This Inception Report is organized to describe activities that have been planned for the implementation of Consultancy Services on Power Quality Baseline Study for Peninsular Malaysia. The main objective of this project is to obtain the baseline data on power quality events and sources of events through power quality monitoring programs. From the monitoring data, an analysis will be carried out to determine Malaysia power quality limits and the suitable period for implementation and enforcement of the Malaysian Standards and regulations regarding to power quality. This 30 months project will be carried out at industrial customer’s site covering the northern, southern, eastern and central region of Peninsular Malaysia.
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This Inception Report comprises of five sections with the first containing the main highlights of the project and the second, provide the detail procedures that will be carried out. The third section focuses on the project implementation, disclosing the overall organization set up including the Project Work Plan, while the fourth describes the evaluation mechanisms to ensure appropriate implementation of activities and achievement of project objectives. The last section describe the activity that has been schedule to ensure the skills, experiences, knowledge and the finding can be shared and distributed to the Energy Commission personnel and the stakeholders.
The main focus of this Inception Report is on methodologies which define the steps that must be taken to implement this project. Since this project must be completed in 30 months, focus has been given to harmonics and voltage sag events as these events is the most common power quality events especially to the industrial customers.
This project will be conducted in six major phases. During first phase, an intensive literature study will be carried out for these two power quality events. This literature study will be based on the related books and technical papers. A compare and contrast activity will be done with the peer-reviewed previous works to ensure the steps taken in this project is suitable to Malaysian condition. The preliminary list of references in the main of this Inception Report is an indication of the major references that we intend to use. The list of references will be added when the literature review phase is being undertaken and as the study proceed.
In second phase, sites that will be used to allocate power quality monitors will be identified. The site selection will be based on few factors with the objective is to eliminate the monitor blind spot area as well as to ensure a reliability of the proposed power quality monitoring system. To achieve this objective, a suitable power quality monitor and monitoring scheme must be chosen. These monitoring equipments then must be operated by a competent and experience personnel to ensure the capturing data are free from errors.
Instead of determine the optimum monitor locations; industrial plants that experienced the power quality problem will also be determined during this second phase. This industrial plant will be chosen to conduct an industrial survey to collect information regarding type of load, mitigation techniques used and the associated cost due to power quality problems.
During third phase, the monitored data will be downloaded via wireless broadband connection and it will be store in the power quality database. This monitored data can be logged with a selectable time interval. During the implementation of this project, the data will be logged with a sampling time of 2 minutes.
The power quality database will be developed based on the capturing data (RMS voltage and current, kW, kVAR, kVA, true PF, percentage of total harmonic distortion for voltage (THDV) and current (THDI), and harmonic spectrum up to 50th), industrial survey data (various costs of mitigation level) and data from Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) for the last 2 years regarding the disturbances and interruptions.
From this database, further analysis of harmonics and voltage sags in stage four until five will be carried out. The analysis will be divided into three software requirements; statistical analysis, network simulation and artificial intelligent. The statistical analysis that will be carried out is to arrive at the impact, area coverage, network parameter and level of acceptability related to power quality by both customer and utility.
The simulation software will consist of load flow analysis, fault analysis, and harmonic analysis. Since the simulations that going to be carried out in this project are specific and repetitive over many data, specific application will be developed to carry out the simulations by extracting from database which will be more effective instead of using the standard interactive simulation software where it consumes a lot of time.
In this project, the Artificial Intelligent software will be developed towards the end of the project using the simulation and database data as the expert system database. With expert system, many of the functionalities required in the RFP document will be met satisfactorily.
The analysis of harmonic impact to power system components and loads will be evaluated. In this project, focus will be given to harmonic effect on transformer and cable. Harmonic mitigation cost analysis will also be carried out. The results from the harmonic analysis will be used to determine the appropriate harmonic levels for Malaysia.
Voltage sag analysis in this project will be focus on the determination of optimum power quality monitor locations which can also determine the location of voltage sag sources. The monitor locations will be choosing to ensure the whole system is continuously monitored as well as to ensure the correctness of the monitor reading. Since voltage sag may occur due to natural events such as lightning or equipment within the customer’s premises, only voltage sag that occurs due to fault will be studied in this project. Analysis regarding to cost associated to voltage sag will also be carried out. The result from the voltage sag analysis will then be used to determine event severities by comparing it to equipment tolerance curve such as CBEMA and MS IEC 61000-4-11.
By using the outcomes of this project as well as the feedback and recommendation from the stakeholder and industrial customer, an update on Malaysian Standard regarding power quality will be revised to ensure wider acceptance of the standard.
This Inception Report contains a Project Work Plan, detailing activities to be undertaken and the project organization. Under project organization section, Steering Committee members from various organizations have been proposed whom, have stake in power quality. Their comment, suggestion and input for this project are very appreciated to ensure the successful of this project. A progress report will be compiled in quarterly time period to update the Steering Committee and Energy Commission with the current progress of this project. There will be 10 progress reports produced before the submission of the final report.
To ensure the expertise and knowledge developed during the implementation of this project can be shared with other power quality personnel and stakeholders, a few trainings, workshops and seminars have been scheduled. All these activities will be conducted by the consultants and equipment supplier company involved in this project.
During the project inception phase, an initial progress has been taken to ensure this project can be implementing smoothly. Progresses to date are:
Preparing and update the consultancy agreement.
Assisting in evaluating proposal of Tender of Supply of PQ Monitor and make some recommendation to the Energy Commission.
Schedule the Steering Committee meeting, training, stakeholder workshop and seminar and progress report deadline.
Proposed the Steering Committee members.
Conduct the first phase interview for the engineer position.
Mobilization of the competent personnel for power quality logging.
Power quality or conducted Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is defined by IEC as “the ability of an equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment.”
In IEC there are two sides to the EMC equation:
Source equipment whose controllable emissions must be limited; and
Equipment that needs to have adequate immunity to those disturbances in its environment to which it is exposed.
Conducted disturbance of EMC related to electricity supply is termed as power quality. As Malaysian industries and commercial activities are heavily dependent on electricity, a well regulated utility that ensures quality and reliability of service is essential for national economic competitiveness, optimum cost as well as comfortable quality of life. Power quality management is therefore, a very important activity in the electricity industry. Thus, regulator of the Energy Commission has commendably taken a very pro-active role in initiating and carrying out this project.
The decision taken by the Energy Commission that some standards need to be used in the electricity industry regulations or codes is correct and appropriate. Indeed, it is urgent and important. Of equal importance is the approach taken to carry out a study on PQ environment, current industry baseline as well as impacts of standards compliance and mandatory enforcement on stakeholders. This is wise and prudent approach that will benefit all stakeholders and the nation.
Terms of Reference
In order to achieve the objective of the consultancy project, consultants must have a clear understanding that:
Environment such as harmonic emission at PCC must be controlled or limited to set standard.
Equipment emission must be controlled in order to limit the harmonic emission.
Equipment must have capability to ride-through short-term events such as voltage sag events.
Network parameter such as reference impedance must be defined, measured and calculated.
Environment and equipment can be modified by using mitigation measures.
The terms of references for this project are:
To validate the international standards applicability to Malaysian Environment.
To obtain baseline data on power quality events and sources of events through power quality monitoring programs and ascertain in power quality limits based the results obtain.
To estimate the economic loss to industry due to power quality events.
To determine the standard utility and consumer reference impedance of the Malaysia electricity supply network.
To determine the suitable period for implementation & enforcement of the regulations and standards.
1.2 Scope of Work
The general principles in our methodology are that:
Sites location selection is based on proper sampling so that the results are representative of all stakeholders’ loads and equipment.
All measurement used IEC standards equipment with priority on safety and accuracy.
Data collection is through efficient computer network with sufficient backup to ensure no corruption or missing data. Raw data are archived for independent verification.
Data and cost analysis use internationally accepted standards and from publication of high international standings. The analysis technique will be transparent such that independent party can repeat the analysis for verification if necessary.
Electricity consumers and manufacturers’ equipment data will be used in this study.
Data and the results of analysis are benchmarked against international findings to help in verification and validation.
Recommendation will be based on real data, data analysis, simulation of practical scenarios and feedback from all stakeholders.
Activities stated in the scope of work for this project involve cost to the utility company and customers, in terms of operational economic loss, energy loss and mitigation cost. Thus, the method that will be described in this section has been designed to achieve the objective of this project and a focus will be given to harmonics and voltage sag event. The method design for this project can be classified into six stages to ensure it can be completed within the time given (30 months). The stages are:
Stage 1: Literature study on power quality.
Stage 2: Selection of industrial site.
Stage 3: Measurement and data collection.
Stage 4: Data analysis.
Stage 5: Evaluation and validation on International and Malaysian Standards on power quality.
Stage 6: Formulation of recommendation
Method in stage 1 until stage 3 will be used to develop the power quality database. The flowchart for this process can be referred at Appendix A. From the database that has been developed, a further analysis as stated in stage 4 until stage 6 will be carried out. The flowchart for the data analysis can be referred at Appendix B. The detail for every stage will be explained below.
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2.1 Literature Review on Power Quality
A comprehensive literature review will have to be undertaken so that the consultants, the steering committee, Energy Commission and later on the stakeholder will have an agreed basis of the detailed engineering principles and analysis techniques that will be used in this project. The principles and techniques have to be based on proven records in the technical literature. As an example, the method we are proposing to use for costing on voltage sags and harmonics given in later sub-section of this chapter are based on the proven and published methods which are listed in our list of references. We will also benchmark the results of the cost analysis on published works of which some are given in our list of references.
The review will also establish international benchmarks which can be used as a comparison of the project data and analysis. The review will need to touch on current issues of power quality international standard. An example of such an issue is the fifth harmonic level at the point of common coupling. With the up-to-date knowledge on this issue the consultant will need to pay attention to the fifth level harmonic to ensure that it is accurately measured and analyzed. Another issue that needs to be monitored is the premature aging of insulators by harmonics. This is to ensure that the consultants perform the calculation based on methods peer-reviewed previous works that have been reported in the literature with adaptation to suit Malaysian condition.
Finally the literature review will indentify gaps in knowledge in as power quality baseline study. As power quality study is quite established, these gaps are not a major concern as it would normally be something that is specific to Malaysia. However the consultants need to appraise the steering committee and the stakeholder on the gaps and how they propose to handle it and justify their methods of handling it.
At this early stage, the references list in this Inception Report is an indication of the major references that we intend to use. The list of references will be added when the literature review phase of the consultancy is being undertaken and as the study proceeds.
The related topics on harmonic studies are:
Harmonic in power system (overview, definition, causes, etc).
Harmonic effect on power system equipments.
Harmonic mitigation techniques.
Economic evaluation on harmonic effects.
Impact of implementing International Standard regarding harmonic in Malaysia scenario.
The related topics on voltage sag studies are:
Voltage sags in power system (overview, definition, causes, etc).
Voltage sags monitoring methods.
Voltage sags mitigation techniques.
Economic evaluation on voltage sags.
Impact of implementing International Standard regarding voltage sags in Malaysia scenario.
2.2 Selection of Site
The selection sites will be done such that the sites are representative of all sector of the electricity sector. The recorder site will be chosen such that blind spot is eliminated, which means all voltage sag events within the area of study interest will be recorded. The logging sites selection will give high priority on industrial as well commercial loads where harmonics emissions are high.
Since at a later part of the consultancy which is during data analysis, the results of the analysis and simulations will be extrapolated for the whole country, and if the sites are not representative, the analysis will be skewed and the conclusion will not be accurate or in the worst case erroneous. The pool of sites to be chosen will be from the list provided in the request for proposal, from suggestions of stakeholders such as FMM and from the utility. The sites chosen will be decided by the Steering Committee based on our input.
2.2.1 Installation of Power Quality Logger
In this project, the power quality logger will be installed at 500 industrial sites to get the 1 day data and at 50 industrial sites to get the 1 year data of PQ recording. The operation layout for multi channel data logging system is given in the Appendix C. The installation of the power quality logger will be carried out by a number of competent personnel according to the supplier specifications.
2.2.2 Installation of Power Quality Monitor
Voltage sag due to utility faults generally has very short durations and specific characteristics. The monitoring devices must be place at the right position to make sure it can determine the location of the voltage sag occurrence. In this project, the optimum number of power quality monitor will be installed at locations where they can observe voltages and currents for all the buses in the system.
A suitable power quality monitor location is important to reduce the number of non-monitored bus as it can eliminate the blind spot area of the power quality monitor. The blind spot area is the area where the power quality monitor cannot detect the occurrence of certain voltage sag events. In this project, a minimum of three different monitor locations will be used to ensure the reliability of the monitoring system and the correctness of the monitor reading through recordings redundancy.
Further details of the installation procedure are given in the write up of Proposed Power Quality Monitoring System, Appendix D. The installation of the monitor will be carried out by a number of competent personnel according to the supplier specifications.
2.2.3 Industrial Survey
Industrial survey regarding the power quality problems in the industrial plant will be conducted to collect information regarding the type of load, mitigation technique used and the associated cost due to power quality problems.
The cost associates to voltage sag will vary for different industry types and individual facilities. Higher costs are typically experienced if the end product is in short supply and there is limited ability to make up for the lost production. Not all costs are easily quantified.
The survey enables the loss due to voltage sags to be evaluated. The cost of a voltage sag event can be classified as :
Product-related costs such as loss of product, loss of material, disposal of lower-quality product.
Labor related costs such as idle employees, equipment clean up, overtime cost, repair and restarting.
Ancillary costs such as damaged equipment and shipping-delay penalties.
Plant overhead cost such as equipment on lease basis, limited lifetime or plant that based on fast obsolescence technology such as microprocessor. A microprocessor technology may be obsolete in three years time, which means all investment must be recouped in three years, thus making an hour of loss production running into millions of ringgit loss.
With the help of Energy Commission, suitable industrial customers will be identified and the associated data for the selected customer will be collected. To ensure reasonableness of the cost calculated, certain customers will be audited by face-to-face interviews and the study will be benchmarked against similar international survey. The survey will also try to find out the current investment by customers in voltage sag mitigation. This will enable the study in the mitigation analysis phase, to calculate additional investment needed to reduce voltage sag impacts.
2.3 Measurement and Data Collection
In this project, data will be collected from the power quality logger, power quality monitor and industrial survey. All the data acquired will be stored in the power quality database before further analysis such as statistical analysis and simulation can be carried out. The detail on how the data is collected and analysis that will be performed can be referred in Appendix E.
2.3.1 Data from Power Quality Logger
The daily load pattern and harmonic profile for substation incoming transformer and outgoing feeders for 500 substation transformers will be collected from the power quality logger. Data for one day on customer low voltage side will be measured. Data from the power quality logger is the RMS voltage, RMS current, kW, kVAR, kVA, True PF, and percentage of total harmonic distortion.
These data will be uploaded via browser and Ethernet remotely to the central database as soon as practicable after the end of the logging period (which is one day).
These data will be used to build a suitable statistic. The statistic will be used to develop the harmonic loss cost model. Note that it is important to log the kW at the same time for loss calculation. That is the reason why we chose the Dataran Berlian logger as many cheaper loggers cannot log voltage, current and power at the same time as logging harmonics.
In this project, the power quality logger will measure the rms voltage and rms current for every feeder. As the feeder is a radial feeder, the ratio of the rms voltage and rms current will give the reference impedance. The power quality logger used in this project can complete measurement for every 2 minutes for 24 hours. Thus, there will be 720 measurement per feeder (30 measurements/hour * 24 hours) and the total number of feeder reading will be 4000 (8 feeders * 500 sites). All this measurement will be used to find the reference impedance and its range .
The logged data in this project will be continuously transferred to the power quality database through uploading via website at certain regular interval. This is for effective data updating since it can be updated from remote locations instead of compiling the whole data then bring it to the server. Coordinate location of installed logger based on GPS longitude and latitude will be captured for purpose of identifying area wide extents of harmonic level. Systematic naming convention and data relationship will be derived such that the data can be associated to other information like customer survey and network data for analysis of source and cause.
2.3.2 Data from Power Quality Monitor
In this project, voltage sag event data will be recorded based on event triggered, i.e. record will be done whenever a voltage dip event occurred based on limit set. Data that will be recorded during the event are RMS voltage for all phases including neutral at pre event, minimum and maximum during event, and post event with duration of event. Full waveform comprise of voltage and current for all phases, including neutral at prior, during, and post will also be captured during occurrence of event. The events recorded will be stored in the power quality database through communication system provided.
Power Quality monitoring devices will also record trending data like Power Quality logger which are RMS voltage; RMS current; True PF; percentage of total harmonic distortion for voltage (THDV), and current (THDI); and harmonic spectrum up to 50th.
In this project, the power quality monitor readings are associated with other data through entity relationship with the knowledge about the overall power system model and customer survey to identify the source and cause of the voltage sag origin, and estimate the impact on loss of production due to the event. Detail of the on-line monitoring is given in our Proposed PQ Monitoring system, Appendix D.
2.3.3 Data from Industrial Survey
An industrial survey will be carried out to enable the consultant to understand the industry production process, the equipment employed and losses incurred due to the incidence of power quality problem. This survey will be reveal the various cost associated to power quality especially harmonics and voltage sags.
2.4 Data Analysis
The PQ database will be built from the consultants experience of developing a similar database for TNB Malaysia. The difference will be based on customization required for the objective to achieve. Together with monitored data, survey data and network data will be in this project and integrated by entity relationship in the database. Since this project focused on national interest under Energy Commission, it will provide independent analysis so that the results will be beneficial to all stakeholders.
2.4.1 Software Requirement
Software requirement for this project is divided into three parts, which are, is the statistical analysis, network simulation, and artificial intelligent (AI).
The statistical analysis will be developed based on the data gathered and the results expected in this project. Integrating monitored data, customer survey data, and network data; statistical analysis that going to be carried out is to arrive at the impact, area coverage, network parameter, and level of acceptability related to PQ by both customer and utility. The counts of number for below and above the standard will also be obtained by this statistical analysis and with additional location data it can be represent in the map.
The simulation software will consist of load flow analysis, fault analysis, and harmonic analysis. Since the simulations that going to be carried out in this project are specific and repetitive over many data, hence, specific application will be developed to carry out the simulations by extracting from database. In this manner, the analyses using simulations will be more effective instead of using the standard interactive simulation software where it consumes a lot of time. The result of simulations will be placed in the database and go through statistical analysis for consistency and relationship between PQ behavior and network.
In this project, the Artificial Intelligent software will be developed towards the end of the project using the simulation and database data as the expert system database. With expert system, many of the functionalities required in the RFP document will be met satisfactorily.
2.4.2 Software for Analysis
After the power quality database has been developed, further analysis will be carried out by using software such as three phase load flow, symmetrical and asymmetrical fault calculation and cost computation by Excel spreadsheet macros. All this software has been developed by the consultants and will be benchmarked from time to time with world class commercial software such as Power World Simulator for calibration purposes.
Analyses will maximize on data integration capability with all data gathered in this project. Automation in analyses will be achieved by extraction of data from database and for any particular application. The results from the application will also be put to database for consistency and trending behavior. In order to achieve effective and consistency in this project, most of the software will be customized based on data model in the database. All computation will be assembled in back end module as an engine. Viewing of all the data gathered and results will be through web page. The feature of web page will be reviewed and improved from time to time during this project as to satisfy all party involved.
The analysis in this project will be focused on harmonic and voltage sag. By using data from the PQ monitor and logger, the analysis will be concentrated on voltage sag and harmonic source of event, severity and its impact to the utility and customer. The summary of this analysis can be referred in Appendix F.
2.4.3 Harmonic Analysis
The significance of harmonics in power systems has increased substantially due to the use of solid state controlled loads and other high frequency producing devices. An important consideration when evaluating the impact of harmonics is their effect on power system components and loads. Transformers are major components in power systems. In this project, the analysis of harmonic will focus on its effect to transformer and cable.
220.127.116.11 Losses in Transformer
Transformers have two major components that drive losses, the core and the coils. The typical core is an assembly of laminated steel. Core losses or energy losses are mostly related to magnetizing or energizing the core. These losses, also known as no-load losses, are present the entire time the transformer is powered on, regardless of whether there’s any load or not. Core losses are roughly constant from no-load to full-load when feeding linear loads. The coil losses, commonly referred to as load losses, are associated with feeding power to the connected load. For linear loads, these losses are predominately I2R losses. In other words, load losses increase by the square of current from no-load to full-load, driven by the resistance of the coil. For nonlinear load, the coil losses can be divided into I2R losses and stray losses caused by electromagnetic flux in the windings, core, core clamps, magnetic shield, enclosure or tank walls, etc . The total stray loss can be subdivided into winding eddy current loss, PEC and stray losses in components other than the windings, POSL. Therefore, the total load losses, PLL for transformer can be stated as
In this study, the current, rated power and the transformer resistance will be calculated based on the available data in the power quality database. Then, a simulation will be performed by using the calculated data and data from the transformer manufacturer to calculate and estimate all the above losses.
In this project, the relationship of the transformer lifetime and the temperature rise due to harmonic event will be investigated. The commonly used method to predict the hot spot temperature as the sum of the ambient temperature, the top oil rise over ambient and the hot spot rise over top oil is described in the IEEE and IEC loading guides . Their steady state temperature relationship is similar.
The effects of voltage and current distortion on the equipment can be quantified as the energy losses and premature aging . To evaluate the cost of energy losses and the aging cost, knowledge on system, power level for linear and non linear loads, life models for equipment and components to estimate the failure times of their electrical insulation and the buying costs of the components together with their variation rate is required .
The aging costs are referred to as the incremental of investment cost due to premature aging of components. As an example, if the premature aging cause equipment replacement in 25 years instead of 30 years, the annual investment amortization will increase about 30%  . The i
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