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The running title of the study is primarily outlined as – Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and the Organisation – A Case Study of MOBILINK. In depth, the research will focus on how training and development affects the performance of both employee and the Organisation. Employees are progressively stipulating change, preferences, flexibility, and variety in their work; suggesting that with the de-layering of organizations and empowerment of individual employees, the future for both the organization and the individual employee depends not in the promotion to the successively higher levels, but rather in developing the value of the individual as human capital (Seidler, 1996). The value of human capital is improved by achievement of higher performance potential such as new tasks, functions, and KSAPs (knowledge, skills, abilities, personal attributes) (McGregor, 1988).
The paper discusses in detail the research proposal of the topic. Training and Development (T&D) basically deals with the acquisition of understanding, knowledge, techniques and practice. In this research proposal, the background and problem of the study are presented; the objectives of the study are originated. Here, crucial concepts, questions, theory and assumption are stated. Finally, the methodology to be used is defined.
The key problem that will be discussed in this study is how T&D affects the performance of both employees and the Organisation. The following research problems will be discussed in the course of the study.
Discussion of the Employee Training and Development in MOBILINK. i.e. in what specific ways does T&D improve the performance of the staff and organisation.
Discussion about other supportive elements or approaches that enhance the Training and development requirements according to the globalisation.
Conclude the effects as much as the benefits that the employee can get and the positive return for the business in carrying out of training and development.
Furthermore, following will be the sub questions of the problem;
To evaluate need and importance of Training and Development in the organization.
To evaluate how Training and Development works, functions and processes in MONILINK.
To investigate the new methods and techniques in Training and Development and their exploitation in the commercial sector.
To gain more information about the business of Telecom sector at a large level corporation spanning multiple geographical locations in multiple countries.
To become good introduction of my university in the commercial sector and open up doors for career in the T & D field in the long term in the future.
I will use the case study method that will permit my study to observe, evaluate and
formulate its own analysis concerning to the subject of training and
Purpose of the Study:
The purpose of the study is to simply establish the sound answer on the effects of the training and development on employees and the organisation. The research particularly looks at the employee training and development pattern within the Organisation and their positive return to the business. Moreover, the study offer discussions made by other authors concerning with the employee training and development.
The study believes that training has a big relationship on the level of understanding, knowledge, and skill of an employee. In other way, the training also creates a big advantage for the organization in their incorporation that can be admitted as part of the organizational system. In addition, the training can comes in different forms and should not be stick in one training strategy or techniques for there are many reasons that might trigger to its development.
Objectives of the Study:
The key objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Training and Development at MOBILINK. In the literature of employee training and development, human resource is the utmost source of the development of a business. In the same way, it is essential to study the current practices in the company training and development that are meant to contribute to the improvement of the employees’ skills and organisational performance. To deal with this objective, I will conduct a survey on the new employees’ views of their training under Mobilink. Moreover, the survey intended to find out if new employees were satisfied with their jobs in their first month in the company. In addition, management personnel will be interviewed to evaluate their views on constructive employee training and development patterns and on employee retention and attrition.
Training and development is essential to organizations which seek to gain a competitive advantage through a highly skilled and flexible workforce, and are seen as a major element to high productivity and quality performance. A skilled workforce can increase productivity by producing a higher level of work with greater value. The organisations seek to ensure the availability of reliable workforce to aid in the realisation of its strategic business plan. To achieve this goal, the company should train and development career (Wilson, 2005). It is worth noting that different companies have different approaches to their business. Further, education seems to be the same for the students of the same profession. This has the indication that the ultimate skills and experience enjoyed by the employee reflects their training in a particular organisation (Wilson 2005,p.102).Employee engagement practices are instrumental in promoting employee commitment to the mission and objectives of an organisation. According to the principles of effective human resource management, training and Development of employees is one of the reliable tools of ensuring their satisfaction at the workplace (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2009). This is due to the fact that training eliminates the demoralisation aspects brought by failure to efficiently realise one’s expectations at the workplace. In addition, training gives employees an opportunity to achieve their professional career goals while earning a living. All these are important are important in meeting the social and economic responsibilities of both the individual and the organisation.Training and career development serves the important role of strengthening the reputation of an organisation. Reputation remains the best marketing tool for the products and services of any business. On the other side, the reputation of a company is defined by the effectiveness and reliability of its services to the customers (Aidele 2009, p.76). This means that an organisation should have in place a strong workforce to meet its market demands. This calls for engaging in employee training and career development since such is vital tools in promoting innovative solving of problems. Still, providing training and development gives the organisation the competitive advantage of identifying the best talent for its workforce as it eliminates certification qualifications to engage in seeking actual capabilities of its employees.
Business leaders are always looking forward for the success of the organization and therefore, they should create a kind of strategy that can undergo the midst of challenges (Meek, 2007). Historically, the training suggests that there are benefits that the training might deliver in the entire organization. One predictable result is the improvement in the level of performance of the people. Another is the minimization of the organizational cost and the capacity of the employees to answer the consumer needs (Shea, 2008).
Many people have seen Training and Development as inseparable but according to the report ,Developing the Developers by Megginson & Pedler (1991) its been shown that most managers viewed Training & Development as different and wanted to keep them as two separate terms. This report made the following definition;
Training: The relatively systematic attempt to transfer knowledge or skills from one who knows to one who does not know.
Development: Working with individuals or organisation to enable them to cross a threshold which has qualitative significance to them and their life.
The significance of employee training and development has long been recognized as a critical matter for businesses (Ford et al., 1997).There are many elements involve in perusing the training and development in an organization. In organizational view, the active employee involvement and training is considered as one of the strategic concerns of the organizational leaders. Organizations personalized different training and development processes and procedures that can achieve the best result in the business’s sustainability. People, as the key for the organization, are the main target of the training therefore the training among the business leader help them to provide the valid reason in creating the appropriate decision for the entire organization and have a great impact on their managerial skills and styles (Johnson, 2001; Farvaque, et al., 2009)
Furthermore, the training and development for some business analysts were considered as a partnership or enhancing the employer-employee relationship (2009).
Human capital is treated as a key to success for all industries. Human Resource Management practices play a pivotal role to gain profitability and market share that ultimately enhance the organizational performance in the long run (Qureshi, 2006). But in the current scenario, enterprises are facing problems in terms of shortage of brilliant workforce, dramatic rise in Retirements, poaching of the key people by competitors, and increasing turnover. As the business environment becomes increasingly competitive, organizations need to focus on improving all areas of their business especially human
capital because the performance of the people employed has a major impact on profitability (Lloyds, 2010).It is now commonly accepted that employees construct an important cause of competitive advantage for the organisation. As a result, it is important that an organisation should adopt best T&D practices to get best utilization of its employees. The above trend has point to enhanced interest in the impact of HRM on organizational performance, and a number of studies have established a positive affiliation (Gelade & Iivery, 2003).
Research studies have demonstrated that training has a positive influence on organizational performance. Zwick (2006) stated that increasing the training strength has an optimistic and significant effect on establishment of productivity.In the same way Bartel (1991) also demonstrated a direct and positive relationship between productivity and training program. The amount of training is an important antecedent for firms who wish to improve their productivity (Savery and Luks, 2004).
But Cunha (2002) found no significance of training on organizational performance.Moreover, effective staff training and professional development can help to produce positive youth outcomes and increase retention of youth workers (Fancsali 2002, Huebner et al.2003, Astroth et al. 2004, Hartje et al. 2007).There are many models of training and development that have made greater progress into organizational settings, which have began to have a greater impact on instructional design. Specifically, Instructional Systems Design (ISD), Human Performance Technology (HPT), Performance-Based Instructional Design (PBID), and Total Quality Management (TQM), all of which originate from research in the area of organizational development.
Role of Theory:
Training and Development has been increasingly used in the literature as well as in the business world as a critical concept redefining the borders between business, society and the state. Extensive literature exists on the concept of T&D. For the purpose of my research, I will use the theories developed about it.
Methodology and Methods:
I will get most of my research information through the books, Journals, Internet and newspaper articles. Webster and Watson (2002) states that the major contributions are likely to be in the leading journals. It can also come from some Official documents provided by the clients such as information about their system, IT infrastructure, training facilities and others. Information can also come from official policy manuals, plans and other stuff which is not confidential for the company.
My case study will be focus on MOBILINK GSM Pakistan, exploring its methodology of Training and Development to streamlining and improving the efficiency of its employee and the organisation. Given below is the brief introduction of MOBILINK and the Training and Development techniques used in the organization:
MOBILINK – Introduction:
MOBILINK GSM (PMCL), a subsidiary of Orascom Telecom, started its operations in Pakistan in 1994, and has become the market leader both in terms of growth and having the largest customer subscribers of over 30 millions and growing. MOBILINK is the first cellular service provider in Pakistan to operate on a 100% digital GSM technology.
Currently there are about five thousand employees in Mobilink among them 500 employee are on temporary basis or outsourced.
Training and Development in MOBILINK:
MOBILINK mostly trains its employees by On Job Training which means that the employees are trained as they perform their jobs and along with their duties. The manager or supervisor guides them how to perform their jobs and guides them about the effectiveness in the work.
Internees are trained in various departments and then mostly hired by Mobilink itself and their training is basically teaching them the ropes and the basics of everything.
On a general basis the training done in Mobilink can be divided into two categories:
â€¢ Soft skill training
â€¢ Technical Training
Graham Burke, One of the the President PMCL Mobilink, said ;
“Mobilink will offer proper training plans to its employees in order to make them more reactive to their responsibilities”
Sampling involves taking a certain number of people to get them contributed in the research by taking their views about a matter or conduction of interviews about the topic under research.
To add to emphasis to the study’s purpose to analyse respondent’s opinion, interviews will be conducted from relevant persons in Mobilink.
Data Acquisition Method:
Primary data will be collected by adopting a qualitative approach by taking different focus groups, this will provide insight and inform the interview process (Threlfall, 1999; Gilbert,2008). To add to emphasis to the study’s purpose to analyse respondent’s opinion, interviews will be conducted from relevant persons in Mobilink, & for this purpose I will spent about 6-8 weeks in Pakistan(My home country) in order to get my required data.
I will conduct structured interviews from some of the employees in Mobilink.Interviews will be recorded. Observation sheet will be filled by the researcher during the interview whereas some of the modifications will be made if necessary to explore a particular issue irrelevant to Training & Development.
The part of the research dealing with data collection from secondary sources will take approximately 4-6 weeks. Compiling and analysing of data collected from interviews and observations will take 6-8 weeks approximately. Final research will provide the study hypothesis in 6-12 weeks approximately.
Critical Success Factor:
Broad level of secondary data on the subject of Training and Development will significantly satisfy the objectives of the study. In broader sense, good knowledge of their systems, their facilities and their performance improvement plans and there success in the failure in the achievement of objectives will be a major success factor in the research.
It will work not too cost effective. The main reasons behind the cost saving is that I already had a plan to go to Pakistan during my holidays and Mobilink’s one of the main office exists in Lahore, Pakistan which is my hometown. Most of the offices from where I am planning to collect data are located in the walking distance or close proximity. This will save me cost of fare, or overnight stay which I may have had to face if the locations were away.
To get users input, recording equipment will be used to record their responses, although it will cost a one time expense of purchase of equipment, but it will save cost of stationary and printing and paper cost that would incur if responses are collected on printed questionnaire or survey forms.
There can be ethical issues around the data collection and use of data for research given that organizations provide access to their information which be sometimes beneficial for their competitors to give them undue advantage. However I will manage secrecy of the information I will obtain during and after the completion of the research. All other ethical standards will be followed during the research to gain information from company or its employees.
The challenges expected to be faced are lack of trust on person from outside the organization in providing information. I will use top-down approach to overcome this issue. I will take management in confidence and agree them to share information with me that will take away a number of resistances from lower staff. Although I will keep good terms and deal nicely with all staff regardless of their ranks, still having management on my back will open up several doors for me which otherwise would proof difficult to open.
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