In the traditional architecture there existed only the server and the client. In most cases the server was only a data base server that can only offer data. Therefore majority of the business logic i.e., validations etc. had to be placed on the clients system. This makes maintenance expensive. Such clients are called as ‘fat clients’. This also means that every client has to be trained as to how to use the application and even the security in the communication is also the factor to be considered.
Since the actual processing of the data takes place on the remote client the data has to be transported over the network, which requires a secured format of the transfer method. How to conduct transactions is to be controlled by the client and advanced techniques implementing the cryptographic standards in the executing the data transfer transactions. Present day transactions are considered to be “un-trusted” in terms of security, i.e. they are relatively easy to be hacked. And also we have to consider the transfer the large amount of data through the network will give errors while transferring. Nevertheless, sensitive data transfer is to be carried out even if there is lack of an alternative. Network security in the existing system is the motivation factor for a new system with higher-level security standards for the information exchange.
The proposed system should have the following features. The transactions should take place in a secured format between various clients in the network. It provides flexibility to the user to transfer the data through the network very easily by compressing the large amount of file. It should also identify the user and provide the communication according to the prescribed level of security with transfer of the file requested and run the required process at the server if necessary. In this system the data will be send through the network as a audio file. The user who received the file will do the operations like de embedding, decryption, and decompress in their level of hierarchy etc.
Fact Finding Techniques
In this system we are going to develop a facility to a user that he will not face any difficulty at the time of usage like data missing, one way contacts, one view contacts. As we are developing this system with an encoding technique of images the user will not be bothered on which camera support is using, as well in sound. As we are maintaining one technique of speed controlling the frame relay will not be a problem for the user like over speed display, hanged display.
A feasibility study is a high-level capsule version of the entire System analysis and Design Process. The study begins by classifying the problem definition. Feasibility is to determine if it’s worth doing. Once an acceptance problem definition has been generated, the analyst develops a logical model of the system. A search for alternatives is analyzed carefully. There are 3 parts in feasibility study.
Question that going to be asked are
Will the system be used if it developed and implemented.
If there was sufficient support for the project from the management and from the users.
Have the users been involved in planning and development of the
Will the system produce poorer result in any respect or area?
This system can be implemented in the organization because there is adequate support from management and users. Being developed in Java so that the necessary operations are carried out automatically.
Does the necessary technology exist to do what is been suggested
Does the proposed equipment have the technical capacity for using the new system?
Are there technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability and data security?
The project is developed on Pentium IV with 256 MB RAM.
The environment required in the development of system is any windows platform
The observer pattern along with factory pattern will update the results eventually
The language used in the development is JAVA 1.5 & Windows Environment
Financial and Economical Feasibility
The system developed and installed will be good benefit to the organization. The system will be developed and operated in the existing hardware and software infrastructure. So there is no need of additional hardware and software for the system.
People for long time have tried to sort out the problems faced in the general digital communication system but as these problems exist even now, a secured and easy transfer system evolved and came to be known as the Encryption and Decryption of the data and converting the file to audio format to be transferred using the cryptographic standards and Steganography. The advantages of this Audio Steganography are:
High level Security
Cost effective transfer
In this fast growing world where every individual free to access the information on the network and even the people are technically sound enough in hacking the information from the network for various reasons. The organizations have the process of information transfer in and out of their network at various levels, which need the process to be in a secured format for the organizational benefits.
If the organizations have the Audio Steganography System, then each employee can send the information to any other registered employee and thus can establish communication and perform the prescribed tasks in secured fashion. The audio file that the employee sends reaches the destinations within no time in an audio file format where the end user need to de embed the file, decrypt it and de compress and use for the purpose. The various branches of the organization can be connected to a single host server and then an employee of one branch can send files to the employee of another branch through the server but in a secured format.
The System Design includes the maintenance of the secure file transfer service with a prescribed encryption format and split at the interested level of encryption, and embed process and the receiving service at the other end with de-embed and decryption process. The design also includes the provision of facility to the user to manipulate the concerned information according to his personal use and communication process.
The design also needs to provide the communication channel to the user to communicate with other registered users through the mailing services in a reliable and secured format. Authorization and authentication services are preferred most for this purpose. The System Design includes the maintenance authorization services, File and directory services with a prescribed encryption format at the interested level of encryption and the receiving service at the other end with decryption process. The design also includes the provision of facility to the user to manipulate the concerned information according to his personal use.
The design of Audio Steganography system, basically involve the interface architecture, Security services, and communication system.
In the interface design we involve with the design of the user interface with GUI standards and a proper navigation system where the user need to enter into the flow of transactions authorization services are check and further access is provided into the system. Then the user needs to select into the operations provided through the GUI where compression, encryption, embedding, de-embedding, Decryption, Decompressing and sending of the file, General information and exit are provided.
Here the Encryption and decryption and services are provided connecting to the security services module where the encryption and decryption are carried out using the cryptographic standards implementing the Blowfish algorithm.
After the compression process is completed the user is selecting the file for encryption. After encryption of the file is completed the user is to select the file for embedding it to the audio file and sending through the network to the desired user by specifying the targeted users system IP address in the panel designed. Then the system gets connected to the targeted user and delivers the file in audio format after which the user working with the Audio Steganography software should go for the option De-Embed Files and decrypt the file by selecting the file path by which the file gets decrypted and decompress the file and is viewed on the system.
The Audio Steganography system is designed basically in four different modules they are GUI module, Compression Module, Security System module, Steganography Module, Connection Manager Module.
GUI Module basically deals with the design of the interface which include the service of providing the user with the flexibility of accessing the file system and selecting the required file for the transfer. It should also provide the system to collect the information from the user to check the authorization in providing the access to the file system. The interface is also to consider the design, which include the services of sending and receiving of the files with encryption and decryption standards.
The Compression module basically deals with the compress and decompresses the file, which is used to send the file very easily. Which reduces the uploading time.
Security implementation module considers the implementation of the encryptions and decryption standards in transfer the files from one system to another in a distributed environment. The system design, even need to support the user to select the level of encryption he/she needs to perform depending upon the file to be transferred. The basic algorithm used in this purpose is the Blowfish where the user can enter the key depending upon level encryption he is interested.
The Connection Manager deals with the architecture, which supports the system to identify the end users for the communication and establish the communication. Connection and disconnection of the communication channel between the users for the access of file system and file transfer services. The Connection Manager receives the IP address to be connected and the file to be sent then establishes the connection and transfers the file.
The Modules of the system are:
1) Blowfish Algorithm Implementation Module
2) Stegnography Module
3) Compression Module
4) GUI Module
Blowfish is a block cipher that encrypts data in 8-byte blocks. The algorithm consists of two parts: a key-expansion part and a data-encryption part. Key expansion converts a variable-length key of at most 56 bytes (448 bits) into several sub key arrays totaling 4168 bytes.
Blowfish has 16 rounds. Each round consists of a key-dependent permutation, and a key- and data-dependent substitution. All operations are XOR’s and additions on 32-bit words. The only additional operations are four indexed array data lookups per round.
Blowfish uses a large number of subkeys. These keys must be precomputed before any data encryption or decryption. The P-array consists of 18 32-bit subkeys: P1, P2,…, P18. There are also four 32-bit S-boxes with 256 entries each: S1,0, S1,1,…, S1,255; S2,0, S2,1,..,, S2,255; S3,0, S3,1,…, S3,255; S4,0, S4,1,..,, S4,255.
Encryption and Decryption:
Blowfish has 16 rounds. The input is a 64-bit data element, x. Divide x into two 32-bit halves: xL, xR. Then, for i = 1 to 16:
xL = xL XOR Pi
xR = F (xL) XOR xR
Swap xL and xR
After the sixteenth round, swap xL and xR again to undo the last swap. Then, xR = xR XOR P17 and xL = xL XOR P18. Finally, recombine xL and xR to get the cipher text.
Function F looks like this: Divide xL into four eight-bit quarters: a, b, c, and d. Then, F (xL) = ((S1, a + S2, b mod 232) XOR S3, c) + S4, d mod 232.
Decryption is exactly the same as encryption, except that P1, P2…, P18 are used in the reverse order.
Generating the Subkeys:
The subkeys are calculated using the Blowfish algorithm:
1. Initialize first the P-array and then the four S-boxes, in order, with a fixed string. This string consists of the hexadecimal digits of pi (less the initial 3): P1 = 0x243f6a88, P2 = 0x85a308d3, P3 = 0x13198a2e, P4 = 0x03707344, etc.
2. XOR P1 with the first 32 bits of the key, XOR P2 with the second 32-bits of the key, and so on for all bits of the key (possibly up to P14). Repeatedly cycle through the key bits until the entire P-array has been XORed with key bits. (For every short key, there is at least one equivalent longer key; for example, if A is a 64-bit key, then AA, AAA, etc., are equivalent keys.)
3. Encrypt the all-zero string with the Blowfish algorithm, using the subkeys described in steps (1) and (2).
4. Replace P1 and P2 with the output of step (3).
5. Encrypt the output of step (3) using the Blowfish algorithm with the modified subkeys.
6. Replace P3 and P4 with the output of step (5).
7. Continue the process, replacing all entries of the P array, and then all four S-boxes in order, with the output of the continuously changing Blowfish algorithm.
In total, 521 iterations are required to generate all required subkeys. Applications can store the subkeys rather than execute this derivation process multiple times.
Stegnography is art of hiding information in ways that prevent the detection of hidden messages. Stegnography derived from Greek, literally means “Covered Writing”. It includes a vast array of secret communications methods that conceal the message’s very existence. Theses methods are including invisible inks, microdots, character arrangement, digital signature, and covert channels and spread spectrum communications.
In this technology, the end user identifies an audio file, which is going to act as the carrier of data. The data file is also selected and then to achieve greater speed of transmission the data file and audio file are sent. Prior to this the data is embedded into the audio and then sent. The image if hacked or interpreted by a third party user will open up in any audio player but not displaying the data. This protects the data from being invisible and hence is secure during transmission. The user in the receiving end uses another piece of code to retrieve the data from the audio file.
The module deals with identifying the hidden data in the audio file. The module receives the audio file that is then browsed to remove the associated data. The data is then removed from the audio file.
Compression and Decompression:
Compression reduces the average code length used to represent the symbols of an alphabet. Symbols of the source alphabet, which occur frequently, are assigned with short length codes. The general strategy is to allow the code length to vary from character to character and to ensure that the frequently occurring character has shorter codes. We use utility package for compression.
This technique maps arbitrary input into printable character output. The form of encoding has the following relevant characteristics. The range of the function is a character set that is universally re-presentable at all sites, not a specific binary encoding of that character set. Thus, the characters themselves can be encoded into whatever form is needed by a specific system. For instance, the character ‘E’ is represented in ASCII system as a hexadecimal 45 and in EDCDIC- based system as hexadecimal- c5.
The character set consists of 65 printable characters, one of which is used for padding. With 2^6 = 64 available characters, each character can be used to represent 6 bits of input.
No control characters are included in the set. Thus, the message encoded in Radix-64 can traverse mail-handling system. That scans the data stream for control characters. The hyphen character “- ” is not included.
Graphical User Interface:
This project is developed using graphics in java swings. The options available are displayed in a menu format, like in an online editor. Clicking on any particular menu item through mouse or through keyboard a dropdown menu is displayed, listing all the options available under that menu item and the user can select the needed actions according to their wish.
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