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In today’s world survival of organizations depends on communication between employees. When means of communication is not proper the structure of organization collapse. In multinational organizational, communication structure is a series of path through which messages flow. This channel is basically series of steps through which organization communicates with employees. The types of organizational communication structure are Formal and Informal. Through theses structure employee communicates through entire organization.
A formal communication structure uses proper channels for information to flow between different levels of organization. The further categories in a formal communication are Downward Communication, Upward Communication, and Lateral Communication.
Upward is a communication from junior to senior such as from front line managers to decision makers of organization. Downward is a communication between senior level management with junior level management e.g. CEO transfers its message to accounts department head. Lateral Communication means communication between peers e.g. finance head transfers report to accounts head.
An informal communication structure used free communication medium that are not particularly used for organizational information. This includes communication “through the grapevine” which is the flow of information from one employee to another without any specific manner as a result the end form of information distorted and becomes no more reliable. This is fastest but not at all a reliable means of communication and creates misunderstandings in organization and sometimes severs panic to.
An example would be finding co-worker for specific information on issue. Opportunistic Communication happens when employee sees someone and remembers to discuss issue such as passing co-worker in hallway and remembering something. Spontaneous Communication occurs between two people by chance that starts a conversation such as two employees out for a drink see a news report about an issue they are dealing with at work and they start to talk about it.
Other classification of organization communication is in two main heads which are Interpersonal communication and Impersonal communication.
Interpersonal communication is in between two people e.g. Boss and salesmen, accounts head and finance head, salesmen and employee. Impersonal communication is also called mass communication which is a communication between individual to a massive bulk or audience e.g. CEO of company doing speech after AGM to employees for declaration of bonus.
In multinational organization all types of communication take place this is because a multinational organization is wide spread organization with lots of branches in different countries employing different people of all type of culture and nature so every kind of communication is necessarily required.
1.2: Implement changes to the communication system of a multi-national business in order to enhance its efficiency.
Effective communication is a key way of success in a multinational organization. But not every multi national organization has effective communication system. In order to make a communication effective different steps can b taken some of them are discussed below:
1. Use Multiple Channels for Organizational Communication – Main point in effective communication is medium and using one medium for proper communication of message is not at all safer way. This will result in loss of lots of information. So in order to avoid this problem more then one medium must b used to ensure that message is received by the receiver I its original form and positive acknowledgment is achieved. These multiple effective channels include meetings, face-to-face talks, e-mail, faxes, telephone conversations, bulletins, postings, and memos. The way is adopted to make sure you always use multiple methods to communicate your message, and remove your tension with 100% efficiency guaranty.
2. Make Important Messages Repetitive – Along with multiple channels, organizational communication can b improved by sending important message again and again so that all the employees give most efficient result.
3. Focus on Listening – Listening is a major element in one to one communication. Without proper listening of message neither we can interprets message in its full meaning nor give positive feedback which mean whole communication process got ruined if message is not listened properly. The reason behind this cause is that we are not at all active listeners. This problem can be resolve by using reflective listening skills, understanding nonverbal cues, focusing more on communicator’s words instead of preparing message first. The motto for this purpose must b “no more talking, just listing”.
4. Get Your Message across – After completion of message by communicator the next step taken by the communicator is to make sure that message is communicated exactly in the same meaning and context as he wants the audience to understand. This cans b done by openly asking the receiver about the message and using the same words again and again and he must satisfy only if he gets positive feedback.
5. Use of modern technologies – Using of new technologies like multimedia, email, video conferencing etc are important ways of conveying message.
6. Handle Communication Problems – Last but not the least in order to make communication effective at large level the organization must have such people which quickly overcome problem that come across during communication and make communication effective and useful for organization.
1.3: Explain how communication can be divided into discreet stages.
Communication is the sharing or exchange of thought by oral, written, or nonverbal means. In order to make communication effective, managers must have communication skills to apply their strategic plans properly. These skills include nonverbal, presentational, or written skills as the manager communicates others, present ideas in meetings, or prepares reports or those higher on the organizational ladder.
Different Levels of communication:
Following are the ways in which communication process can b divided into different discreet levels.
UPWARD AND DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
Information, the backbone of any organization, needs to flow effectively. Successful management requires downward communication to subordinates in order to provide them all necessary information for the achievement of all goals of organization, upward communication to superiors is required so that upper level management can keep an eye on all the matters of organization and can also see whether work is going on as per their plans or not their employees are working as per their expectations any problem between employees can b recognized and solved before it get worst, and horizontal communication to peers in other divisions so that each department knows the condition of other department and can plan their strategies in coordination with them .
For example getting a task done by way of delegation is just one point of the manager’s job. Obtaining the information to do that job, informing others about it and coordinating with others are also important skills. These skills keep the organization working, and increase the visibility and importance of the manager and her division, thus ensuring him that his position is strong and support of employees under him is with him and promotion is also expected.
Downward communication is far ahead than passing on information to subordinates and employees on front line. It may involve managing and soothing the tone of the message, as well as showing skill in passing on the jobs to ensure the job is done effectively and efficiently by the right hands. E.g. e-mail from a team leader to the members of the team, remanding him of the next coming deadline, duty to prepare financial statements is given to moa then an engineer etc
In upward communication, tone is most important, along with timing, strategy, and audience adaptation. Upward communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, coworkers, and the organization in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how things can be improved.
When there is upward and downward communication then question arise that why their is need of horizontal communication? The answer to this question is that horizontal communication is often necessary to save time and to facilitate subordinates. In some cases this communication is sanctioned formally. More often, they are crated informally to short circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action.
1.4: Examine the issues with mass communication when handling larger number of employees.
“Of all of our inventions for mass communication, pictures still speak the most universally understood language.”
Mass communication is a communication type in which a sender distributes messages to many people simultaneously. Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of the various means by which individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. In mass communication, the communicator keeps his communication in front of a mass is such easy words and sentences, which they can understand easily. Mass is the term used to for group of people in front of whom the communicator presents his words?
We are discussing mass communication at organization level. It may be a boss communicating to his employees. Mass communication is common in multinational companies, business giants and companies operating at large scale.
There are many issues in mass communication while handling large number of employees. It is very difficult to handle a large number of employees with different mind filters, perception, education level and cultures. It is not easy for a communicator to interact with the mass so easily.
First of all there is a selection problem of an appropriate channel of media for the mass communication. Different communication media can b used but which one is suitable depends on the situation e.g. In a multinational organization introducing a new product and project manager is giving presentation to all the employees starting form top management to front line management for such presentation a proper microphone system along with large screen multimedia is necessary. The media u select is important for checking the effectiveness of your message through mass communication.
“All media exist to invest our lives with artificial perceptions and arbitrary values”
the perception of employees differs from person to person in an organization. There is a different point of view to every thing. Each employee takes message in his own perception. Every one has his own way of thinking and it’s not possible that everyone’s thinking will match with one to another. So communication does not mean to put your words in front of the people it has other side also is to see their point of views whether message is communicated in its proper context and this is done by feedback . This concept is the base of successful communication. But in Mass communication feedback at such a large level is not possible so communicator is not sure whether he succeeded in achieving its motive or not.
The next issue which can arise in mass communication is sender’s ability to communicate in large mass of audience. If he has excellent and remarkable skills to communicate a message to a big audience, he can win the objective of communication. But a person with weak communicating power will himself make the communication fail.
The trust factor is highly involved in mass communication. It is the major issue whiling handling it. If the employees have no trust in you, in your words, then how a message can and objective can be achieved. Give employees a reason to trust you, and keep that trust by sticking to your word and fulfilling your promises. One has to learn to run the obstacle race. It is not that one can jump every obstacle successfully the first time. Learn from your mistakes, get expertise and in this way we can handle all issues of mass communication.
1-5: Write about how culture and gender can change the meaning of communication for different groups of people.
When we talk about group of people it includes people of different genders, age, culture, society and perception. In an organization people of all taste are there and it is difficult to manage a message in such a way that the actual objective of senior management can b achieved. This is so because if in an organization there are 100 employees its mean there are 100 different thoughts.
Following points explain the impact of variety of people on communication:
Interpretationsâ€¦.. Every person has its own style to think and to judge a specific situation. Different people with different ages and with different culture see things in different manner e.g. a person may take a narrow deadline as a burden other as a challenge. Difference in gender has strong impact on interpreting a thing. Females always take a situation with much pain and stress as compare to males. Handling stress is easier for a male then a female.
Languageâ€¦. In a group people of different countries are there and all have different language. This is a major issue because the original message being in different language will lost its meaning if not understand properly. Along with this people of different languages will find difficulty to communicate with each other and will enable to do work together.
Egoâ€¦. Factor of ego is very much common in different gender. Mostly employees do not prefer to work with people of different genders. Ego creates problem in coordination and this result in inefficient work and organization falls to meet goals.
Religionâ€¦ it’s not possible for people of different religion to communicate, work, spent time, having meals together etc. Because every religion have its own faith, norms, rituals and people with narrow vision and who keep themselves stick to their religious views find it difficult to work with people of other religion and it’s a bid hurdle in communication.
Age factorâ€¦.. Its also one of the factors which relates to gender. Males in old ages are more reluctant towards new things as compare to females. Is hard for males to change their point of view and to see the different view of a picture as compare to females which easily accept changes. Old ages make human weird but males are weirder then females and communication lacks its color like this.
Hesitating Nature of Femalesâ€¦.. Culture is important factor which decide the norms of society. Some cultures do not allow females to communicate much with males as a result difficulty in communication takes place. Along with this many other problems takes place also females with narrow vision takes all things negative and disturb the whole organization.
1-6: How can the saying ‘action speaks better than words’ apply to verbal and non verbal communication.
Good communication is basis of perfect professional relations but in a communication we communicate 70% by our gestures then our words. That is way this phrase is best suited for non-verbal and verbal communication that `Action speaks more then words’. Non verbal communication is vital form of communication. When we meet people we give and receive uncountable singles which communicates a lot even without speaking any word. These singles are excellent way of define a situation as compare to words.
Verbal communication includes only speaking but non-verbal communication includes sounds, way of talking, way of walking, postures, appearance, head moments, hand moments, eye moments, closeness etc.
Words are not enough to create a strong relation. Nonverbal communication is necessary to create a good quality relation. Unfortunately people send negative nonverbal clues which leads to problem in business relations. Only words not supported by proper gestures are not enough to hold a situation.
Strategies for a nonverbal delivery to make communication effective:
1. Postureâ€¦ The ways you stand and balance your weight shows your confidence and give impression of your actual personality. Your outward appearance mirrors your inner mood. E.g. when you drip your podium over your shoulder sagging, it gives the feeling of depression and lack of control.
2. Movementâ€¦ Your controlled and easy moments show your confidence and give impression of your confidence courage and also ability to handle every kind of situation. During conversation or meeting with senior if a junior stick to one position and show no moment it shows his nervousness. There is different type of moments like movement of head in nodding shows a person understands the point of view of communicator, moment of hand during delivering a point shows confidence and better way to make point easy to understand, moments of eyes like winking at some point shows the nervousness of the employee. So movement of every part of body gives a meaning and adds understanding to your point.
3. Gesturesâ€¦ It is a part of kinesics which is science of body moments. Basically hand and arm gestures are used to emphasis a pointâ€¦ to point out somethingâ€¦. To reject and ideaâ€¦â€¦ to describe a point more clearlyâ€¦. Slapping someone shows anger. Interpretation of gestures is an issue across different culture so avoid using dual meaning gestures.
4. Facial expressionâ€¦. Each organ of your face talks when you communicate with some. Smile or laugh suggests that a topic is interesting one. A frown shows anger or you are worried. Cunning impression of face shows the peak of your anger. It also includes eye contact. The employee who most avoids eye contact with seniors is considered to lack confidence. Eye contact suggest respect and goodwill and adding to a favorable impression of you as a speaker.
5. Body Contactsâ€¦. Sometimes some acts show your reaction towards someone. E.g. shaking hand with someone shows respect, tapping shoulder shows you are satisfied with your employee etc. These nonverbal acts adds value to relations
Adopted from: http://www.4bambini.com/uploads/pics/effective_teaching_016.gif
1.7: Using different mediums can lead to different outcomes of a message. Justify the statement with examples.
Effective communication is necessary for the rapid growth of an organization but to make the communication effective selection of medium is very important. Selection of medium depends on particular situation of communication. A single medium is not enough or suitable in all the condition. Different mediums as per different situtations are:
1.During interviwes the best possible communication is face 2 face communication. Interviews cannot b held through telephones bec thrugh such medium the interviwer will not b able to judge the nonverble cues of interviwee which is major part in interviwee.
2. Announcment of bonus to employee in multinational organization where number of employees are countless one notice on the noticeboard is not a good medium. Personal letter to every employee is a good way to communicate.
3.Good news are always given through letters where as in case of bad news a telephone call is required in which you can give your sympathy to the receiver by which you can develop good relation even after conveying bad news.
4. In case of any bad situation in organization, for example any fight between departments, a person must be selected to resolve the problem which is liked by all in organization. Selecting a person to resolve problem which is rude, arrogant, dry natured is not a lot favorable in this situation. This will make situation worst.
5. There lies a difference while communicate with stakeholders of the multinational organization and the debtor. While communicating with creditors, shareholders it is necessary to b polite and use proper medium e.g. if using mails the efficient mailing service must b used but while communicating with debtor cheap service is also acceptable.
6. For advertisement purpose such news channel, news papers, social site are used which have high rating and are popular among such type of people to whom we want to convey our message. Using such news channel, news paper etc which is not at all popular and is not like by majority of our product users and employee will not only wastage of time but also will have adverse effect on your business and will result in big loss condition.
7. People like by their acts are also a good medium for message as these people is most likely to b trusted by all and they will b a good way to make other realize our worth.
1.8: What are the impacts of ineffective communication on business and its stakeholders? Justify your answer with examples from real business situations.
For interaction and co-operation of human and organization the main compelling weapon is communication. It involves fostering a shared understanding and sharing of ideas between two parties or more. In the achievement of organizational goals and objectives communication is used as a medium of persuasion and used to inform those people who are directly involved in doing the relevant work.
There is one author named Akporowho (2008) has defined communication as a medium of exchange of different thinking, ideas, emotions and facts for making a mutual understanding between people or parties. A great roman philosopher Cicero Marcus once said that “if the language is not correct then what is said is not what is meant and if what is said is not what is meant, what ought to done remains undone”.
This improper handling of communication leads towards the ineffective communication. It can be explained as a process in which the message that sender has sent is received in completely different meaning by the receiver. In a crux it is incorrect understanding of the message by the receiver.
In global business world many problem arises because of the ineffective communication. The problems of ineffective communication include the biasness, mis-representation and blunder. It also leads towards the poor synchronization, useless control, and failure of management that is unavoidable. Within the organization because of ineffective communication conflicting situation arises and in the result of this information distorted. Because of all the distortion and poor communication misunderstanding arises between organizational departments, individuals and stakeholders; who so ever are involved in the communication process. The other impact of the ineffective communication is the breaking of interactions between human. This may lead to the industrial turbulence between the organization and its stake holders.
The ineffective communication in the organization also affects the stake holders. The impact of ineffective communication on stake holders can be the misinterpretation of motives and intentions of the organization for the stake holders. Whatever the organization is communicated the stakeholders are getting its wrong meaning and thus leads towards the misinterpretation. The other problem can be the unfulfilled needs of both parties. If the organizational communication is not effective the employees, customers and all other stake holders cannot communicate their needs. So this would leads towards the un-accomplishment of needs. In organization communication is the way through which people communicate about their current problems and situations. The ineffective communication will lead towards the unresolved problem situation in organization. The other thing that occurs because of the ineffective communication is increased hostility among the people and stake holders of the organization.
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