A transaction is any event, the real test, the data created or modified before storing in an information system through Transaction processing features
Business success depends on reliable transaction processing to ensure that orders reach customers on time, and that partners and suppliers paid and can afford. The range of transaction processing is, therefore, led to a lively part of effective corporate governance, organizations like the Association of Labour Process Improvement and Transaction Processing Performance Council
Systems transaction processing companies provide the means to ensure a smooth fast transaction processing for debit and development processes across the enterprise. Usually, a TPS will have the following characteristics:
Rapid processing of transactions is critical to the success of any business – now more than ever, given the developments in technology and customer demand for immediate action. TPS systems have been developed to trade almost immediately to ensure that customer data available to the processes they need.
Similarly, customers do not tolerate mistakes. TPS systems must be designed not only to trade I was never able to pass through the net, but the systems remain permanently even in operation. TPS systems, therefore, are developed to integrate complete security monitoring systems and disaster recovery. These measures maintain the failure rate is within tolerance.
Transactions should be processed in the same way each time to maximize efficiency. To ensure this, TPS interfaces are developed to obtain identical data for each transaction, regardless of the client.
Since the TPS can be systems such as a powerful business tool, access should be limited to only those employees who require their use. Limited access to the system ensures that employees, their qualifications and ability to control, can not affect the failure of the transaction.
Qualifying transaction processing
To qualify for TPS, transactions must pass through the acid test. ACID tests associated with the following four conditions:
Atomicity means that a transaction is either completed or not at all. For example, if the money will be transferred from one account to another, it will not become a bone fide transactions, even though both withdrawal and deposit. If an account is charged and others are not appropriated can not be regarded as a measure. TPS systems to ensure that transactions take place in its entirety.
TPS systems in a number of operating rules (or constraints). If you find a cap that all transactions must have a positive value in a database for each transaction will be rejected with a negative value.
Transactions must be entered in a vacuum instead. For example, if you do a fund between the two accounts of debit and credit is made by others seem to take place simultaneously. Funds may be credited to the account before being loaded onto another.
Once the transaction can not be undone. To ensure that this happens even if a loss of TPS, a document file created by the completion of all transactions.
These four conditions TPS systems to engage in a systematic, standardized and reliable.
Types of transactions
The settlement process should be standardized in order to maximize efficiency, each requires a custom transaction process in accordance with business strategies and processes. For this reason, there are two types of operations:
batch processing is a resource-saving move, the processing of data at preset. batch processing is useful for companies who need to process large volumes of data using limited resources.
Examples include processing transactions for credit card transactions monthly batch processed in real time. Credit card transactions are made only once a month to produce an explanation for the customer, batch processing saves computational resources to process separately for each transaction.
In many cases, the most important factor is speed. For example, if a bank customer receives a sum of money in the account, it is important to keep processing transactions and updating account balance as soon as possible so that a part of both Bank and client funds.
Database Management Issues
The purpose of this book are correct and up to date understanding – and appreciation for – the practical aspects of critical yet poorly understood key aspects of the database. It identifies and explains some basic concepts, principles and techniques constantly causing trouble for users and suppliers. Evaluate the treatment of these topics in SQL (standard and commercial applications) and provides specific guidance and practical advice on how to handle (and how not to). Includes carefully, especially thin and misunderstood issues – complex data types, missing information, data depends on the question hierarchies and so on -. Clear and concise format for busy professional database
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Three decades ago relational technology put the database field on a sound scientific basis for the first time. But database industry – producers, users, experts and media – has failed, in essence, principles, focusing instead on a “cookbook” approach to product without conceptual understanding. The consequences have been costly: DBMS products, databases, applications and development tools are not always perform up to expectation or potential, and may encourage the wrong questions and incorrect answers.
Practical issues in database management is an attempt to create these persistent and costly problem. Written for database designers, developers, managers and users, it addresses the basic, often recurring problems and problems that practitioners – even the most experienced here – seem to systematically misunderstand, namely:
â€¢ Unstructured data and complex data types
â€¢ business rules and implementation of integrity
â€¢ Normalization and denormalization
â€¢ Entity subtypes and supertypes
â€¢ data hierarchies and recursive queries
â€¢ Share query
â€¢ lack of information
Fabian Pascal examine these critical issues in detail, comparing the cost of serious mistreatment of the practical benefits of implementing the right solutions. With a focus on principles and practices used examples Practice problems in the real world database to provide an assessment of current technology – SQL-based DBMS products – and, if possible, provide concrete recommendations and solutions. From the insight provided by practical problems in database management, you’ll be in better position to evaluate these products, use their skills and weaknesses to avoid.
database professionals today are faced with more choices when you consider the use of architecture to meet the different needs of employers and / or address of the customer. The text below provides an overview of three main types of database architectures and sub-categories, as well as provide an insight into the strengths of each.
The database architecture is based on how the application logic is distributed throughout the system can be distinguished. Application logic consists of three elements: presentation logic, processing logic and logical storage.
Presentation logic component is responsible for formatting and presenting data on the screen of the data processing logic manages user data processing logic, business rules, logic and data management logic. Finally, the logical storage unit that is responsible for the storage and retrieval of current devices, such as a hard disk or RAM.
In determining the level (s) of these components, we develop a good idea what kind of architecture and subtype can be achieved.
A tier architecture
Imagine a person on a desktop computer to load Microsoft Access, a list of personal addresses and phone numbers he or she has stored in MS Windows “My Documents” folder is used. This is an example of database-tier architecture. Program (Microsoft Access) to operate the local user’s computer, and points to a file stored on the hard disk of the machine, so that access to a unique natural resource and process information.
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Another example of a one-tier architecture is a file-server architecture. In this scenario, a database of the group from a shared location on a computer are stored. Members of a group working with a software package such as Microsoft Access, to upload data and process them locally on your computer. In this case, the data may be shared between users, but all processing is performed on the local computer. In fact, only one file server external hard drive from which files are recovered.
Another way of architecture level showed that the mainframe computer. In this system obsolete, large machines can direct terminal ill with the tools to open, view and manage data. Although this system as a client-server, since all the computing power (both data and applications) is made from a single computer, we have a one-tier architecture.
The architecture can be beneficial when dealing with data from a particular user (or small number of users), and a relatively small amount of data. We are going to implement something cheap and clean.
Two Tier Client/Server Architectures
A two-tier architecture is one that is familiar to many of today’s computer users. A common implementation of this type of system is that of a Microsoft Windows based client program that accesses a server database such as Oracle or SQL Server. Users interact through a GUI (Graphical User Interface) to communicate with the database server across a network via SQL (Structured Query Language).
In two-tier architectures it is important to note that two configurations exist. A thin-client (fat-server) configuration exists when most of the processing occurs on the server tier. Conversely, a fat-client (thin-server) configuration exists when most of the processing occurs on the client machine.
Another example of a two-tier architecture can be seen in web-based database applications. In this case, users interact with the database through applications that are hosted on a web-server and displayed through a web-browser such as Internet Explorer. The web server processes the web application, which can be written in a language such as PHP or ASP. The web app connects to a database server to pass along SQL statements which in turn are used to access, view, and modify data. The DB server then passes back the requested data which is then formatted by the web server for the user.
Although this appears to be a three-tier system because of the number of machines required to complete the process, it is not. The web-server does not normally house any of the business rules and therefore should be considered part of the client tier in partnership with the web-browser.
Two-tier architectures can prove to be beneficial when we have a relatively small number of users on the system (100-150) and we desire an increased level of scalability.
Two-Tier Client-Server Architecture
Web-Based, Two-Tier Client-Server Architecture
N-Tier Client/Server Architectures
Most n-tier database architectures exist in a three-tier configuration. In this architecture the client/server model expands to include a middle tier (business tier), which is an application server that houses the business logic. This middle tier relieves the client application(s) and database server of some of their processing duties by translating client calls into database queries and translating data from the database into client data in return. Consequently, the client and server never talk directly to one-another.
A variation of the n-tier architecture is the web-based n-tier application. These systems combine the scalability benefits of n-tier client/server systems with the rich user interface of web-based systems.
Because the middle tier in a three-tier architecture contains the business logic, there is greatly increased scalability and isolation of the business logic, as well as added flexibility in the choice of database vendors.
Three-Tier Client-Server Architecture
Web-Based, Three-Tier Client Server Architecture
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