Around the globe, designers have started using the new technology known as BIM which is still to be used by their Indian counterparts. Their reluctance to use this technology has held them back in aspects like walkthroughs and visualizations (Autodesk, 2005). There could be two factors for the lack of use of this technology. This technology is not known by the designers or the users of the Indian AEC industry lack the skills required to use this technology. BIM services are being outsourced by the Indian development centers to places like UK, U.S and the countries in Europe in order to avoid any delays, clashes on site, cost overruns etc. The Indian talent is being made use of by the AEC firms situated in U.K, U.S and the European countries. They are getting various advantages like the talent of Indian developers and low cost production (PRLog, 2007). Complex designs and projects are being built by Indian architects. There are requirements is aspects like integration and information technology, development, simulation, communication, coordination and knowledge sharing. At present, there is no standard consistency regarding the use of the BIM technology and the process of its implementation. This lack of uniformity has been acknowledged even by the Associated General Contractors of America. A lot of software firms have tried to get the best of BIM by developing programs pertaining to several parts of the BIM although none so far have looked at it as a transformation process. This is one of the reasons that we need to build a standard and make the implementation of the BIM technology on the global scale.
Architecture is a well to do field in India with a vast client base (Autodesk, 2005). The systems are according to the global standards which are managed by well trained staff of skilled people. There has been rapid modernization in the form of malls, IT parks, and residential complexes in India which has led to the demand of architects. India is still a developing country and is short on infrastructure in almost every sector (Autodesk, 2005). Construction and planning is taking place in full force at present. The low wages of worker has been a factor in using alternate automated solutions. The advantage of BIM however is found in savings and better system than the competitors. The time of turnaround is less which is a huge factor to gain a competitive edge. Firms in architecture should use this technology and stay ahead with the times by keeping in sync with the technology and engineering aspect of architecture. The design of a building should follow a non deterministic method rather than forming a closed opinion from the start. New architectural experiments can be performed with the help of this approach to achieve tectonic perfection.
The use of BIM systems in combination with simulation and analytical tools helps in building of a prototype of the building, gain information related to activities of construction and performance even before breaking ground. High value is associated with such a prototype. BIM is useful in such situations as it encourages designers to improve the quality and efficiency by avoiding less than effective practices and making use of the best available techniques. It is necessary for BIM to create a digital model which can be used to ascertain schedule, quality take offs and estimates to lessen the effort and time spent on it. This is required to achieve the optimum benefit of BIM. The project purpose is to find the difficulties in front of Indian architects with regards to the use of BIM while being aware of the principles of the Indian AEC industry to create a strategy for implementation of BIM technology.
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Building Information Modeling or BIM is a process of documentation which gives information related to the various phases of a project like planning, construction, design, operation and facility management. It is a documentation process providing details of construction application and operational visualization, design coordination and scheduling. The main benefit of using BIM is the aspect of visual coordination used in building systems such as MEP (Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing). It is also useful in the identification of difficulties that can be taken care of before the construction of building resulting in savings in terms of time and money (Damian, Han Yan and Peter (1)). In a report by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, it was reported (NIST, 2004 (2)) regarding the lack of necessary interoperability that burdens the U.S facilities by around 15.8 billion dollars every year. The BIM technology application has thus far not been used in India but has the chance to use it on a large scale.
Architectural Documentation of Structures
BIM has enabled maturity of the Architectural Documentation. A properly maintained documentation using a system can be dated back to the Renaissance in the presentation of the plans for Santa Maria del Fiore by Fillippo Brunelleschi in Italy. The patron was made to understand the design of the building by means of drawings. Architectural Documentation has become more modern in its usage over the years. A data model can be created from the design process to the conceptual and operational phase with the computer aided software. A summary of the evolution of the Architectural Documentation ahs been mentioned in the following text.
First phase- Early 1980s: The design documents before the year 1980 were made with the help of lines that would represent the building. The documents would be of the pattern of plan, elevation and section that acted as the base to show the picture of the building to be created.
Second phase- At the start of the twenty first century: Building that are constructed nowadays are complex in nature than ever before. The drawings of the building are worked upon by a large number of people. There is a phenomenal increase in the number of buildings which can be owed to the technological advances. Buildings are constructed keeping in mind HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) and energy necessities. Computer technology helps in greatly reducing errors but one has to remember that the collections in the end are created manually in the form of text and lines.
There is a change in the expectation and process taking place in the Indian construction field in lieu of the economic ups and downs and the architects have stepped up to the plate. There has been a change in the working of the more common 2D based practice related to economic, functional and energy. A single database can be used to share the disciplines in a project. Structure, architecture, electrical, mechanical, construction ad infrastructures are bind together and the coordination between all these factors is a tough task. Energy analysis can take place along with the design phase. The costs of construction have become predictable. With BIM, it is possible to use a parametric 3D model to generate automatically building documents like sections, plans, details, elevations and schedule. BIM supported software produces drawings that are in correlation with representation of the model. If there are any changes made in the project, they are coordinated in the rest of the project automatically. This is a big advantage as there is lesser risk of coordination issues and helps in improving the quality of work on the whole. Various modeling software packages are known that can be used in the application of conceptual level models although they do not possess the capability of documenting a design for construction of a building.
CAD and BIM
The basic difference in Computer Aided Design or CAD and BIM is that CAD is a 2D document that is created separately and does not relate in any way to the other documents created separately. A wall is represented by two lines in CAD.
A wall is created as an interactive tool in BIM that has its specifications like height, width, bearing and nonbearing principle, interior or exterior, fire rating, demolished or new and materials such as bricks and boards.
All the information is assembled by the BIM platform into one single location and then goes on to cross link the data among its related objects. Linkage is not seen between the data that is developed by CAD. Comparative efficiency between BIM and CAD is seen in Table 1.
In case of BIM, there are three types of information which is related to the model.
Object based geometry- For instance; in BIM a window is an object with qualities similar to a real window rather than just being a collection of lines, points and surfaces. The wall receives a window when the window is placed in the wall by means of adjusting the geometry to fit the placement of the window. The wall allows the window o be placed in locations that are pre defined by the parameters that have been programmed for it. Parametric integrity is yet another feature of BIM geometry which relates to the connection between elements which are maintained consistently even when the model is being manipulated.
For instance, suppose a window was programmed to a distance of four feet from a door and there is movement in the position of the window then the window automatically moves itself in order to maintain the distance of four feet from the door.
The second form of information related to the BIM model is the non graphical information. It defines the structure and function of the model and any properties that are related to it like fire rating, cost, reflectivity, materials content and conductivity.
There is a big list of these properties which is limited only by the information that is required the computation power required to process it.
Linked information is the third form of information which is associated but not contained in the model directly. Gantt charts and fabricatorâ€™s shop drawings used in scheduling and construction are two such examples of this form of information.
A common incorrect assumption is that CAD relates to 2D design whereas BIM relates to 3D design. CAD technology can also be used for 3D designs.
The main concern for any BIM service is whether the model that has been created is computable or not. Information regarding the model can be easily understood according too the modelâ€™s purpose if the model is computable. For example, a 3D model wall that looks good will not be understood by the computer as a wall. The wall cannot insert a window in it and cannot be viewed as a wall created by raw materials.
Another aspect of BIM is the Virtual Design and Construction or VDC. According to CIFE, VDC is defined as the use of multidisciplinary performance models of design construction projects.
CIFE acknowledges BIM as a tool useful to support product design that is a part of VDC which highlights the organization, product and design construction operation team processes. It is said by some that BIM is more than design software and can be viewed as a module that involves the whole project team. Irrespective of the definition of BIM, the success in implementation of VDC or BIM lies in the coordination throughout all the project teams which is talked about in later parts of the paper.
1.2 Big BIM vendors
There are many high roller vendors in the BIM technology market. REVIT is the creation of Autodesk that is directed towards the collection of all the building elements in a single database which helps in providing the users to see results of design modification quickly and enable them to identify interference issues.
Bentley Systems makes use of another approach that produces a family of the application modules that relate to each other easily. The modules include Bentley Structural, Bentley architecture, Bentley Building Electrical Systems and Bentley Building Mechanical Systems.
Graphisoft is another big name that was purchased by a German firm by the name of Nemetschek in the year 2006. The approach of their BIM is to make a virtual building model to support their main product ArchiCAD that would associate itself with other applications.
At last, there is CATIA which was developed by Dassault Systemes that was created for the aerospace industry. It has been adapted by Gehry Technologies to use it in the AEC industry.
Building owners and developers lay the most emphasis on information modeling as said by publications related to BIM. A definitive framework to show the value in the life cycle of the creation of the building is missing. For instance, The Contractors Guide to BIM which is established by The Associated General Contractors of America is an informative and precise document with the focus being on BIM from the point of view of a contractor. Similarly, publications floated by fabrication or design related organizations show the perspective of their companies. It is clear from the above two statements that the content of the information on BIM is in favor of the organization who writes it which is more often than This paper is from the point of view of developers and owners who are the most important factor in the construction industry as these entities are responsible for the expense related to the creation of a building.
Published information was used for the majority of data provided in this paper that contains the following-
Journal and magazine articles
Publications related to trade organizations
Marketing publications and white papers by software vendors
Presentation of practitioners
Architects, developers and researchers were interviewed like, Sera Architects and Gerding Edlen Development, LLC which are both outside of Portland., Oregon. The selection of the firms was based on their prior experience with valid developments and implementations of BIM. Researchers like John Kunz and Martin Fischer from Stanford University and Professor Chuck Eastman from Georgia Tech were interviewed. Selection of individuals was based on their expertise with BIM related techniques and architectural computing.
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The main criterion was to find out the reliability of the data with regards to the completion or near completion of the project. Case data from a yet to be started project has not been included since this paper is from the perspective of the developer. Statements from online publications, articles and interviews were not entirely in specification with the project and hence the same criterion was not used as the statements may refer to multiple project experiences.
The different forms of data found in this paper ranges from quantitative data to qualitative opinions about time, cost and efficiency. Quantitative information on the performance of the project was taken into account to gauge the level of effectiveness of a particular modeling implementation or modeling. BIM technology is a fairly new concept and practitioners wanted to see proof of the value of the BIM implementation to a project before investing resources and time. The information from real projects shows this proof and the errors and lessons that have been learned from previous mistakes.
The major portion if the quantified information seen in this paper is taken from development projects of major size like office and residential towers, schools, hotels and event centers. The bias in data is mainly due to lack of information on the use of BIM in small scale projects. There is a degree of uncertainty if the lack of information is the reason behind the application of BIM in small scale projects or whether the information related to small projects using BIM is not being published. Additional information on the small projects using BIM would further enhance the argument on the benefits of BIM.
2.1 Objectives and sample
This questionnaire has got two major objectives. The first is to survey and find the ratio of AEC companies in the U.S, U.K and other nations that use BIM.
The next objective is to determine the benefits these companies enjoy from this technology.
The AEC industry academics and practitioners were sent the questionnaire to fill up. Analysis was the focus for the two countries of U.K and U.S. U.S is clearly ahead of the rest in the development of the BIM technology. The companies in U.K have spent a lot of time to carry out research on this technology. Some of the companies are leaning towards this technology. Academics who participated in the research of BIM also took part in the questionnaire.
Poverty Issue in Pakistan
There are several facets to poverty in the country of Pakistan. The people suffering from poverty in Pakistan are secluded from basic amenities like clean drinking water, education, proper sanitation and health. This discourages them and their abilities while limiting their opportunities to get a safe and secure employment. This tends to the poor being secluded from society and exposes them to a sad affair of states. This problem only worsens as the government does not make any policies and plans for the betterment of these people and help them in the long run.
The depth and extent of the poverty calculated from different ways based on different definitions and indices used but there is a general consensus regarding the shocking state of the people suffering from poverty. It has been agreed upon by all that the fight against poverty seen in the 1980â€™s has died down entirely. IF anything, the extent of poverty has only increased at the turn of the next decade as there was no per capita growth in GDP.
The government in Pakistan on the basis of the information available regarding the current situation of the people living in poverty has agree with the IPRSP with respect to the trends in the prevalence of poverty. During this period, the Planning Division has enforced an official poverty line that is based on the norm of 2350 calories per adult per day.
Strategy of poverty reduction
The poverty reduction strategy has basically been put in place to help the needy who have long been suppressed by the conditions brought on to them on account of poverty. Those living under the poverty line in Pakistan have to face a lot of hardships on a daily basis and it is of essence to provide them with some facilities in order to improve their standard of living both socially and economically. The poverty reduction scheme of the Pakistan government is based on the following principles:
Increasing the economic growth and keeping the macroeconomic condition stable.
Human capital investment
Expansion of social safety nets
Bettering the governance
The major steps and policies brought into effect by the Pakistan government are the following:
Financial sector Reforms and Monetary Policy
Market based indirect instruments are used to conduct the monetary policy in Pakistan. The free float exchange rate prevalent from July 2000 has meant that the monetary policy has a huge impact on the exchange rate, surpluses, rising current account and the liquidity as a result seen in the inter bank foreign exchange market, pressure exerted on the U.S$ and Rupee parity by H1-FY03. The state Bank of Pakistan has kept intact the cautious policy standpoint and mopped up the major portion of the excess liquidity from the inter bank market witch enabled the rupee to increase in value. The value of the rupee increased by just 3.1% throughout the period. The monetary standpoint adopted is unlikely to change if there is no shift in the inflation overview.
There has been a drop in the average lending rates from fourteen percent in the NOV. 2001. To more than ten billion dollars in the recent time and the return from the National Savings Scheme instruments have decreased.
The major parts of financial sector reforms are:
Measures include elimination credit controls, interest rates and lower cash reserve ratio, development of financial market that include treasury bill market, inter bank market, increased competition, capital markets, high competition in between banks, foreign firms and privatization of financial institutions, strengthening prudential supervision and regulation, enforcement of anti money laundering law in FY04 made for establishment of Financial Intelligence Unit.
The strategy for reducing strategy keeps in mind the social, economic and governance. The aim is to improve development that should be proportional to every citizen that includes the unemployed, poor, illiterate, ill health, poor sanitation and housing and unclean drinking water. The main objectives of the policy are:
Providing the essential productive assets to those who are poor.
Providing a safety net to take care of the very poor.
Enhancing the capability of people with the help of human development programs.
Providing the necessary resources to finance the programs made for reducing the poverty.
Strengthening and reforming the institutions to deliver the public services in a better manner.
Micro finance- The concept of micro credit has become a very helpful tool to enabling the poor in increasing their income. Reducing their vulnerability to shocks and building small businesses. Microfinance can be applied to more aspects like savings, credit and insurance as part of the broader services. This concept has many institutions like the First Microfinance bank, Kashf Foundation, First Women Bank and SME Bank.
The disbursements and the beneficiaries of the microfinance can be seen in Table 10.1 for the period of 2008-2009, 2009-2010 and the target for 2010-2011.
The State Bank of Pakistan has been very helpful in the encouragement that they have provided to Development Financial Institutions and banks to work towards the funding of Microfinance Institutions, NGOâ€™s and Microfinance Banks in order to achieve the targeted outreach. TO further enhance the passage of funds to the field of microfinance, The State Bank of Pakistan has developed a Microfinance Credit Guarantee Facility or MCFG which helps in easing the constraints on credit. This is viewed as an incentive by the microfinance institutions and ultimately helps the general public in their fight against poverty and to get a new lease of life in the right direction. In accordance with the MCFG facility, The State Bank of Pakistan provides a guarantee cover to a percentage of forty on the principal amount in the scenario of a partial Guarantee and to a percent of twenty five in the scenario of First Loss Default Guarantee on the facility of credit being extended to the qualifying borrowing institution by the lending institution. The micro finance institutions that are in place currently are sure to be supported strongly by the development of service and product innovations and also the enhancement to the access of credit for women Microfinance services are set for a considerable amount of expansion that will be seen both horizontally and vertically which will help in the long run for the strengthening of the framework for the financial services being provided from the legal point of view.
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