This article reviews and summarizes the recent literature on Corporate Social Responsibility in the hospitality industry. CSR is now seen as an obligation of business and requires that business undo social and environmental problems it has created. CSR activities are most effective when they are related to and integral to the long-term success of the company.
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Hospitality Industry
Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are appearing more frequently in the hospitality literature. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature and summarize current thought on the topic within the hospitality industry.
Twenty-two articles were found through the Hospitality and Tourism Index which was the main source for articles appearing from 2002 through 2007. Five additional articles appeared in the Journal of Business Ethics and two more in the Harvard Business Review. The articles were read and placed in categories emerging from the literature.
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More hospitality management positions are being taken by graduates of hospitality management programs than ever before. The holders of degrees in hospitality management think of themselves as professionals entering the profession of hospitality management. Professions require specialized knowledge and skills, continuing education within the profession, and must be good for the community and society. While professionals may receive large salaries, for an endeavor to be a "profession" it must have goals beyond high pay and be concerned with the long-term good of the company and also the community the company does business in (Jaszay & Dunk, 2006).
The hospitality industry is made up of many companies who are run by business people. Business people who put short-term profits ahead of concern for the long-term health of the company or who make additional profits by failing to spend the money necessary to handle toxic waste or pollution resulting from the manufacturing process, are not professionals and harm the reputation of the industry as a profession (Jaszay & Dunk, 2006). The scandalous behavior of some business leaders in the past decade has damaged the reputation of business with the community. The former "what is good for business is good for the country" has been replaced with a virulent distrust of big business.
Corporate social responsibility requires organizations to demonstrate responsible business conduct that does no harm in the marketplace, in the workplace, in the community they operate in, and to the natural environment (Roberts, 2007). The actions of business impact the local, national, and global community, so businesses have a responsibility to ensure that the impact is positive (Paton, 2007).
What is CSR?
Corporate Social Responsibility involves "achieving commercial success in ways that honor ethical values and respect people, communities, and the natural environment" (Clark, 2006; Porter & Kramer, 2006). There is no universally accepted definition of CSR, but most of the definitions have to do with business having a positive impact on the community (Redford, 2005) and meeting or exceeding public expectations of good corporate citizenship (Brands that do good, 2003).
Geoffrey P. Lantos reviewed the CSR literature and redefined CSR by classifying it as ethical, altruistic, or strategic. Ethical CSR is mandatory and means that a firm must obey all laws and avoid doing harm as a result of its business. This could include harm caused by pollution, faulty products, and unfair labor practices. Good laws and governmental policies will often alleviate ethical CSR problems (Lantos, 2002).
Altruistic CSR involves a firm helping to alleviate external social problems and inequities through charitable funding whether it financially benefits the firm or not. This type of giving is at the stockholders' expense and may not be legitimate. Lantos points out that altruistic CSR may be fine for private companies as long as it comes out of the owner's profits and not by charging consumers higher prices or paying employees less which impinges upon ethical CSR.
Strategic CSR, on the other hand, involves choosing philanthropic activities that will also benefit the company and help it to reach its strategic goals. Caring corporate community service activities can enhance consumers' perceptions of the business and attract more customers. A restaurant may choose to support the arts to grow its business from the after-theatre crowd. Morale may increase if employees become involved in meaningful corporate volunteer programs, which can increase job satisfaction, which decreases turnover (Lantos, 2002).
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Society and business are dependent on each other. Business provides jobs, products, and taxes while society provides workers, consumers, and policies. Neither can survive without the other so it makes sense for them to work together for the benefit of both rather than to continue at odds. Business decisions and social policies must be aligned for this to happen (Porter & Kramer, 2006).
What are the Benefits of CSR Programs?
Business Ethics' list of the 100 Best Corporate Citizens showed these companies to have done better financially than all of the other companies in the S&P 500 Index (Clark, 2006). Thirty hospitality and travel brands listed in the Fortune Corporate Reputation Index were found to have a strong positive correlation between CSR and profitability. The same study also revealed that larger companies benefitted more from high CSR ratings (Brands that do Good, 2003), but smaller hotel chains and independent hotels may be able to implement environmental and social policies easier than the larger companies (Responsible Hospitality in Independent Hotels, 2005). While improvements in corporate citizenship result in strong financial performance, methods to measure the effects of CSR are still in the early stages of development (Roberts, 2007).
Community involvement can result in enhanced public relations as in the case of the rebuilding of LaRosa's Pizzeria after a fire. Two hundred volunteers who had experienced LaRosa's generosity over the years, filled in the gap left by inadequate insurance with work and loans and saved the pizzeria from bankruptcy (Detwiler, 2005). A good reputation can draw new customers and workers and help to raise staff morale (Redford, 2005). Doing business with companies that have good CSR reputations is becoming a preference for many consumers (Brands that do good, 2003; Act responsibly, 2003; Clark, 2006).
Organizational commitment to CSR is becoming an important issue for prospective employees, and a good CSR track record may be necessary to recruit top level candidates (Cotterill, 2007). People prefer working for companies that care. Meeting planners are incorporating CSR activities at meetings where participants can work together on charitable activities in the community (Scofidio, 2007).
Not only can CSR programs improve a company's reputation in the community, raise morale, and improve profits (Afiya, 2005), CSR programs can actually lead companies into more sustainable growth (Brands that do Good, 2003). Operating costs can be substantially reduced through waste reduction and conservation (Clark, 2006), and these sustainable activities are of interest and can be communicated to existing and potential customers (Clark, 2006). A corporate identity can be managed and communicated so that CSR efforts become part of its identity (Atakan & Eker, 2007).
Many companies' CSR efforts, however, are less than effective because they do not take into consideration their goals and strategies and instead are generic and fragmented activities (Porter & Kramer, 2006; Redford, 2005). Too many of the CSR programs are simply public relations campaigns that do not necessarily have anything to do with how the business is operated (Porter & Kramer, 2006). Other CSR programs involve business as usual without concern for social issues and then charitable donations made to causes deemed worthy (Jones, Comfort, & Hillier, 2006). Companies are feeling pressure from activists, customers, employees, and governments to be socially responsible, and while they understand the need to report on their CSR activities, many of their CSR efforts are not yet integrated into their core business activities (Jones, Comfort, & Hillier, 2006).
Over half of the 250 largest multinational corporations published CSR reports in 2005, and a CSR rating industry has emerged (Porter & Kramer, 2006). Researches analyzed the content of hotel websites, annual reports, and CSR reports to determine the level of social responsible behavior reported by the top ten hotel companies (Holcomb, Upchurch, & Okumus, 2007). Initiatives for sustainable tourism and CSR in the hospitality sector have been put forth over the past ten years by international and European organizations such as the World Tourism Organization. Increased attention, particularly in the public domain, is resulting in adoption of WTO ethical guidelines by more and more local associations and organizations. While reporting CSR activities does not necessarily correspond to actual CSR activities, it is obvious that CSR is becoming an accepted global initiative Holcomb, Upchurch, & Okumus, 2007).
Eight out of the ten top hotel companies (80%) reported giving charitable donations, 60% reported having diversity policies, and 40% mentioned social responsibility as part of their company mission statements. Community, environment, marketplace, vision and values, and workforce were the categories the top ten hotel companies' available information was entered into. Hilton Corporation was found to have the most comprehensive CSR reporting. Marriot came in as second most comprehensive and the Accor hotel group was third. Holcomb, Upchurch, and Okukmus suggested that most hotel companies can improve their CSR reporting and that hotel companies should "live up to their reputation of being 'hospitable' not only to their guests but also to society" (2007).
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Disaster management, such as needed after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, is not generally listed on any of the CSR checklists commonly agreed upon in the literature. Best Western, Hilton group, Accor, Intercontinental, and Six Senses did, however, commit over $2.5 million, and other chains also provided aid (Henderson, 2007). Henderson calls for CSR efforts to be balanced between commercial and noncommercial priorities (2007).
Today's business environment is very complex with many stakeholders. Not only is there a need to be concerned with the wants and needs of workers, customers, and stockholders, but there is also a need to be concerned with future workers, customers, and stockholders, and also the media, rating agencies, governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the environment (Lane, 2006; Balmer, Fukukawa, & Gray, 2007). Is the business sustainable, and how will it operate globally? Multinational corporations have the power and resources to improve the world, but require responsible leadership in order to benefit multiple stakeholders (Maak, 2007).
Stakeholder social capital is formed when responsible leaders promote mutually beneficial sustainable relationships between all the various stakeholders including those who may have been excluded in the past and future stakeholders. Sustainable relationships can foster a sense of good will as companies become a "force of good" for the multiple stakeholders and the community instead of just for shareholders and management (Maak, 2007).
Society and business have a direct relationship that has grown more contentious in the past decade. CSR reports are primarily the result of the insistence of employees who are demanding assurances that their companies are behaving themselves, and there is a correlation between companies that are seen as good employers and that take their social responsibilities seriously (Lane, 2006).
Sustainability not only concerns the environment, but rather has to do with the ability of a company to operate successfully in the present without compromising its ability to operate successfully in the future (Doherty, 2007). Consumers are increasingly more concerned with how companies make their money and are expecting businesses to be responsible for their social, ethical, and environmental impacts on society and the community (Lane, 2006).
A "triple-bottom-line" approach adds environmental and social elements to the economic bottom-line for an increasing number of corporations (Maak, 2007; Doherty, 2007; Clark, 2006; Mathisen, 2006; Ashley & Haysom, 2006). Conservation and sustainable practices can result in substantial cost reductions for companies (Doherty, 2007). In the area of social equity, however, very few companies are going beyond human resource issues into the problems of hunger, disease, poverty, and injustice that exclude many from taking part in the global economy (Maak, 2007).
Unlimited growth in a finite system is not only impossible, but is the root of most environmental problems (Kallio, 2007). While many citizens know this intuitively, the capitalist economic system is founded in the idea of continuous growth, and the dogmas of economics are rarely questioned in the United States today (Kallio, 2007).
Where European sustainability concerns are focused on social and environmental impacts of products and services, U.S. sustainability concerns are focused on long-term profitability. U.S. firms are also less eager to comply with internationally recognized human rights and environmental standards (Hartman, Rubin, & Dhanda, 2007).
European governments and businesses have moved far beyond the U. S. in CRS initiatives. In a study by the International Hotels Environment Initiative, it was found that 90% of British, 70% of Australians, and only 30% of Americans surveyed believe the tourism industry is bad for the environment (Clark, 2006). Green practices save money, attract new customers, and help to preserve the natural environment which much of the tourism industry is dependent upon (Clark, 2006; Kasim, 2006).
Mass tourism has historically had little concern for sustainability, although this has changed some in recent years (Kasim, 2006). But alternative eco-tourists have been accused of "loving nature to death and disrupting the lives of local people" (Kasim, 2006). For tourism to be sustainable, that is to meet the needs of tourists and locals while protecting and enhancing future opportunities, everyone involved (hospitality companies, tour operators, travel agencies, transportation companies, tourism businesses, governmental agencies, tourists, society, NGOs, etc.) must work together to address all of the social and environmental issues that negatively impact the destinations and the industry as a whole (Kasim, 2006).
Eco-tourism focuses on the environment while sociotourism focuses on the local culture. Both alternative forms of tourism seek to reduce negative effects of mass tourism by being less intrusive and respecting the local people, culture, and environment (Minnaert, Maitland, & Miller, 2006). Another interpretation of social tourism has more to do with the idea that everyone has the right to take vacations, regardless of income or social status (Minnaert, Maitland, & Miller, 2006).
Pro-poor tourism approaches encourage tourist organizations to integrate business practices that create growth opportunities for locals to participate in the benefits brought by tourism (Ashley & Haysom, 2006). Donations to host communities may be appreciated but are short-term and are significantly less beneficial over the long run when compared to the financial and social advantages of investing in local workers and local businesses to support the operation (Ashley & Haysom, 2006).
Sun City, a resort in South Africa, has a full-time corporate social investment manager who develops and implements sustainable programs to teach skills and promote industries that supply Sun City and support the host community such as hydroponic farming, recycling, card and glass making plants, along with education, health and welfare programs, and support of the arts and cultural activities (Merchant, 2005).
Marriott's "Pathways to Independence" program puts welfare recipients through rigorous training to enable them to move into employment positions with Marriott (Brands that do Good, 2003). Charity is good, but integrated pro-poor activities such as these enable people to help themselves out of poverty while at the same time benefitting the benefactor.
Social problems caused by tourism, such as loss of traditional economies and culture, commercialization of arts and crafts, displacement of local people, and increased crime can make destinations less appealing to tourists (Kasim, 2006). For tourism to be sustainable, negative social impacts cannot be ignored.
Traditionally business has been primarily concerned with maximizing profits. This short-term approach, however, has lost consumer support, and business leaders are called to consider the long-term health of their organizations. The negative environmental and social impacts of the hospitality and tourism industries must be mitigated if the industries are to be sustained and profitable in the future. A "them against us" business culture must be replaced with balanced relationships with all stakeholders, including future stakeholders and those who have been excluded in the past, so that social capital can emerge (Maak, 2007). Corporate Social Responsibility is now seen as an "obligation" of business (Choi & Parsa, 2006).
Short-term profits at the expense of the environment and society are short sighted. For business to be sustainable, the triple bottom line, which measures economic, environmental, and social profits and losses, must be embraced by all of business. Social and environmental problems created by business can be solved by business, but it requires a commitment by business and all stakeholders to put aside greed and do what is right.
The underlying theme in all of the articles reported on in this paper is not that Corporate Social Responsibility is good and necessary, but rather, how it should best be implemented. There was overall agreement that while charity is good, it is best to choose CSR activities that are related to the strategies and goals and objectives of the individual organizations and that the CSR activities be good for the company and all of the stakeholders. Corporate Social Responsibility activities should not be pasted on but are, instead, integral to the long-term success of the company. Business and society are dependent upon each other and both must be healthy or neither will thrive into the future.