4G is the new development in mobile communication which is also known as next generation networks. As time passes past technologies are replaced by new ones for the need of new development communications. This is achieved by the 4G which gives a good scope for the widened of mobile communication .As mobiles are developed as minicomputer now ever days which can be used for different purposes this can be achieved efficiently by new technologies like 4G which offers higher data rates with seamless roaming.
In today's technological world the mobile users are demanding more sophisticated and compact devices for their purposes to which manufactures are trying to develop smaller devices with increased processing and security which makes to develop 4G network for much improved image processing and speed of processors which can be used for using 4G applications like 3D games , high definition camcorders with larger megapixels which need high processor to run.4G is developed to run on a single platform for different wireless networks which are connected through one IP core. This will help to integrate the different existing heterogeneous wireless technologies like WIMAX, UMTS, WLAN and GPRS.
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4G network has a very high data rate which provides 100Mbps to 1Gbps in stationary and mobile environment respectively.
Although 4G networks are best for mobile users they have some limitations. One of the main issue is the operating area which is a drawback to all communication networks like 2G, 3G also . As we know that many rural areas and many buildings in metropolitan cities where there with no network coverage in this technological world. This is due to our present communication standards and equipment which should be improved for this latest technology which is a promising one to deliver communication and many others advanced applications everywhere which can't be possible unless our operating area is enhanced in an effective manner.
The second issue is the cost of network which is important to consider .As 4G network equipment is very expensive so carriers and providers should plan carefully to make the cost more realistic and low.
4G networks being so advantageous to users it also faces some potential problems in real world. They are Security, Quality of service, Handover.
In this digital world security is an important aspect in communication networks. As 4G network is not used for just communication but also it provides different functions like internet which is to be much secured. So we should estimate and solve the different security threats of 4G networks like IP spoofing, User ID theft, Denial of service, Intrusion attacks which may cause loss of information or leakage of information which is considered as great threat for the users.
Quality of service:
Quality of service is more important for 4G networks as we know that telecommunication is a real time communication like Voice over IP and video streaming .In real time traffics quality of service is very important as we should estimate some factors like bit rate, jitter, delay, packet drop probability to avoid network congestion in available bandwidth effectively.
Handovers is defined as the switching of mobile nodes (MN) from one access point to other in current network or to a different network.4G networks faces lot of challenges while handover in today's communication systems. In particular if a mobile user is undergone handover process from communication systems like GPRS to WLAN at that time there is a potential risk of communication disturbance which makes the mobile user unhappy.
As we know that 4G networks are heterogeneous networks they support different functions to network operators and service providers. So to provide security for communication 4G networks introduce security gateways (SEGs) which secure the different domains. For developing security in 4G networks we should adopt a model developed by International Telecommunication union named as X.805 based on Bell lab security model which consist of three security layers, three security planes and eight security dimensions which has explained below.
X.805 security model
Access control which controls unauthorized users to network.
Authentication which confirms the individual identity of user.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Non repudiation controls false data by giving information of data from origin.
Data confidentiality which provides security to the data in the network from unauthorized users.
Communication security which provides security to the communication channel for usage of authorized user only.
Data integrity protects the data from manipulating or modifying by others.
Availability is making the network available for only the authorized users.
Privacy is allowing data flow to only the authorized user without any leakage.
By following these steps of this model at least we can defend from the existing threats and can solve the future threats which are more important in any communication network.
To maintain quality of service in 4G we have to implement some protocols which are designed to maintain seamless communication to users like video conferencing and video streaming. The mobility protocols are Mobile IPV6, Hierarchical MIPV6, and Fast MIPV6 which improve quality of service for 4G networks. Since to improve more quality of service in 4G and for a better handovers across heterogeneous networks research are done for combination of mobility protocols seamless mobile IPV6 (SMIPV6) and session initiation protocol (SIP) for a better communication network.
Mobile communication networks has been developed rapidly from decades and plays a vital role in human life .The advanced networks like 4G are not only used just for communication between people but also serves many functions for the users which faces many potential problems in real time to which we should find a effective solution. As 4G is a heterogeneous network function on single IP core which has many advantages like high bit rate and seamless communication when compared to others with a better quality of service and security .Up on all this new advanced 4G networks gives a great scope to future development of mobile communications in every field.