It is our pleasure as a group to thank our lecturer Mr Mohd Hairi Bin Halmi for giving us the opportunity to do this research as it helped us in exploring our potentials in the filed of Communications Networks and has also taught us the various principles involved in the study of Wimax Network Architecture.
Many thanks go to the entire group for the time spent in discussing the problem and sharing ideas.
The rapid growth of wireless communication and its pervasive use in all walks of life are changing the way we communicate in all fundamental ways. It is one of the most vibrant areas in the communication field today. True Wireless communications have gained a momentum in the last decade of twentieth century with the success of second Generation (2G) of digital cellular mobile services. Worldwide successes of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Interim Standard 95 (IS-95), Personal digital Cellular (PDC) and digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (IS-54/136) have enabled pervasive ways of life for the new information and communication technology era. Second Generation (2G), 2.5G, and Third Generation (3G) standards of mobile systems are being deployed everywhere worldwide.
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Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a standards-based wireless technology for providing high-speed, last-mile broadband connectivity to homes and businesses and for mobile wireless networks. WiMAX is similar to Wi-Fi but offers larger bandwidth, stronger encryption, and improved performance over longer distances by connecting between receiving stations that are not in the line of sight. Internationally, WiMAX has been finding a home among emerging markets that don’t have a decent wired infrastructure.
WiMAX is essentially a next-generation wireless technology that enhances broadband wireless access. Therefore, it can be said that WiMAX is a revolutionary wireless technology that, we believe, could change the wireless technology landscape considerably.
1. Introduction â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦…..5
2. Alamouti Space-Time Codeâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.6
2.1 Working Principle of Alamouti Coding Schemeâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦..7
2.1.1 The encoding and Transmission Sequenceâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦…..7
2.1.2 The combining Schemeâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦…….8
2.1.3 The maximum likelihood detectionâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦….8
3. Strengths and Weaknesses of Alamouti Schemeâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.8
4. Other Competing MIMO Algorithmâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦9
4.1 Space-Time Trellis Codesâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦…9
4.2 V-BLAST Algorithmâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦..9
5. Newer Scheme based on Alamouti STBCâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦…10
List of figures
2.1 Block diagram of Alamouti space – time encoderâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦….6
2.2 BER plot for 2 transmit 2 receive Alamouti STBC â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.â€¦6
The development of innovative Wireless communication systems has marked the start of the new Era. The transition from fixed to Wireless really started during the Internet revolution. The Internet world evolved as an exchange mechanism for electronic data, but soon sparked worldwide demand for anytime/anywhere computing and communications. In wireless technology, data is transmitted over the air, and it is an ideal platform for extending the concept of home networking into the area of mobile devices around the home. Consequently, wireless technology is portrayed as a new system that complements phone-line and power-line networking solutions
From the late 1970s until today, there have been three generations of wireless systems based on different access technologies:
· 1G wireless systems, based on FDMA (frequency division multiple access): The first generation of wireless systems was introduced in the late 1970s and early1980s, and was built for voice transmission only. It was an analog, circuit-switchednetwork that was based on FDMA air interface technology.
· 2G wireless systems, based on TDMA (time division multiple access) and CDMA (code division multiple access): The second generation of wireless systems was introduced in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the objective of improving transmission quality, system capacity, and range. Major multiple-access technologies used in 2G systems are TDMA and CDMA. These systems are digital, and they use circuit-switched networks.
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· 3G wireless systems, mostly based on W-CDMA (wideband code division multiple access):The 3G wireless systems are digital systems based on packet-switched network technology intended for wireless transmission of voice, data, images, audio, and video. This started in the mid 1990s and is ongoing developments until today. The various revolutionary developments seen during this phase are: the UMTS, the CDMA2000. This phase of revolution is ongoing till today where we can see various new wireless technology innovations such as the Wi-Fi, WiMax, etc.
The entire evolution and progress of all these 3 generations of wireless systems has led to the internet revolution that we enjoy today. Today, we live in a world where communication has evolved into a landscape that a person in 1990 would scarcely recognize. TALK A LIL MORE ON HOW WIMAX EVOLVED-introdn needs 2 include more abt wimax
According to WiMAX forum “Wimax Technology is a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL. Wimax Technology will provide fixed, nomadic, portable, and, eventually, mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for direct line-of-sight to a base station. In a typical cell radius deployment of 3 to 10 kilometres, Wimax Forum Certified systems can be expected to deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access applications.”
WiMAX has the potential to provide widespread Internet access that can usher in economic growth, better education and health care, and improved entertainment services. WiMAX can be described as a framework for the evolution of wireless “broadband” rather than a static implementation of wireless technologies. Therefore, in this era, we can consider WIMAX as a wireless technology revolution.
Objective: Through this report, our main objective is to study the WiMAX Network Architecture and the evolution of WIMAX in the internet industry as a wireless technology revolution.
Our report covers all the important aspects of the network architecture of WiMAX. We mainly focussed on the practical uses of WiMAX in the world of internet hence making our scope limited to this. We used various resources for this research from internet to books to journals.
2. WIMAX NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
3. Case Study on….. (Includes analysis)
4. Advantages And Disadvantages
5. Other Competing Networks
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