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Biometric is an automatic process that is used to identify a person based on their own physiological or behavioural characteristics. Physiological are concerning on the appearance of the body such as fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, Palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition. Behavioural are about the behaviour of a person such as typing rhythm, handwritten signature, gait, and voice. Physiological and behavioural characteristics of human can be scanned, coded, recorded and stored by using biometric scanner. When someone physiological or behavioural is scan by biometric scanner, biometric system will digital it and compared it to a previously processed profile that is stored in magnetic disk.
The uses of Biometric
Biometric control system is use by companies in difference fields to protect their important assets, information. Biometric is used to authenticate an individual to access or entry to information resources. By using the unique human physiological or behavioral, it is not allowed for anyone to access and copy the information to another person. Therefore, using biometric is a way to protect the company information. Biometric controls that use physical lock-downs can protect the information or data in a company. Data and information in a company will become more safety by using biometric by implementing a more secure key than a password. Data will become more secure by using biometric that allow hierarchical structure of data protection. For example, when a person wants to access the data or information, he/she need to scan their fingerprint on the biometric scanner. When the system finds that the signature is match with the profiles that store in the record, the person will be allow entry into a computer facility or given access to information resources.
Why biometric is more safety?
Biometric is more secure and safety. This is because physiological or behavioral to a person is unique. It is impossible that appear two same characteristic people in a world. Everyone has their own characteristic and it make biometric become more safety and provide more protection to the company data or information. For example, we cannot have the same handwriting with another person. Everyone has their own unique and special handwriting, we can't imitate it. In other way, physiological or behavioral of an individual is cannot be shared. We cannot borrow our fingerprint or iris to other person. It is because physiological or behavioral of person is an intrinsic property, it is impossible to share or duplicate. Furthermore, physiological or behavioral of an individual is cannot be lose. Biometric property will not lose, unless the individual had a bad accident and lost their iris or hand.
Biometric Control is useful to a company to control access to the information resources or data. Biometric can prevent unauthorized person to entry or access information resources. Biometric also make the security to the identification process become better and higher protection. So, biometric control is accuracy , fast and easy to use.
Biometrics, such as using an iris pattern or voiceprint, along with signatures stored in a database is an effective way to control access to an area or a computer. This has the advantage of unique signatures that are impossible to forge. Concern about freedom and privacy issues has caused some resistance to using biometrics for security
Biometric identification solution systems can:-
â€¢ PREVENT unauthorized use or access
â€¢ ADD a higher level of security to the identification process
â€¢ ELIMINATE the burden and bulk of carrying ID cards & remembering pins
â€¢ HEIGHTEN overall confidence in business processes dependent on personal IDs
Can Biometrics be Applied to the "Real World"?
Biometrics have been used and tested under the most demanding real world applications and under various real world conditions. Biometric technology has been proven and extremely efficient in protecting facilities that are vital to national security. Biometrics has been used to protect corporate networks, to preserve the integrity of data systems, and to allow controlled, authenticated access to corporate networks and privileged information. These real-world results prove that biometric solution products are easy to use, robust and cost effective.
Why are biometrics secure?
Unique: The various biometrics systems have been developed around unique characteristics of individuals. The probability of 2 people sharing the same biometric data is virtually nil.
Cannot be shared: Because a biometric property is an intrinsic property of an individual, it is extremely difficult to duplicate or share (you cannot give a copy of your face or your hand to someone!).
Cannot be copied: Biometric characteristics are nearly impossible to forge or spoof, especially with new technologies ensuring that the biometric being identified is from a live person.
Cannot be lost: A biometric property of an individual can be lost only in case of serious accident.
This is where biometrics systems provide a more accurate and reliable user authentication method, as can be summarised in the table underneath:
Existing user authentication techniques include:
Something you know, e.g. password or PIN. The issue is that many password are easy to guess, and can also be easily forgotten.
Something you have, e.g. key or car. They can be lost, stolen or duplicated.
Something you know and have, e.g. card + PIN.
Something you are, e.g. fingerprint, hand, iris, retina, voice. You cannot lose them, are unique for each individual and are difficult to forge.
Biometrics and Security
Biometrics 101 - The Basics
Biometric recognition can be used in identification mode, where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match.
A system also can be used in verification mode, where the biometric system authenticates a person's claimed identity from his/her previously enrolled pattern.
Using biometrics for identifying and authenticating human beings offers some unique advantages. Only biometric authentication bases identification on an intrinsic part of a human being. Tokens, such as smart cards, magnetic stripe cards, physical keys, and so forth, can be lost, stolen, duplicated, or left at home. Passwords can be forgotten, shared, or observed.
While all biometric systems have their own advantages and disadvantages, there are some common characteristics needed to make a biometric system usable.
First, the biometric must be based upon a distinguishable trait. For example, for nearly a century, law enforcement has used fingerprints to identify people. There is a great deal of scientific data supporting the idea that "no two fingerprints are alike."
Newer methods, even those with a great deal of scientific support, such as DNA-based genetic matching, sometimes do not hold up in court.
Another key aspect is how user-friendly is the system? Most people find it acceptable to have their pictures taken by video cameras or to speak into a microphone. In the United States, using a fingerprint sensor does not seem to be much of a problem. In some other countries, however, there is strong cultural opposition to touching something that has been touched by many other people.
While cost is always a concern, most implementers today are sophisticated enough to understand that it is not only the initial cost of the sensor or the matching software that is involved. Often, the life-cycle support cost of providing system administration support and an enrolment operator can overtake the initial cost of the hardware. Also of key importance is accuracy. Some terms that are used to describe the accuracy of biometric systems include false-acceptance rate (percentage of impostors accepted), false-rejection rate (percentage of authorized users rejected), and equal-error rate (when the decision threshold is adjusted so that the false- acceptance rate equals the false-rejection rate).
When discussing the accuracy of a biometric system, it is often beneficial to talk about the equal-error rate or at least to consider the false-acceptance rate and false-rejection rate together. For many systems, the threshold can be adjusted to ensure that virtually no impostors will be accepted. Unfortunately, this often means an unreasonably high number of authorized users will be rejected.
To summarize, a good biometric system is one that is low cost, fast, accurate, and easy to use
An office building is an eligible site for different types of crimes to take place, when there is no access control system installed to safeguard its interest. While manual access control and mechanical access control systems are losing heir significance, biometric access control is becoming extensively popular. More and more business houses are considering employee biometric identification as an important entity for their business to achieve targeted results.
How Does Biometrics Help
Biometrics makes use of various physical traits of different employees to create identity templates, which are impassable. Fingerprints, face prints, iris structures and various other physical attributes are recorded, coded and stored using biometric scanners. As you can understand, these templates are much more secure, as they completely eradicates buddy punching, where an employee marks attendance for his or her colleague. In a way, you can open your third eye for assessing the employee performance and behaviour.
Issues Addressed by Biometrics
As mentioned earlier, biometric security leaves no scope for buddy punching, as each employee is required to enter the office or make a login using his or her physical traits.
Security of computer servers, which feed business websites, is critical for a business organization, as this significant asset is under constant threat from moles and rival organizations. With biometric access control, you can restrict the presence of your employees in server rooms.
Important business documents are protected using employee biometric identification, allowing only authorized employees to access them.
Organizations involved in e-commerce activities need to protect their physical offices against frauds and thefts and there is no better option than biometric technology to serve for this need.
Payroll disputes can be easily resolved by recording the performance and attendance of every employee on regular basis. Thus, there are no wage-frauds expected in the office.
Biometric security in business organizations has helped the business owners to install a secure environment, where each employee is encouraged to contribute best of his capabilities. Purchasing biometric scanners and other devices can provide your business a competitive edge over others and make it accountable towards big profit earning.
Biometric Fingerprint Scanner units can offer enhanced security by restricting access to computers, work areas, as well as files that need additional security beyond a typical password which can be lost or shared with unauthorized users Fingerprint scanner also keep a record of who has last accessed an area or a specific file so that a virtual paper trail is always accessible to know who is truly accessing your system and secure areas. Many different types of fingerprint scanner exist to help your business's security efforts. Newer types of hardware are being developed that include a biometric component. But, simple devices are available that will allow you to implement biometric technology through a simple USB port.
Using biometrics to control access to an area or a computer consists of using such biological signatures of facial features, the pattern of the iris in a person's eye, fingerprints, and a voiceprint. A digital pattern of the person is stored in a database and compared with the biometric signature read by some device.
This is as opposed to using a person's written signature, password, key or photo to identify the person and allow access.
The primary advantage is that each biometric signature is essentially unique and impossible to forge.
Another advantage of such a method is that information is stored in a database, so the signature could be used anywhere by simply accessing the database.
Finally, it is better than using a password or key that could be lost or stolen. The password in this case is the person himself.
A major disadvantage of using biometrics is the cost of implementing it. Although the price is dropped. There are some digital fingerprint readers for use with a PC that cost around $100.
There is fear from civil liberty groups that using biometrics with information stored in databases that can be accessed anywhere in the country may lead to abuses in person freedom and privacy. Reasons for resistance is similar to that against a national ID system.
Biometrics, such as using an iris pattern or voiceprint, along with signatures stored in a database is an effective way to control access to an area or a computer. This has the advantage of unique signatures that are impossible to forge. Concern about freedom and privacy issues has caused some resistance to using biometrics for security.
Biometrics now applies almost exclusively to the measurement of biological traits for security purposes
The term biometrics is now widely known as "the science of measuring physical characteristics, to verify a person's identity which includes voice recognition, iris and face scans, and fingerprint recognition." This definition represents a recently created application used in the industrial-tech world.
Since biometrics is a system for measuring unique biological traits for the purpose of identification; it includes utilization of time clocks, the "easy way" to track and to report employees authentication to increase security, and the enhancement of access with the convenience of hand readers or finger prints; so, there is no further need for ID badges or time cards and the biometric system also eliminates the "buddy punching" of time cards or employees clocking each other in. When some recognition systems verify the identities of individuals by the size and shape of the hand, they do so without the fingerprints or palm prints being utilized.
Fingerprint recognition has emerged as one of the most popular and convenient biometric technologies because it is more accurate than voice recognition and cheaper than iris scanning, supporters say. Now, more and more everyday gadgets are coming equipped with fingerprint scanners including some cell phones.
A few airports and government agencies, such as the FBI, have dabbled with biometrics to identify employees. In recent months, a wave of new users, from schools to banks, have adopted the technology. The goal: tighten security, reduce security costs, and meet stricter laws imposed after the 2001 terrorist attacks.
Biometrics Plays an Important Role in Physical Access Control
Biometrics identifies a person via a unique human characteristic: the size and shape of a hand, a fingerprint, one's face or several aspects of the eye. If the goal of an access control system is to control where people, not credentials, can and cannot go, then only a biometric device truly provides this capability to the end user.
As a result, biometrics is used on the front doors of thousands of businesses around the world, at the doors to the tarmacs of major airports, and at the entrances of other facilities where the combination of security and convenience are desired.
More than 900 biometric hand readers control client and employee access to special areas of Italian banks and more than 100 units perform similar functions in Russia. In the united Kingdom, Her Majesty's Prisons rely on biometrics for prisoner and visitor tracking. Universities use hand readers for the on-campus meal program and to safeguard access to dormitories and to protect their computer centres. Hospitals utilize the biometric devices for access control and payroll accuracy.
Since 1991, biometric systems have produced millions of verifications at San Francisco International airport (SFO), with more than 50,000 produced on high volume days. Hand readers span the entire airport, securing more than 180 doors and verifying the identity of more than 18,000 employees. The use of biometrics at San Francisco is airport-wide and fully integrated into the primary access control system.
Potential Problems with Biometric Systems
One of the most crucial factors in the success of a biometric system is user acceptance of the device. It must cause no discomfort or concern for the user. If people are afraid to use the device, they probably will not use it properly, which may result in users not being granted access.
The biometric device must work correctly. When it functions properly, it does two things: it keeps unauthorized people out and lets authorized people in. No device is perfect. In the biometric world, the probability of letting the wrong person in and right person out, is characterized by the "false accept" and the "false reject" error rates.
This contrast and the frustration of dealing with a high number of false rejects will have authorized users and management alike looking for a way to replace the biometric system with something else if these factors are not considered up front.
"Smart" Passports for U.S. Citizens
The U.S. governments plans to issue "smart" passports, featuring embedded microchips that store a compressed image of the owner's face, to U.S. citizens in October, 2004. Designed to prevent tampering, the digital passports will include cryptographically signed digital images to guarantee their authenticity. Although civil liberties groups have expressed concerns about the government using the new passports as a monitoring tool, Frank Moss, deputy assistant secretary for Passport Services at the U.S. Department of State, maintains that information will only be forwarded to centralized databases if there is a query over the authenticity of a passport. What is more, Moss says the passports will only include basic passport information.
Some technical experts have also warned that smart passports do not guarantee safety, adding that the new passports will only help to identify known suspects or people who have forged passports. Richard Clayton, a hardware security expert at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom, adds that everyone involved in the September 11 terrorist attacks had a photo ID. Meanwhile, the European Union plans to spend 140 million euro to develop an interoperable biometric system, which would enable passports to carry fingerprints and iris scan biometric data. Such biometric information would be much easier to cross-reference than photographs of an individual with different hair styles and facial hair
Maybe you've been thinking about upgrading your security, or have experienced employee fraud or theft. Here are 10 reasons why Biometric Access Control is the right sort of security for you.
1. A determined intruder (ä¾µå…¥è€…) can gain access to the premises or data by stealing an ID card, or a PIN number. By using Biometrics, the person actually has to be there.
2. Biometric access control means that there are no additional ID cards to carry or pin numbers to remember. For some companies and departments, there might be door lock numbers to remember for each room they enter into. This can lead to a lot of numbers to remember.
3. Contrary to popular belief, Biometrics is not just for protecting valuable stock, or for matters of national importance.
4. As well as fingerprints, iris, retina, vein, face, and hand can all be used for identification and authorisation purposes. Depending on your requirements you might choose iris recognition instead of fingerprints, as you know your staff have to wear gloves, or will be carrying items around.
5. Biometrics isn't just for airports or government applications. It doesn't matter whether you are a small office, a factory or an airport, you can benefit from using biometric access control as part of your security system.
6. Biometric access control can be used for highly effective time and attendance purposes. By implementing this technology, you will be able to see an end of people fraudulently "clocking on" for colleagues, or using somebody else's PIN number or ID card to gain access to a restricted area, or perhaps somewhere they shouldn't be able to access.
7. This technology is highly accurate, and is similar to DNA in that the likelihood of duplicate biometric information is very remote. This means that you can be certain that if there is a suspected breach of security, it is likely to be genuine.
8. There is an easy to follow audit trail, so you can say with confidence who tried to access where, and when. It could be somebody trying to get into a restricted area, or somebody trying to log on to a computer after hours.
9. Using biometrics dramatically improves security, and as staff and potential intruders are no longer to use each other's cards or PIN numbers.
10. Biometric access control systems are extremely accurate, versatile and cost effective. They represent excellent value for money, and no matter whether you need a whole new security system for an airport, or a manufacturing company, or you want to introduce a single fingerprint reader so that staff can access your building, you'll find that biometric access control is the answer.