotional Intelligence in training programs has helped employees cooperate better and motivate more, thereby increasing productivity and profits.
It is very important to develop a training policy. The policy determines how training will be conducted. The training strategy can only be formulated when the operational goals of the organization is clearly understood. It is an expression of the broad intentions, the basic options, the priorities and the strategies of administration in the area of staff training.
This is a concise statement of the fundamental purpose of the training function and the goals to be achieved to fulfill that purpose.
Value is a deeply held conviction about correct behavior under certain circumstances. All training programmes must be so designed to include the development of positive attitude towards self, task and organization.
Whilst values gives a sense of direction to the organization, pointing towards the general direction to follow the principles serves as a beacon to show the way to the selected destination and helps to negotiate obstacles along the road. Principles are laid down to avoid inconsistencies in decision making and to avoid time wasting through excessive consultations with policy makers.
This is about how the different tasks associated with training will be shared among stakeholders and clients of the training function. Once this is done each party becomes accountable to the tasks that have been assigned to him. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of training programmes will depend on how well each party assumes his responsibility. The parties include senior management, the human resource manager, the training manager and the field managers.
Ethics is a body of principles or standards of human conduct that govern the behavior of individuals and groups. Ethics arise not simply from man’s creation but from human nature itself making it a natural body of laws from which man’s laws flow.
Culture is commonly defined as “the rules of conduct”, “how things are done”, “the prevailing climate”, “corporate values”, etc. The problem with these definitions is that they are at best risky oversimplifications and they are categorically incorrect. A more substantial definition has been given by Quality guru Crosby and Juran. Crosby defines culture as the “the creation of values, beliefs, and behaviors necessary for success,” which suggests culture is an entity man creates to meet the need of the group at the time. So is culture a natural pattern of behaviors (Crosby) or a man made entity born out of reasoning and necessity (Juran)?Research has shown that both themes are true at the same time.
Systematic approach to training
Training can contribute to the effective use of resources in an organization, only if approached in a systematic manner.
The systematic approach consists of four distinct stages. Although presented in different formats in different models, they contain the same activities which are as follows:
- Identification of training needs.
- Planning of training programmes.
- Implementing training programmes.
- Evaluation of training programmes.
Training Needs Analysis
Training is expensive and should be delivered only when it has been confirmed that training is the best solution to a performance problem. Very often performance problems are associated with factors in the working environment such as insufficient resources, inappropriate management practices, etc. This type of problems cannot be solved by training.
A process of training needs analysis is necessary to confirm that:
- There is a performance problem;
- Training can solve the problem; and
- Training is the most appropriate method of solving it.
The aims and objectives of the organization play a major role in analysis of training needs.
Importance of needs analysis
Training involves mobilization of important amount of human and capital resources. To avoid unnecessary waste of resources, a training need analysis is of vital importance. It helps to determine the numbers and category of staff that needs to be trained in order to equip them with the required skills to deliver the expected level of performance that will enable the organization to meet its objectives in a most efficient manner now and in the near future. The systematic identification of training needs involves three processes. They are organizational analysis, job analysis and individual analysis.
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Organizational analysis is the process of collecting information, analyzing the information to identify performance problems and design appropriate training programmes to cater for all categories of the employees department wise wherever it is required. Normally this exercise is carried out by making use of methods such as observation, interviews and consulting documents pertaining to the organization. Information is collected in a structured manner from top management downwards. The information collected is then collated and interpreted. The needs analysis team then prepares a report highlighting the performance problems identified at different level and at the same time indicate the nature of the problems specifying whether they are job oriented, developmental or educational.
Before organizing training programmes for employees it is necessary to analyze their jobs from the training point of view. Organization analysis throws light on jobs where the jobholder needs training. The jobs thus identified are analyzed and detailed inventory of tasks involved in the job is prepared. Each task is examined to determine the level of skills required for effective performance.
Job analysis can be carried for various purposes but from the training point of view the objectives is essentially to determine the content of the training programme, devise appropriate assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training. It also helps to decide upon the equipment to be used in delivering the training and also the appropriate methods to employ to deliver the training.
Much of the information required, for getting an insight into the strength and weaknesses of individual for the purpose of identifying the areas which need to be developed in the individual worker can be obtained from organizational records. These records include personal profile records, performance appraisals etc. discreet observation of the worker doing the job and in depth interviews can also help in identifying the gap between the actual level of performance of the worker and the expected level. The exercise starts with the analysis of the person’s educational qualifications, professional competence, experience, training etc. for assessing qualities of the managers, techniques such as performance appraisal by superior, interpersonal skill analysis and discussion with subordinates can be used. For non managerial personnel techniques such as fault analysis, skill analysis and time measurement can be employed.
Planning of the Training
Planning a training session involves 1) establishing learning objectives based upon identified training needs; 2) identifying the components you want to cover in your session and 3) assembling specific methods and activities in a coherent design that might be compared to a movie script. Learning objectives are statements of what we want a learner to know, feel, or be able to do at the end of the training. Learning components are statements of what will be covered in the training session. The training design arranges specific methods and activities in order to accomplish the learning objectives. At the stage of planning, important issues such as the objectives of the training, the time ,the place, the content, the learning methods to be used, the persons who are going to deliver the training and the administration of the training programme is established.
Training objectives should be expressed in terms of the behavior or competencies expected of the trainee at the end of the training. The objectives should be in line with the trainee’s need and is usually expressed in terms such as “by the end of the training programme, the trainees should be able to do such and such things in such ways.”
The timing of the training is also an important factor in the success of a training programme. Some important factors to be taken into consideration are the need to minimize the disruption to the trainee, and as far as possible get the trainee view about the most appropriate time for training. Another important aspect regarding the timing of training is that the training should given at such a time that the trainee has the opportunity to apply the lesson learned at the work place immediately after the training. Of course there are often budgetary constraints and availability of trainers, training rooms and training facilities to be considered but as far as possible they should be reconciled with above mentioned factors, i.e. convenience of trainees.
This is an exercise which is carried out before the commencement of a training programme to establish a plan for the logical treatment of learning topics, the time frame, the communication skill, the techniques and equipment to be used to facilitate learning. A good session design is aimed at arousing the trainee’s interest and appeal to his curiosity for learning. It is the process of identifying, selecting and arranging subject matters, appropriate training methods, techniques, materials equipment, allocating learning time with a view to producing training material and session guide in line with each specific learning objective.
The training can be delivered either by external trainers, consultants or by suitable employees who have been trained to train. When external consultants are used, it is essential to brief them properly about the backgrounds and expectations of the trainees and the training tradition of the organization. These days more and more companies are developing the training skills of their own managers. The trainers must prepare themselves in the light of the requirements of learning sessions. This advance planning enables them to finalize the main ingredients of a learning session before its administration in a classroom situation.
You can have a good location, a relevant and interesting programme and the best of trainers and yet training fails to achieve its objectives if it is not administered properly. Therefore administration of the training is very important. The administrator must ensure that the participants are aware of the location, the timetable and the objectives of the programme. Training is not interrupted, training materials are available in time and the importance of apparently small problems such non appearance of tea and coffee at the scheduled time is not overlooked.
When designing training programmes it is important to take into consideration the fact that different people learn in different ways. Kolb argues that effective learners rely on four different learning modes, and each individual has an orientation toward one of these which are: – concrete experience, reflexive observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. (Kolb et al, 1995). Honey and Mumford developed a similar instrument to that of Kolb, also comprising four learning styles which categorize people into:-activists, reflectors, theorists and pragmatists.(Honey and Munford, 1992).an alternative conception of the learning style termed “integral learning” has also been developed by Engestrom(1994; 32-35).
There are many and varied training methods, the trainer must select the methods which are suitable to the trainees and the resources available. A number of methods can also be usefully combined, depending on the aims and objectives of the training. New training methods appear every year. While some are well founded in learning theory or models of behavior change (e.g. behavior modeling), others result more from technological than theoretical developments (e.g. presentation software, use of animation and sound, and use of computer-based games).
Training methods can be classified in three ways: information presentation techniques, simulation methods, and on-the-job training methods.
Information presentation techniques include lectures, conferences, correspondence courses, videos, distance learning, behavior modeling and systematic observation, programmed instructions, intelligent tutoring, sensitivity training and organization development which is a systematic, long range program of organizational improvement.
Simulation methods include the case method, role-playing, interactive simulations for virtual teams, virtual reality, the in-basket technique, and business games.
On-the-job training methods
The objective of classroom training is to equip officers with the knowledge, skill and attitude required for proper job performance. However, acquiring the theory and stimulating practical application in this way is not enough. The trainee needs further assistance to transfer the training to the work place. The solution is, providing the trainee with on-the-job training. Here the trainer stimulates learners by encouraging participation, using appropriate presentation methods and techniques, relating personal experiences, conveying a sense of enthusiasm and using humor. Very often on-the-job training is limited to occasional ad-hoc lectures or demonstrations provided as and when job performance problems are identified. To be successful and complete OJT must be planned. The planning is only possible when the OJT trainer knows exactly what other training, such as classroom training, may have been received.
On-the-job training methods include orientation training, apprenticeships, on-the-job training, near-the-job training (using identical equipment but away from the job itself), job rotation, committee assignments (or junior executive boards), under study assignments, on-the-job coaching, and performance appraisal.
In the context of developing interpersonal skills, training methods are typically chosen to achieve one or more of three objectives:
- Promoting self-insight and environmental awareness, that is an understanding of how one’s action affects others and how one is viewed by others.
- Improving the ability of managers and lower level employees to make decisions to solve job-related problems in a constructive fashion.
- Maximizing the desire to perform well.
To choose the training method or combination of methods that best fit a given situation, it is important to define what you wish to teach. This the purpose of the needs assessment phase. Only then a method that best fit these requirements can be chosen. To be useful the method must meet the minimal conditions needed for effective learning to take place; that is, the training method should:
- Motivate the trainee to improve his/her performance.
- Clearly illustrate the desired skills.
- Allow the trainee to participate actively.
- Provide an opportunity to practice.
- Provide timely feedback on the trainee’s performance.
- Provide some means of reinforcement while the trainee learns.
- Be structured from simple to complex tasks.
- Be adaptable to specific problems.
- Encourage positive transfer from the training to the job.
Implementing the programmes
Effective training depends on thorough needs analysis, a good programme planning and design. All these efforts would be wasted if the delivery of the programme is inadequate. Some factors to be considered are: – The size of the group, the class set up and the right mix of participants. The process of selecting the participants should involve the supervisors and finally but most importantly the trainees should want to trained.
The training programme must be conducted in accordance with the training objectives and design. Effective communication with the trainees should be established and the trainees must be given feedback on how they are doing. The trainer can thus discover learning problems if ever they occur and help trainees to overcome them.
Evaluation of Training
Training evaluation is the process of identifying how successful the training has proved to be. It involves collecting and analyzing information to determine whether or not the aims of the training have been achieved and at same time to gain insight into areas that demands improvement in the future. For evaluation to be effective specific aspects of performance change should be monitored because changes in individual and organizational performance may have been influenced by factors other than the training itself. Donald Kirkpatrick expressed his ideas about training evaluation in a series of articles published in the US training and development journal as far back as 1959. The articles were subsequently included in Kirkpatrick’s book Evaluating Training programs (1975) published by the ASTD, with whom Kirkpatrick still maintains close connection as at 2005. Kirkpatrick’s model has become the most widely used and popular model for evaluating training and learning. His four-level model was redefined and updated in his 1998 book called Evaluating Training Programs program. The four level of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model essentially measure:
- Reaction of the student- What they thought and felt about the training.
- Learning- the resulting increase in knowledge and capability.
- Behavior-extent of behavior and capability improvement / implementation.
- Results-the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee’s performance.
Importance of Evaluation
Evaluation is important because it provides the opportunity to demonstrate that the training was successful and has achieved its objectives. It provides information for improvement of future training and provides management with feedback about the return on training investment. Furthermore it directs training to meet organizational needs, provide trainees with a framework with which they can measure their competence and also provide the opportunity for line managers to be involved in the training and development of the staff.
Areas that need to be evaluated are the training infrastructure itself, the performance of the training staff and the ability of the trainees to meet the objectives of the training.
The training infrastructure is evaluated to see whether the facilities regarding the training centre including the training materials are adequate, and whether the appropriate methods are being employed. The infrastructure should be such so as to support effectiveness at all levels. It is important for the trainers to possess in-depth knowledge and also experience in their respective fields. But a person with technical knowledge and a wide experience is not necessarily a good teacher. Therefore it is the responsibility of the training centre to provide for newly selected trainers with the opportunity to develop and polish their training skills.
At the beginning of every training programme the objectives of the training are set. The objectives define in clear terms the expected standards and conditions under which, the expected level of performance are to be achieved. At the evaluation stage it is seen whether the trainee can successfully transfer his learning to
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