Approaches to prostatecetomy include traditional open surgery, conventional laparoscopic surgery or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.
With traditional prostate cancer surgery, the incision is between eight to ten inches long and patients usually remain in the hospital up to five days after surgery. In addition, patients are catheterized for two to three weeks, and there is a risk of side effects.
Minimally invasive, robotic-assisted prostate cancer surgery allows for small incisions, less blood loss and reduced recovery time. Preservation of the nerves necessary for erections can be an extremely important goal for patients. These nerves run alongside the prostate and are often damaged when removing the prostate. A nerve-sparing, robotic prostatectomy attempts to preserve these nerves so that the patient may be able to return to his prior erectile function.
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How does robotic prostatectomy work?
The da Vinci Surgical System is a state-of-the-art surgical robot that gives surgeons more precise views of the prostate and surrounding tissue, as well as greater dexterity. The system uses miniature instruments to perform the procedure. A surgeon controls the robot from a remote console that precisely translates his hand, wrist and finger movements to the robotic arms inside the patient while providing a three-dimensional view of those movements.
With the robot, the surgeon makes five keyhole openings rather than the single large incision made during a traditional open prostatectomy. These small openings result in less pain, and a shorter hospital stay. Patients who undergo robotic assisted surgery usually leave the hospital within two days, and some are able to return to normal activities within two weeks after the procedure.
Using the robot, the surgeon removes the prostate and surrounding pelvic lymph nodes (if indicated) through the small openings.
Patient benefits may include:
Smaller surgical incisions of one inch or less
Less intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion
Reduced postoperative pain and discomfort
Shorter hospital stay (two days)
Shorter catheter duration (seven to 10 days)
Faster overall recovery
Robots surgery advantages
Robots in the field of surgery have dramatically changed the procedures for the better. The most significant advantage to Robotic Surgery to the patient is the decrease in pain and scaring. By using cameras and enhanced visual effects, doctors can make the tinniest of incisions. The da Vinci and Zeus system each use “arms” to operate. In order for these arms to get inside the body and operate, they only need a few centimeters for an incision. In fact The San Matteo Hospital in Pavia, Italy performed a Cardiac Bypass surgery that included three incisions, each about one centimeter in length. Typically in that type of surgery the incision is about 30 centimeters in length.
The smallness of the incisions also causes many other advantages that make Robotic Surgery worth the risk. Due to the small and precise cuttings, the patents hospital stay is greatly reduced. A person needs far less recovery time when they have 3-centimeter scars then when they have a scar almost 10 times as large. Also, the risk of infection or complications decreases as the incision size does. The patient mentioned earlier with the Closed Heart Bypass surgery is a terrific example. After his surgery, he was cleared by his surgeon Dr. Mauro Rinaldi and released from the hospital after only 12 hours of recovery. The next week he was actually able to join his family on a vacation.
Besides the obvious rewards to the patient, Robotic Surgery is also very advantageous to the surgeon and hospital. In the ZEUS Surgical System, an “arm” on the machine is dedicated to the Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning (AESOP). AESOP is a 3D camera used in robotic surgery. It can be zoomed in by either voice activation or pedals located at the surgeons foot. Doctors who have used this actually argue that AESOP gives a better image than in real life. This is particularly true with surgeons that have poor vision or in microscopic surgery’s that deal with nerves. Also, by using the hand controls the surgeons can reach places in the body that are normally unreachable by the human hand. Finally, the clearest advantage to using robots in surgery is in long operations, particularly ones that deal with nerve or tissue reconstruction. Surgeons often tire easily after performing microscopic surgery’s that last hours. However, by having the ability to be seated and have less strain on the eyes, doctors can control their natural flinching or nerves more efficiently.
Robots surgery disadvantages
Robotic surgery is a new technology, so its uses and efficacy have not been fully determined. Consequently, there are not many extensive long-term studies on the procedure to confirm or deny its effectiveness. There are, however, prominent disadvantages to robotics, including time, cost, efficiency, and compatibility with current systems.
Robotic assisted heart surgery can take nearly twice the amount of time that a typical heart surgery takes, but this is variable depending on the surgeon’s expertise and practice with the equipment.
In a longer surgery, the patient is under anesthesia for longer and it costs more to staff the procedure.
At this early stage in the technology, the robotic systems are very expensive. It is possible that with improvements in technology and more experience gained by surgeons the cost will fall. Others believe that with these improvements in technology the systems will become more complicated and the costs will rise. Another issue with costs is the problem with upgrading the systems as they improve. Only when these systems gain more widespread multidisciplinary use the costs will become more justified.
Efficiency and Compatibility
Another disadvantage is the large size of the system in an overcrowded-operating room. The robotic arms are awkward and bulky and there are many instruments needed in the small space. For robotic-assisted beating heart surgery, the space is even smaller because stabilizers are needed. For surgeons, this cramped area can interfere with their dexterity.
There are two possible suggestions for improving this problem, however both are costly. Some suggest miniaturizing the robotic arms and instruments while others believe that larger operating rooms are needed. With either solution, robotics is an especially expensive new technology.
Another disadvantage is that current operating room instruments and equipment are not necessarily compatible with the new robotic systems. Without the correct equipment, tableside assistance is needed to perform part of the surgery.
There are also concerns about using a static model for beating heart surgery and concerns about technical glitches that might occur during the surgery.
In Comparison to Standard Techniques
Dr. Michael Argenziano at New York Presbyterian Hospital said that on average, the robotic-assisted heart surgeries costs $2,000 more per operation, but in the end, the costs come out even because the patients recover sooner with the robotic procedure. He also noted that money was saved on nursing care and pain medications.
With time and improvements in technology, these disadvantages will hopefully be remedied. If not, then it is possible that the advantages of these systems will not justify their cost.
What’s video conferencing?
A videoconference or video conference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called ‘visual collaboration’ and is a type of groupware.
Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it’s designed to serve a conference rather than individuals. It is an intermediate form of video telephony, first deployed commercially by AT&T during the early 1970s using their Picture phone technology.
What’s a website?
A website (also spelled Web site; officially styled website by the AP Stylebook) is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that are addressed relative to a common Uniform Resource Locator (URL), often consisting of only the domain name, or the IP address, and the root path (‘/’) in an Internet Protocol-based network. A web site is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network.
Video conferencing advantages
Videoconferencing is rapidly gaining in popularity, and it’s hardly surprising. Basically, videoconferencing allows people to communicate in real time, no matter where they are located. It can be as few as two people, or it can be thousands. The participants can hold a meeting or conference, compare charts and generally do everything they could do if they were all in the same room together. This is all done via audio and video transmission through the wonders of the internet.
The list of advantages gained from using videoconferencing is long, but here are a few of the main advantages. The most obvious advantage is the enormous savings involved when people don’t need to travel. An average business trip usually involves at least one night spent in another place, and costs incurred include flights, transport, meals, accommodation, entertainment, and the list goes on. If you need ten people at a meeting, and add together all the costs involved, the total is staggering.
Remember, too, that not only is travel costly, it takes time. So those ten executives have to take two days out of their busy schedule, for example, to attend a half-day meeting at head office. With videoconferencing, they can allocate the half-day, and spend the other day and a half doing productive work in their office. Using videoconferencing provides big savings in both money and time.
Video conferencing disadvantages
Months may be required to enable video conferencing capability within a large organization; this is including time required for designing the network and installing video conferencing equipment. Initial cost of equipment is higher than if an outside service organization were used.
Using conference rooms for video conferences makes sense from a facilities perspective but this can cause video systems to be underutilized. Normally, in an organization, most meetings and conference room use are for local business without a need to communicate with other facilities or locations. Therefore, video equipment investment can be stranded during every day normal use of conference rooms for local meetings.
Many organizations assign a central staff to run a video conference network without considering the needs of each remote site. Video conferencing requires at least two locations, each with its own system, network, conference or meeting room and operating instructions. Each location, therefore, normally should have a skilled operator of video systems to assist users in getting a conference started and keeping it running. Few organizations are willing to expend the funds to ensure each endpoint is staffed with a skilled technician and so this skill deficit can cause conference failures in some locations, particularly those that turn systems off daily or reboot frequently.
Industry manufacturers understand this common problem and are providing software tools and remote management capability with the latest video conference equipment to allow for remote management of systems. Therefore, a well-run network requires either skilled personnel at each endpoint or some form of remote management in order to ensure systems operate well. Some combination of both is usually required to attain high levels of video network up time.
The Internet, sometimes called simply “the Net,” is a worldwide system of computer networks – a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers. It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the US government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANET.
AO2 USE RESOURCES: CHOSEN RESOURCES
The Benefits of Robotic Assisted Surgery
I chose this information from the website because it explain clearly How does robotic prostatectomy work?
Is technology good or bad?
In this project I’ll be talking about, what’s technology and if technology is good or bad?
The main question that I have chosen for my project is: Is technology good or bad?
I will carry out my research using the three research method. I will explore internet, study different books and watch videos to discover more information on different people’s opinions on my questions.
In this project I’ll be concentrating on the good of using technology and the bad of using it.
What is technology?
Technology is a human innovation that has been developing from generation to generation, however technology is used to solve problems and make life easier to live such as computers, robots, airplanes, cars and phones etcâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.
My objective in the end of this project is to understand and give a clear description of technology, why the people argue technology is good and the ethers argue technology is bad, what the good side of technology is and what the bad side of technology is.
Is technology good?
I think that technology is good and helps a lot in the daily life. It’s used to discover and make life easier such as cars, airplanes, trains they help to travel from long distance and in short time, phones helps to communicate at any time and with the people around the world. Computers are used in education, creations, designing and also used in health sector all this technology helps to go forward in our life.
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Robots are used in the heath sector
What’s robot surgery?
Robot surgery is one of the advanced technologies available in this time been, it has been designed for operations. The (da Vinci) robotic system allows the precision, dexterity and control of traditional open surgery but requires only 1-2 cm incisions, decreased healing time, robots are used for hearts surgery with out opening patient’s chest. The benefits of this robot for patients are less complication, less pain, save time and faster recovery.
The advantages of robots surgery
Robots have change and helped a lot in the field of surgery. The most advantage of robots surgery for patients is pain, scaring and faster recovery by using cameras and enhanced visual effects, doctors can make the tinniest of incisions. The (da Vinci) and Zeus system each use “three arms” to operate. In order for these arms to get inside the body and operate, they only need a few centimetres for an incision. These robots have more advantages and benefits for users (doctors) and patients for example:
Lower risk infection
Shorter hospital stay
Less blood loss and fewer transfusions
Can zoom with camera and gives better image then in real life
by using the hand controls the surgeons can reach places in the body that are normally unreachable by the human hand
Faster recovery and return to normal daily activities
Robots surgery disadvantages
They are several disadvantages of these Robots surgeries such as cost; cost is one of the biggest disadvantages of these robots with the price of one million dollars.
Some believe with the improvement in technology and as more experience is gained with robotic systems the price will fall.
Another disadvantage of these robots systems is their size. Both systems have relatively large footprints and relatively cumbersome robotic arms.
This is an important an important disadvantage because operating rooms are already crowded with the surgical team. It may be difficult for surgical and robots to fit in the operating room.
And another disadvantage is the time. Robotic assisted heart surgery can take nearly twice the amount of time that a typical heart surgery takes, but this is variable depending on the surgeon’s expertise and practice with the equipment.
How technology helps in business
Technology is increasing and developing to make life easier to live it helped and still helping our daily life for example business. In business people used to travel to go for meetings and now most of businesses use video conferencing, in terms of airfares for staff. It saves time spent in travelling and money.
What’s video conferencing?
Video conferencing allows people to communicate in real time, no matter where they are located. It can be as few as two people, or it can be thousands. It’s basically integrates users as if they were in the same room. Each user needs a web cam, computer, microphone, and internet broadband connection.
It’s usually used in businesses, healthcare, education ECT…….
Advantages of video conferencing
Meet with people in remote locations without incurring travel expenses or other expenses associated with face to face communication
Save time and money especially in business in terms of airfares for staff, night spent in another place, and costs incurred include flights, transport, meals, accommodation, entertainment ect..
Connect and see more than 11, 12 or even a thousand in the same time.
Video conferencing disadvantages
Takes time to design the network and install video conferencing equipment
Can cause video systems to be underutilized
Skilled technician to keep video conferencing running.
Turn the system daily can cause conference failures in some locations.
Internet is basically an electronic communication network that enables computers of all kinds to share information with permission and communicates directly.
Studying ( make researches)
Publish information on your own website
Have a conversations in chat rooms
Send an email
Apply for job
Read a news papers
Make airplane reservation
Get a direction and draw a map
Socialising with the people around the world
Personal information (your personal information such as your name, address, etc.)
Pornography (especially for young children they are thousands of pornography websites that can be easily to get access into it)
Hacking, get viruses
Isolation from family and freinds
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