Today the security is one of the biggest problems through out the world. The security can enforce through different medium, using password, guards out side the building, CCTV, lock etc. In this project we will discuss about the person’s identity about the using of their password for the security purpose and then we will build and implement the biometric technology to replace the password with the biometric technology and enforce the security of the person’s identity.
A biometric is a measurement of a biological characteristic such as fingerprint, iris pattern, retina image, face or hand geometry; or a behavior characteristic such as voice, gait or signature. Biometric technology uses these characteristics to identify individuals automatically. Ideally the characteristic should be universally present, unique to the individual, stable over time and easily measurable.
We will discuss about the biometric technology and process. The project will include the study of the literature about the biometric and then gather information is analysis to come up with requirement for the proposed system. Then the system has been design and implements using fingerprint biometric technology to enable the security in any company to allow employee to clock in and clock out using fingerprint reader. Only the fingerprint technologies have been used to develop the system, the camera is only used to take the picture and confirms the identity on accessing the system.
To study the literature about biometric technology and understand the underlying process.
To analyse the information gathered in literature chapter and come up with the final requirement for the system.
To design and implement the application to enforce the security using fingerprints biometric technology.
Test the application as unit and system test.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
This chapter is about to search for the literature for the difference source about the biometrics. In this chapter we will gather information about the biometric methodology and their technique and elaborate the underlying process of authentication and authorisation in biometric system. We will also search and illustrate the most likely used technology in the biometric system which is facial recognition and fingerprint reader.
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The term biometrics relates to the measurement of characteristics of a living thing in order to identify it. The techniques of using physical characteristics for identification can be traced to the ancient Egyptians who used the biometric of height (Roberts, 2003). Biometric refer to authentication techniques which depend on measurable individual characteristics that can be automatically verified. In other words, we all human being have unique personal attributes that can be used for unique identification purposes which includes a fingerprint, voice recognition, facial recognition, the pattern of a retina, iris, retinal and vein.
Uludag et al (2004) defined biometric technique that it is an automated methodology to recognise the person based in term of their behaviour or their physical characteristics. These characteristics and behaviour include the features such as hand geometry, handwriting, face, fingerprints, vein, voice, retina, and iris etc.
Jain et al (2005) describe the difference that the biometric technique can be measure by using either persons behavioural characteristics and or physiological characteristics or can be use both. The behavioural characteristics create from the actions of an individual person, and it indirectly measures unique characteristics of the human body. Which includes signature-scan, keystroke-scan, voice recognition, etc (but it’s not limited). Time can act as a metric for behavioural biometrics, because it measures behaviour by considering the timeline of a given process. The physiological biometrics technique consists of measurements and data congregated from direct measurement of a part of the human body such as geometry, facial recognition, fingerprint, iris-scan etc. (Jain et al, 2005).
Ashbourn (2004) also describe that currently the most popular techniques are the ones are based on physical characteristics as fingerprint ridge pattern, hand geometry, retinal recognition, facial recognition, and also behavioural characteristics such as voice verification and signature stoke pattern.
Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his unique characteristics. This identification method of biometric is preferred over traditional methods involving passwords and pins for several reasons, which including the person to be identified is required to be physically present at the point of identification, which enforce more security. The identification based on biometric techniques eliminates the need to remember a password or carry a token. With the increased use of computers as mobile of information technology, restricting access to sensitive or personal data is necessary. By replacing pins and or passwords, biometric techniques can potentially prevent unauthorized access to or fraudulent use of the system. Passwords may be forgotten, and token-based identification methods such as passports and driver’s licenses may be obtain as fake, and could be stolen, or lost. Thus, biometric systems of identification are enjoying a new interest. (Petrovska Chollet, & Dorizzi, 2009). We can conclude that the biometric technologies will play a vital role in the security to provide the highly secured identification and personal verification solutions.
The Technology of the Biometric
The most important difference between biometric and traditional technologies lies in the result of the biometric system to an authentication or identification of request. Biometric system does not give the simply yes or no answer for authentication process. While the password could be either ‘abcd’ or nothing and the card PIN could be valid or not, no biometric system can verify the identity or identify a person absolutely. The person’s signature never be absolutely the same and the position of the finger on the fingerprint reader will vary as well and facial expression and skin colour (fade or burn skin) can be change. Instead, we are told how similar the current biometric data is to the record stored in the database. Thus the biometric system actually tells us ‘what is the probability that these two biometric samples come from the same person’. (Biometric Authentication Report 2000)
The Physical locks can protect the hardware, and passwords can protects the data, which is currently the most popular way to protect data on system in the company or any organisation. Biometrics can increase the company’s ability to protect its sensitive data by implementing a more secure key than a using password as a safety guard using biometrics, also allows a hierarchical structure of data protection, making the data even more secure and Biometric technologies further help to enhance security levels of access control form the data to any place or area. (Biometric Security Technology)
“Biometric systems require controlled and accurate enrolment processes, careful monitoring of security settings to ensure that the risk of unauthorized entry is low, and well-designed interfaces to ensure rapid acquisition and matching. Poor system design and implementation can slow down the authentication process and expose new vulnerabilities”.
(Intrernational Biometric Group 2003-2010)
The Authentication Processes
Bolle et al (2002) describes in “Biometric Perils and Patches” the biometric authentication process is a pattern recognition system and consists of four steps enrolment, storage, acquisitions and matching.
Petrovska et al (2009) also describe that the biometric applications relate to the recognition of individuals in four possible ways:
Verification of identity, this mean the person is the same as who is claiming to be.
Non-identification, this will check that the person who is checking is not enrolled on the system before and on database.
Closed-set identification, recognizing a person by using one of the characteristics which is being the closest match to a person on a master database of such characteristics.
Open-set identification, this means that the person is not that who claim to be and rejecting as a fake identity or performing closed-set identification to match the characteristics.
Public Perceptions of Biometric use
We will include some public perception about the use of the Biometric in daily life. Moody J (n.d) has described in his article “Public Perceptions of Biometric Devices” about public opinion of using biometric device. The results of the survey illustrate how different and even conflicting public opinion is regarding the use of biometrics. On responded of the 300, 6% had ever used one of the biometric devices. If we see the public perception about eh use in different place majority will prefer to have biometric technology for the hospital records (figure 1) and there is above average that people would also like to use to track working hours and for logon.
Figure 1 – (5=Strongly Agree, 3=Neutral, 1=Strongly Disagree)
Public Percptions of Acceptable Uses of Biometrics
Moody (n.d) also carried out some survey about the use of the biometric on different organisation such as if the biometric is required on offices access most people in office would prefer to use fingerprint to logon to the office (figure 2).
Figure 2 – Acceptance of Biometric devices on logon to Office
Form the above survey we conclude that not much people are familiar or did not use the biometric system. The survey also conclude that fingerprints is more widely accepted, convenient and reliable than other forms of physical identification, especially when using technology. In fact, the survey has shown that fingerprint identification is currently thought to be the least intrusive of all biometric techniques, and most people who are likely to use biometrics will prefer to use a fingerprint scan device for their access to the office or logon to the personal computers.
According to the International Biometric Group (2008) the Digital fingerprints continue to be the main biometric technology in terms of market share, representing nearly 50% of total sales. Facial recognition, with 12% of the market, has overtaken hand recognition, which was previously the second biggest revenue generator after digital fingerprints.
Fingerprint biometrics is the most common form of the biometrics available today. Fingerprint recognition has been used for identification related purposes over the last several decades. Fingerprint recognition is the technology that verifies the identity of a person based on the fact that everyone has unique fingerprints. The fingerprint biometric is an automated digital version of the old ink and paper method used for more than a century for identification. The fingerprint technology is most mature type of recognition in this industry, and it s high level of accuracy among other biometrics (Petrovska et al 2009). The low cost and small size of the scanning device for the fingerprint scan, is allowing its use in broad range of application. The fingerprint is simple and easy to install and use. It can involve use of a silicon scanner that electronically reads the minutiae points on the whorls, arches, and loops that make up a fingerprint, or an optical scanner that takes a picture of the finger. Minutiae are local discontinuities in the fingerprint pattern (Calderon & Subbaiah 2003).
Most automatic systems for fingerprint comparison are based on minutiae matching. Minutiae are local discontinuities in the fingerprint pattern (figure 5) that interrupt the smooth flow of ridges, and are the basis for most finger-scan authentication.
Figure 3 – Minutiae
Many types of minutiae exist, including dots (very small ridges), islands (ridges slightly longer than dots, occupying a middle space between two temporarily divergent ridges), ponds or lakes (empty spaces between two temporarily divergent ridges), spurs (a notch protruding from a ridge), bridges (small ridges joining two longer adjacent ridges), and crossovers (two ridges which cross each other, figure 3). When recognition is in process, a high quality images is captured and compared with existing image pattern template. (Article: Principles of Fingerprint Biometric)
Petrovska et al (2009) also describe the six major fingerprint classes: (a) arch, (b) tented arch, (c) left loop, (d) right loop, (e) whorl, and (f) twin-loop(figure 6).
Figure 4 – The six major fingerprint classes
Source: Petrovska, Chollet, & Dorizzi 2009. Guide to Biometric Reference Systems and Performance Evaluation. London: Springer. P. 56
Figure 5 – Fingerprint Verification Process
Source: Source: Petrovska, Chollet, & Dorizzi 2009. Guide to Biometric Reference Systems and Performance Evaluation. London: Springer. P. 53
The main modules of a fingerprint verification system is fingerprint sensing, in which the fingerprint of an individual is scan by a fingerprint scanner which produce a raw digital representation of the fingerprint; then pre-processing will be done, in which the input fingerprint image is enhanced and adapted to simplify the task of feature extraction; and then feature extraction, in which the fingerprint image is further processed to generate discriminative properties, also called feature vectors; and finally the matching process, in which the feature vector of the input fingerprint is compared against one or more existing templates(figure 5). The templates of approved users of the biometric system, also called clients, are usually stored in a database. Clients can claim an identity and their fingerprints can be checked against stored fingerprints, which has been enrolled on the system (Petrovska et al 2009).
Face recognition is the preferred mode of identity recognition by humans: it is natural and robust. The concept of recognition to someone using facial features is sensitive. Biometric face recognition makes facial recognition a more automated and computerised process. Since face can be captured from some distance away, facial recognition can be done without the physical contact of the person (shorter the distance higher the efficiency). Under tightly controlled conditions, face recognition systems can now achieve accuracy levels of 95%. However, in the real world, factors such as movement, lighting and camera angle, make it difficult to capture facial images that can be interpreted by the software (Biometric and Security 2001).
What sets apart facial recognition from other biometrics is that it can be used for observation purposes. For example, public safety authorities want to locate certain individuals such as wanted criminals, suspected terrorists, and missing children. Facial recognition may have the potential to help the authorities with this mission (Wechsler 1998).
Figure 6 – Face Recognition area
The facial recognition uses distinctive facial features, including upper outlines of eye sockets, areas around cheekbones, the sides of the mouth and the location of the nose and eyes. Most technologies avoid areas of the face near the hairline so that hairstyle changes won’t affect recognition (figure 6). When the computer is performing the matching process, it is more subjective. When an image is captured, it will be verified by overall facial structure, which works well over short distance but progressively loses accuracy as the distance goes further between the user and the scanner. Such method of biometric is often less reliable then more common form such as fingerprints but such type of method relatively often used in several airport terminals and at many border crossing to help determine the identities of individuals at a distance who may be involved in criminal activities without alerting the individual that they are being monitored (Biometric A Look at Facial Recognition 2003).
Iris scanning measures the iris pattern in the coloured part of the eye, using the close circuit camera. Iris patterns are formed randomly. As a result, the iris patterns in a person’s left and right eyes are different, and so are the iris patterns of identical twins (Biometric a Look at Facial Recognition 2003).
Figure 7 – Iris Pattern
The eye image of the person obtain using iris from the input device on the first stage. The device used is comprised of camera to capture the eye image and lighting and image sensor to capture the good iris patterns. After capturing the eye image, the iris area should be extract correctly so that the person’s identity verify more accurately (figure 7). Detecting the inner boundary of the iris against the pupil and the outer border of the iris against the sclera finishes the process. After the iris area is extracted, the different method sis used for the matching of iris features. Iris scanning can be used quickly for both identification and verification applications because the iris is highly distinctive and robust (IDTECK 2009).
Security is one of the important issues in any aspect of daily life. Security can be measure by using different way medium depend upon the structure. Increasing security concerns ranging from individual identity theft, corporate security, to even national security represents factors that are important to the biometrics market. Biometrics identify people by measuring some aspect of individual physiology such as your hand geometry or fingerprint etc or other behavioral characteristic such as your handwritten signature, or can be combination of the both of two. Biometric technology identifies individuals automatically by using their biological or behavioural characteristics.
As in survey the moody J (n.d) describe about the public perception of the use of biometric technology on different public places. On conclusion of the perception people feel more comfortable to use the fingerprint technology for the biometric purposes. So to design and implement the biometric application we will use fingerprint technology to enforce security in a company to allow employee to clock in to the job using fingerprint to confirm their identity. And camera will also be use to capture the person picture for the matching purpose.
The authentication process of the fingering is based on the verification of the person’s identity that the person is the same as who is claiming to be, and then it will check that the person dose have privileges it use the facilities.
Chapter 3 – Analysis
The analysis is a principal to understand the application problem for developer, user and observer. This chapter will describe the requirement specification from the information gathered in Literature review. Various techniques and tools are used here to carry out the analysis. This may include the UML use case, Modelling and MoSCoW etc. And then finalise the functional and non functional requirements.
The literature review discussed area concerning about the different type of biometric technology and the usability of the biometric technology in the practical life. As study shows that people feel more comfortable to use fingerprint technology so that we use fingerprint reader for identification purpose and along with the camera to capture the person’s picture for matching purposes.
The purpose of this stage is to model the system requirement. This will involve the UML use case diagram which helps to capture the functional requirement of the system. The purpose of the use case is to define a piece of effective requirement of the system without reviling the internal structure of the system. In this case as we developing biometric Clock In and Access Control security product, so each use case specify a service that the system provides to its users that is, a specific way of using the system that is visible outside (figure 8).
Use Case Diagram
Figure 8 – Use Case Diagram
Use Cases Description
Administrator Staff – A member of employee works as an Administrator employee and provide services to the general employee.
General Staff – A member of employee, work as a general employee.
Fingerprint Reader – A biometric fingerprint device which uses as to register and verify the identity of the user.
Camera – A digital de vice to take picture of the user as an identity purpose.
The Primary scenario for the use cases are described below.
Use Case: Enrol Employee
Precondition: The application should be start on the system and an employee should have been registered as an administrator employee on to the system and fingerprint and camera should attach to the system.
Actors: Administrator employee, Fingerprint reader and camera.
Flow of Events:
The use case starts when administrator employee logged in to the system with valid fingerprints using fingerprint reader.
The administrator employee will open the employee registration form and fill all required detail for the intended register employee.
The administrator will start the camera to capture picture for the intended register employee.
The administrator will set the fingerprint reader to register intended register employee finger.
The intended register employee will place his finger on the fingerprint reader.
The fingerprint reader will capture the fingerprint and create template of the fingerprint.
The administrator employee will ensure all the details are filled and then proceed to save the details.
The system will enrol the detail of the intended register employee, the new employee will register on the system and then use case ends.
Postcondition: The new employee register on the system and employee id is given to the register employee.
Use Case: Delete Employee
Precondition: The application should be start on the system and an employee should have been registered as an administrator employee on to the system and fingerprint reader should attach to the system.
Actors: Administrator employee.
Flow of Events:
The use case starts when administrator employee logged in to the system with valid fingerprints using fingerprint reader
The administrator employee will open the delete employee form.
The administrator employee will enter the employee id to search for the specific record for deletion.
The administrator employee will select the id form the form and the press delete to delete the employee from the system and then employee will delete from the system and deletion confirmation message will be appear on the screen and then use case ends.
Postcondition: The employee delete from the system and confirmation message will display.
Use Case: Generate Reports
Precondition: The application should be start on the system and an employee should have been registered as an administrator employee on to the system and fingerprint reader should attach to the system.
Actors: Administrator employee.
Flow of Events:
The use case starts when administrator staff logged in to the system with valid fingerprints using fingerprint reader.
The administrator staff will open the generate form options.
Then administrator staff will select the report form the different options
Then selected report option will appear with the related record on the report and then use case ends.
Postcondition: The selected report will be generate and display to the screen.
Use Case: Employee Clock In/Out
Precondition: The application should be start on the system and fingerprint reader should attach to the system.
Actors: Administrator employee, normal employee and fingerprint reader.
Flow of Events:
The use case starts when employee selects the clock in and clock out option on application.
Then clock in screen will appear and then employee will select the required option either clock in or clock out.
Then the verification form should appear to the screen with prompting to place the finger on the reader.
Then the employee will place the finger on the reader and then fingerprint reader will verify the employee identity.
Then employee proceeds to the selected option either clock in or clock out.
Then a message will display that employee has been logged in or logged out tot the system and employee detail added to the main form for information and then use case ends
Postcondition: The employee logged successfully to the system.
The fingerprint device will be use for the biometric purposes in the development stage. The DigitalPesona fingerprint along with its SDK is being used to develop the application.
To make the system more secure, the camera device is used to capture the user picture as one for the identity purpose. The camera will capture the picture along with the fingerprint of the user.
The requirement specification will divided into three parts, General Requirements which includes the ease of use of the system and method of deployment. Secondly, Functional Requirements, which is directly, related to the functionality of the system and then thirdly the non functional requirement that are related to performance and quality of the developed product.
These requirements are related to the environment in which system is going to be used and users interacting with the system. The requirements of the application include:
User interface should be very clear and friendly to use on all the GUI phases oh the application.
The system should allow registered user to clock in and out.
The registered user should be able to verify their finger on fingerprint without facing difficulties.
As the name suggests, these requirement are directly related to the functionality of the system. By examine the use case for the system we describe the following functional Requirement which are listed below.
The system should allow administrator employee to enrol the new employee.
The system should not allow general employee to access to the administrator employee options.
The administrator employee should able to manage employee.
The system should able to extract and match the user fingerprint data which already been stored on the database side.
The system should able to capture the photo of the new employee on employee registration phase.
The General employee should be able to clock in and clock out to the system using fingerprint reader.
The administrator employee should able to delete the employee record form the system.
The system should not allow employee to clock in, who is already clock in to the system.
The system should not allow employee to clock out who is already clock out to the system.
The administrator employee should be able to generate the reports.
The system should be able to handle at least 100 employees clocked in on the system. The administrator employee should be able mange details of the register employee on the system.
If any error occurs the application must be able to handle the error in friendly way.
The response time of the fingerprint reader to read the fingerprint of the register employee and verifying, should be quick.
MoSCoW Rule-Prioritise Functionality
To prioritise the functionality of the system we use MoSCoW rule perform this.
The system must be able to clock in and clock out employee using fingerprint reader.
The system must have procedure to enrol new employee to the system.
The system should be able to delete staff details on the system.
The system should be able to perform fingerprint verification process.
The system should be able to capture the picture of the employee as one of the identity.
The system should be able to extract data from the database and able to verify the minutiae of the registered employee and response whether they are same or not.
The system may have the both option like fingerprint and Facial Detection to enrol and clock in to the system.
The system may have option to clock in or clock out using password if fingerprint reader is not attach.
This chapter is focus to analyse the information and produced the requirements for the system. The UML use case diagram has been drawn to list the requirement of the system. The use cases show that how the system should be behave. All the requirements tell what the system should do. These requirements will be based for the next chapter to design the system, and designed system should meet the requirements which are listed in this chapter.
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Chapter 4 – Design
This chapter describe the desired software features in detail, and generally include functional hierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, UML diagrams. These design elements are intended to describe the software in sufficient. This chapter focuses on the design of the application which involves all the tasks which need to be carried out in order to build the system. Class diagram, sequence diagram has been used as modelling techniques to perform design of the application. Entity relationship diagram is also used to design the database end.
The class diagram has been drawn to describe the structure of a system by showing the system’s classes, their attributes, and the relationships between the classes. Class diagram contains the attributes and operations used in a class. This diagram represents the interrelationship between objects and classes (figure 9).
Figure 9 Class Diagram
Description of Classes
UML sequence diagrams model the flow of logic within the system in a visual manner; it helps to enabling to both document and validate the logic of the system as they show the flow of processes happening inside the system sequentially. Its will clearly represent the how the message will pass underlying process between the objects at a particular time.
Figure Sequence Diagram of Launch Application
Clock In to System
Figure Sequence Diagram for Clock In to System.
The digitalPersona fingerprint reader is use for the fingerprint enrolment on the system and to veri
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