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Computer network is interconnection of collection of computers and other devices connected by a communication channels like UTP cables, Co-axial cables, etc. allowing users to share data and information within a network i.e. LAN or WAN.
Now let us go briefly on all the topologies mentioned above.
BUS - In this type of topology, a single trunk or backbone communication medium is used to connect all the networking devices. 10Base-2 and 10Base-5 are common Ethernet cables used in this topology.
Fig: Bus Topology
Merits- Easy to install, require less cable as only a main share cable is used for entire networking.
Demerits- Difficult to troubleshoot, network disruption is likely to occur when computer peripherals are added or removed since the entire network is connected by a single media, not only this if the main wire fails then the entire network becomes unusable.
RING - In this topology, the entire network is based on a circular or ring dimension which means that every computer or devices has two adjacent neighbors for communication purposes. Data may travel in clockwise or anti clockwise direction.
Fig: Ring Topology
Merits- troubleshooting is easy as cable faults can easily be located, moderately easy installation.
Demerits- Failure in the cable or devices may result in the break down of the entire network.
To implement ring topology FDDI, SONET, Token Ring etc can be used. This type of topology can be found in small buildings, offices and schools.
STAR- Most commonly used topology in LAN. In this all the computers are connected to each other with a central device like hub, switch or router. These networking devices are connected to using UTP or STP cables.
Fig: Star Topology
Merits- Easy to troubleshoot, Failure in the cable won't take down the entire network, easily expandable without disruption.
Demerits- require more cables, difficult to implement, failure in the central hub may collapse the entire network.
MESS- Uses the concept of routes. In this topology, every device is connected to each other and the messages sent through this network can take any possible shortest path to reach its destination despite the cable or device malfunctions.
Fig: Mess Topology
Merits- Multiple paths are available.
Demerits- complicated wiring, high cost, and more cables needed compared to other topologies.
Among all the above topologies, I think star topology would be suitable because of its performances. It is one of the most commonly used LAN topologies as it is easy to troubleshoot, easily expandable and easy installation.
Answer of Question: 2
A microcomputer is a computer that is physically small compared to mainframe and minicomputers. These constitute a single integrated microprocessor chip in its central processing unit.
"All the improvements in cost and usability resulted in an explosion in their popularity during the late 1970s and early 1980s." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcomputer
Some examples of microcomputers can be laptops, tablet PCs, modern desktop computers, mobile phones, pocket calculators, industrial embedded systems, video game consoles and many other hand held devices.
Applications of microcomputers are:
For multimedia purposes
Used for home application
A minicomputer is that class of computers which lies in middle range between mainframe computer and microcomputers.
"The first successful minicomputer was Digital Equipment Corporation's 12-bit PDP-8, which cost from US$16,000 upwards when launched in 1964."
Termed as midrange computers as it fulfils the needs of mid range organizations with its relatively high power and capacity.
Can support up to 400 connected users at a same time.
It can also acts as server in a network environment.
"Many of the first generation of PC programmers was educated on minicomputer systems."
Applications of minicomputers are:
Used in small business firms
For minor calculations of data.
Mainframe computers are those computers which are used by large organizations to process huge amount of data.
Acts as a server in a network environment.
Powerful and high performance computer.
It is also referred to as big iron.
"Mainframes are defined by high availability, one of the main reasons for their longevity, because they are typically used in applications where downtime would be costly or catastrophic. Hence, the term Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) is a defining characteristic of mainframe computers."
"Mainframes have the ability to run (or host) multiple operating systems, and thereby operate not as a single computer but as a number of virtual machines."
Since it is used as a massive storage the data is stored in giga-records or tera-records.
"Mainframes are designed to handle very high volume input and output (I/O) and emphasize throughput computing."
Applications of mainframe computers are:
Used in large scale organizations or enterprises.
Can be used as a server as well.
It was first introduced in 1960's.
Cray Jaguar (2009) is the fastest super computer till date.
Super computers are those which are far more advanced than any other computers due to its high processing capacity and speed of calculations.
Due to its features it has a very high cost.
This type of computer can process over 64 billions of instruction in seconds.
Applications of super computer are:
Nuclear energy research
A laptop is a portable personal computer that is small and light enough to be fitted comfortably in a person's lap.
As compared to the desktop computers, laptops are rechargeable and it may give a battery backup to almost 2 or 3 hours depending upon power configuration.
"Normally laptops have thicknesses between 0.7-1.5 inches (18-38 mm) and dimensions ranging from 10x8 inches (27x22cm, 13" display) to 15x11 inches (39x28cm, 17" display) and up"
Also nowadays, laptops are very popular amongst people because of the following reasons:-
Portable and can be used anywhere.
Immediacy as anyone can have instant access to information at anytime.
Due to Wi-Fi wireless network, it enables the users to have easier connectivity anytime.
It is much quieter compared to desktop computers as it produces less heat and hence consists of few and slow cooling fans.
It consumes low power and since it can be charged it is not affected by short power interruptions and blackouts.
Has all in one feature as sound box, keyboard, touchpad, webcam are all inbuilt.
Some of the renowned manufacturers of laptops are Acer, Apple, Lenovo, Hp, Dell, Toshiba, Samsung, Sony, Asus, LG, etc.
Applications of laptops are:
Used at offices, colleges for presentation purposes.
Alternative for a desktop computer.