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As assigned by the lecturer for the module managing business has a research on a company this involves investigating, researching and observing of managing business in the company. As a result the author is selected the Mena Business Services (MBS). This research is meant to analyse the main existing theories of management used based on the THREE management viewpoints. Hence the author has choosen the theories of management are Classical Viewpoint (scientific management), Quantitative Viewpoint(operation managment) and Contemporary Viewpoint (systems theory).
2.0 Background of Mena Business Services (MBS)
MENA is dedicated to supporting its members through facilitating communication, sharing experience and enabling training and learning. In the long-run, MENAinc intends to act as an advocate of business incubation, impact the regional entrepreneurship and innovation policies, disseminate good practices, knowledge, and individual country experiences, rally an effective community of stakeholders, and ultimately serve as a springboard for international business activities of MENA enterprises. (MENA, 2007) Mena Business Services (MBS) is a fully owned by Gulf Countries Corporation (GCC) first Company in medical transcirption was estrablished since 2003 in the Sultanate of Oman (Middle East) with the follow of Head Office is based in Dubai with operational entities across GCC and other Areas too. . (Mena Business Services, 2008). The company's vision is to provide profession contact centre operations, training and medical transcription services. The advanced technology used and the quality of service provided brought a potential cooperation with private organizations and government sectors. The quality of the services created reliability and stability to the operations to clients such as Ministries, Telecom industry, Utilities, Banking, IT services and various other domains
Current Practices on Management Theories
Contemporary theories of management tend to account for and help interpret the rapidly changing nature of today's organizational environments. This paper will deal with three important management theories which are broadly classified as follows: The Scientific Management theory comprising the works of Frederick W. Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth's motion study, among others. (Dr. Yasin Olum, 2004). Quantitative Viewpoint: Operation Managment for calculation in statically. Recent Developments in Management Theory comprises works such as Systems Approach. For lack of time and space, this discussion will provide a general description of some of the scholars in each of these management theories and the successes that they achieved.
Figure 1.0 The Evolution of Management Theory
[Source: Kabra S, 2008]
Classical Viewpoint: Scientific Management
The first management theory is what is popularly referred to as Frederick Taylor's Scientific Management. It has to be acknowledged that from an economic standpoint, Taylorism was an extreme success. Application of his methods yielded significant improvements in productivity.
According to Frederick Taylor "The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process for higher efficiency". (Kabra S, 2008)
For example, improvements such as his shovel work at Bethlehem Works (worker incentive schemes, a piece rate system for shop management, and organizational influences in the development of the fields of industrial engineering, personnel, and quality control.), which reduced the workers needed to shovel from 500 to 140. (Dr. Yasin Olum, 2004) Henceforth, Taylor proposed four great underlying principles of management
There is need to develop a 'science of work' to replace old rule-of-thumb methods: pay and other rewards linked to achievement of 'optimum goals' - measures of work performance and output; failure to achieve these would in contrast result in loss of earnings. (Dr. Yasin Olum, 2004)
Workers to be 'scientifically' selected and developed: training each to be 'first-class' at some specific task.
The 'science of work' to be brought together with scientifically selected and trained people to achieve the best results.
Finally, work and responsibility to be divided equally between workers and management cooperating together in close interdependence.
Alongside Taylor's postulates is Gilbreth's motion study. The ultimate result of this study led to the centrality of efficiency in organizations. Gilbreth was particularly interested in how he could reduce the unnecessary motions resulting from bricklaying at a construction site; he succeeded in reducing the motions from 18 to 4. (Dr. Yasin Olum, 2004) Hence finally then proposed that each worker should be involved in doing his or her own work, prepare for the next higher level, and training their successors.
Quantitative Viewpoint: Operation Managment
Quantitative management focuses on the application to management of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations. Two branches of quantitative management are management science and operations management. (Angelo Kinicki & Brian K. Williams, 2008) Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively.
Hence these models, based on mathematical equations, were credited with assisting the British military in effectively staving off the German attack. After World War II was over, interest in the application of operations research technology to industry began to emerge. This interest was accelerated by advances in computer technology that increased the speed with which many of the complicated mathematical models could be solved. In particular, operations research models were applied to solve production problems. Mathematical models were used to simulate a production problem, bringing to bear all the relevant factors affecting that problem. The values of these factors could be changed to develop different scenarios in the search for a solution. (Martin Hahn PhD. 2008)For example, a manager might be interested in the effect that delays in shipments of raw materials have on the cost of producing a good. By changing this variable in the equation, production costs under different scenarios can be estimated and managers can then make more-informed decisions on how to deal with this problem situation. While operations research has provided management with a valuable tool in the planning and control of production activities, mathematical models have yet to account effectively for human behaviors. The difficulty, of course, is that the human factor is not as easily quantified as inanimate phenomena.
Figure 2.0 The Historical Perspective
[Source: Angelo Kinicki & Brian K. Williams, 2008]
Contemporary Viewpoint: Systems theory
Systems theory represented the merger of systems theory represented the merger of many ideas from scientific management many ideas from scientific management and from human relations management. It and from human relations management. It was indeed project-based, lending itself was indeed project-based, lending itself well to scheduling, and it also strived well to scheduling, and it also strived toward synergism (where the whole is toward synergism (where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts) through greater than the sum of its parts) through humanistic management of at least the humanistic management of at least the internal environment (the informal internal environment (the informal organization of the workers).organization of the workers). (Anon)Â
Figure 3.0 The Contemporary Perspective
[Source: Angelo Kinicki & Brian K. Williams, 2008]
Application of Theories on Mena Business Services (MBS)
MBS: Scientific Management
The classical viewpoint is very important because it determines the lasting of Medical Transcription Center. product attributes defines as all tangible and intangible features of a good or service that can be evaluated by customer (Kimiz Dalkir, 2007). Medical Transcription providers should explain all the tangible and intangible features of the service to the costumer.
MT service is high in search attributes. Search attributes allows customers to evaluate a product before purchasing it. For example, the service provider should provide free trial for the service so they will be able to see the quality of the reports and evaluate the service, and should also give the customer's brochures, and booklets. It is difficult to maintain the consistency of service quality and the accuracy for MT should be not less 99%. (Kimiz Dalkir, 2007). The MT center should always try to meet or exceed customer's expectation. It is also important for customer to use Risk-Reduction Personal Strategies because perceived risk is normally incur certain cost, time, physical and psychological, sensory effect. During free trial the customer will be able to evaluate the service quality and if they are able to meet the Turn Around Time. Then only will be able to compare the expectations with the real outcome performance and most important with MT customer is security confidentially of the patient's data. (Lovelock and Wright,2001). Site tour will help the client to evaluate Service Environment e.g. . Patient confidentiality standards followed, Business Standards e.g. if the staffs are well-trained or certified, equipment standards etc. In each market they are always competitors and if our customers are not satisfied with our services they can easily breech their contract.
Hence if you applied this theory with follow Frederick Taylor's principles to achieved scientific management and reduce the work load from human. Thus the training also needed to practice with other accent to deal with internationally.
MBS: Operation Management
MBS is currently involved in medical transciption services in middle east countries. Medical transcription is a process of transcribing dictation by physicians and other healthcare providers in order to document patient's care. The individuals who perform medical transcription are known Medical Transcriptionist (MTs). Hence the operation managament of MBS has a process to handle the daily activities work in medical transcrition.
When the patient visits a doctor, the doctor discusses with the patient about his/her medical problems. After diagnosis/tests, the doctor then decides on treatment plan and discusses it with the patient. (MBS) Then, after the patient leaves or while the patient is with the doctor, the doctor dictates the medical report using digital dictation equipments that has been integrated by the Service Provider Servers.
Transcription process involves receiving dictation by tape, digital system or voice recorders, and a team of well-trained health care professionals convert these dictations to meaningful client specific documents which is a legal document that may be subpoenaed the whole process is done through WordScript Transcription Tool that supports all Microsoft Word features and Audio Play Back facility within the specific turnaround time using head phones, foot pedals with start-stop control, and a sophisticated word processing program. This profession requires good listening and language skills, computer skills and a high command over medical terminology.
Figure 4.0 MBS : Medical Transcription Process
MBS: System Theory
By implmenting the system theory in MBS in medical transcription processes then the results in quality of the service definately improve. Five Quality Dimensions implemented by Medical transcription MBS Company:
Reliability is defines as ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately (Lovelock and Wright, 2001). This is being done by delivering the reports with desire quality not less than 98% with respect to major errors and 100% accuracy with respect to critical error. It is important to reiterate that hitting these targets should be the goal in transitioning a transcriptionist through any comprehensive quality assurance program.
Tangibilit is defines as the physical facilities, equipments, personnel and communication materials using by the service provider (Lovelock and Wright, 2001). Such as computer systems, head phones, foot pedals with start-stop control. To meet the costumer's expectation, the company should be superior in Technical Support, Comprehensive customer support, accurate, cost affective service, competitive pricing, HIPAA compliant, 24x7 shits and being able to maintain long-term client relationship as well as transcription quality.
Responsiveness is the willingness to help customers and to provide prompt service (Lovelock and Wright, 2001). The main goal for MT service provider is to deliver desired services for this reason, in the production floor there are 3 levels of Transcriptionists to ensure error free reports and each report is passing through the 3 levels with putting in consideration the Turn Around Time for each report. The first stage is to listen and transcribe the report using the correct format and grammar, the second stage is to proofread the work for typographical, grammatical and medical errors and the last stage is the Supervisors part to edit the work, fill in blanks and any doubts.
Assurance it is a knowledge and courtesy of employees as well as their ability to convey trust and confident (Lovelock and Wright, 2001). The Medical transcriptionist must process hearing acuity, well medical knowledge, good reading comprehension, high typing speed, responsiveness, certified and with good experience. Thus, the MT should look up the correct spelling of medical terms and use the provided sources such as medical, English dictionaries and internet.
Empathy is defines as the provision of caring and individualized attention to customers (Lovelock and Wright, 2001). By following the customers instruction in Formats, handling complaint received from costumer and ensuring not to be repeated again, keeping the Turn Around Time.
In conclusion, it has to be restated that management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment for the purpose of efficiently accomplishing selected aims. Managing is an essential activity at all organizational level. However, the managerial skills required vary with organizational levels. Although women have made progress in obtaining responsible positions, they still have a long way to go. The goal of all managers is to create a surplus and to be productive by achieving a favorable output-input ration within a specific time period with due consideration for quality. Productivity implies effectiveness (achieving of objectives) and efficiency (using the least amount of resources). Managing as practice is art; organized knowledge about management is science. The development of management theory involves the development of concepts, principles, and techniques. There are many theories about management, and each contributes something to our knowledge of what managers do. Each approach or theory has its own characteristics and advantages as well as limitations. The operational, or management process, approach draws on each "school" and systematically integrates them.
Finally, the organization is an open system that operates within and interacts with the environment. The systems approach to management includes inputs from the external environment and from claimants, the transformation process, the communication system, external factors, outputs, and a way to reenergize the system. No doubt, a manager who makes serious attempts to translate theory into reality is bound to increase productivity more than a manager who chooses to use the 'fire brigade' or trial and error approach.