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Examining The Match Fixing Of Sports Games Information Technology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Information Technology
Wordcount: 4507 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Nowadays match-fixing is done in organized sports. Match-fixing is a done in the sports as a game played at a predetermined result. In whole or in part, in violation of rules and often the law as well. If the race is a sporting competition in question, the event is called a record of the race fixing. Games, are know as thrown games which are lost deliberately. When a team intentionally lose a game or have not been as high as you can get a perceived future competitive advantages rather than the players could participate, the team is often said that he plunged the game instead of throwing it.

HOW IT WORKS:-

Thrown into the game when motivation for the game(thrown game), need contacts or agents between players, gamblers, team officials and/or arbitrator. These contacts and bookies can sometimes be found and lead to prosecution by law or by the sports leagues. In contrast, the inner tank is individual act of team so it is hard to prove. Often by replacing the coach is designed to increase the chances of the losing team, often containing one or more key players sit, rather than order the players on the field made intentionally under perform, was cited as a major factor in cases where the reservoir has been claimed.

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Most of the time match-fixing is not an individual act. There are countries, groups, bookies or gamblers, team management, players, referees or umpires. To investigate match-fixing using link analysis we start from the top node means country and go down to the last node means players. Link analysis often explores associations among different object of different types. For investigating match-fixing application we might examine relationships among suspects, including their home addresses, hotels they stayed in, wire communication received and sent, flight schedules, hotel check in and outs, telephone numbers they dialled or received during the suspected time.

All these things have been checked for each and every node, for players to bookies to team management and so. The ability of link analysis is to represent relationships and associations among objects of different types has proven crucial in helping us in investigating comprehend complex webs of evidence and draw conclusions that are not appeared from any single piece of information. Link analysis can be used to expose the underlying patterns and behaviours pertaining to match-fixing investigators. As we know link analysis is a data mining technique that reveals the structure and content of a body of information by representing it as a set of interconnected, linked objects or entities.

For a match-fixing investigator first analysis the match, then look for individual acts of different nodes. Investigate the hotel check in and out of each node, telephone records, meetings, bank details, money in and out. These all Beeb examined by link analysis and look for some common nodes. Linkage data is typically modelled as a graph with nodes representing suspects of interest to the analyst and the links representing relationships and transactions. Like collection of telephone data with phone numbers, times of calls, and duration of calls. By collecting all these information and putting all this on a graph representing each with nodes and link them, it will be much easy to investigate the match-fixing process.

Q-2. Write an essay on each of the following topics: Industrial Espionage; Executive Fraud; Cyber Extortion.

INTRODUCTION:-

One of the troubles within grounds of information pledge is that there are few creditable threats of information systems. We also find problems, troubles of facts compilation during this part, with no departing into facts there are many reasons to believe that many people do not realize that the intrusion occurred and that many of those was not reported so that the growth of numerical stand permits.

The US National Counter intelligence Centre (NACIC) which afterwards turn into the agency of the state Counter intelligence exclusive (ONCIX) have be staling yearly towards Congress ever since 1995 on strange financial compilation plus industrialized spying. industrialized spying is performed into two major types. Here short, the reason of spying is in the direction of obtain facts or information concerning organizations. This might comprise the attainment of academic possessions such as industrialized production data, ideas, methods and procedures, recipes and formulas.

Or acquisition of any protected information and operational data such as customer databases, pricing, research and development, sales, pricing, marketing, policies, quotes, design strategies or marketing or change the composition and production. It also involve specific activities like trade secrets, bribery, extortion, and technology watch. As well as orchestrate a trade organizations and espionage, governments may exist as goals. For instance establish the conditions of the contract bidding for the governments to underbid each other bidders.

industrialized spying is mainly usually linked by technology-heavy businesses, as well as PC software plus hardware, biotechnology, aerospace, telecommunications, hauling plus mechanism skill, automobiles, machinetools, energy, fabrics plus covering furthermore so on. Silicon Valley, be well-known near live one of the world’s mainly aimed regions intended for spying, however, inside result, some business by information of employ to contestants maybe an objective.

RISK FACTORS:-

The main danger issues for failure of confidential data and academic possessions amongst every one responding corporations be previous workers, overseas players, domestic competitors, on-site freelancers. Hackers may too be quoted the same as a main cause of alarm in several regions. The area most frequently cited risk of incident was reported by companies are research and development(49%), client records plus linked statistics (36%) and fiscal statistics(27%).

The number of incidents reported the order was

customer data.

Strategic plans

financial data.

Research and development.

THE EFFECT OF LOSS:-

Among all companies the biggest impact of the loss of confidential information increased legal costs and lost income. designed for big organisations defeat cut-throat benefit be the mainly grave trouble. For Financial companies the most annoying problem was embarrassment and used for high-tech organisations vital subject be the defeat of passive benefit. The evaluation of the order or the value of logical possessions be the liability of the patent and in home advice who stand their judgements of competitive gain, productivity plus investigate with growth criterion.

USE OF COMPUTERS AND INTERNET:-

Computers have become an essential practice of industrial espionage and large amount of information can easily be copied and transmitted. Computer used to have augmented quickly in spying during the 1990’s. Data have be frequently taken away or duplicated as of unwatched pc’s. The term bag-op is used in the tavern employees to contact information, such like laptops, tavern rooms, data may be taken away in shipment, taxis, baggage counters on the airfield baggage carousels plus trains and so on.

EXECUTIVE FRAUD:-

A disgruntled employee of a large international company left a message on the fraud hot line of the company, indicating he had information about fraud conducted by a number of business leaders. Within hours, the third party independent of the fraud hot line has been contacted and the employee is dissatisfied with the initial information that is collected. Shortly thereafter, the president of the company’s audit committee informed the initial request. Such claims are not taken lightly in any case, but something about the caller and the information presented in the body a little extra credibility, he remained a firm conduct a full investigation.

Within 24 hours, the firm has been the team of investigators to the site. The first efforts of investigators were to meet the disgruntled employee, or ant other information related to fraud. The information collected at this meeting suggested that the amount of fraud is easily in millions of dollars.

Early data indicate that several key leaders of the business potential conspirators in the conspiracy to inflate company revenue to increase corporate profit and therefore, the annual salaries and bonuses to executives. The lawyer representing the firm hired to conduct the survey claimed responsibility for leading the investigation. In a large investigation team, composed of over 20 financial accountants, tax accountants and corporate lawyers, as well as computer forensic were together.

There were three objectives outlined in the test group;

To determine whether fraudulent activity has occurred.

To examine e-mail, internal communications and computer systems all potentially affected parties in an attempt to prove and/or documents in support of the alleged fraud.

To identify all the financial measure of the alleged fraud and knowing exactly how the restatements, which will surely be made.

The case study focuses on the second goal. What does work, assuming that investigators have discovered that a number of fraudulent activity took place. This is not a weak hypothesis, and we ensure that only the short and in the heart of the matter. We do not want to suggest, even in the current context of financial scandals, allegations of fraud, immediately, is the truth. These claims must be carefully considered in this case.

CYBER EXTORTION:-

Cyber extortion is an attack or threat of crime against a company in which the coupled with demand for money to prevent or stop the attack. Cyber extortion have many forms, initially, denial of service(DOS) attack were the most common method. In recent years Cyber criminals have developed enough knowledge to encrypt information from victim. The attacker then request money for the decryption key.

As the number of companies that rely on the internet for their business has increased, opportunities for Cyber extortionists also exploded. The likelihood of the recognition, seizure plus trial is less as Cyber extortionist generally operate from countires other than the preys plus the utilization of nameless financial statements plus bogus electronic post addresses. Cyber extortion can be lucrative, compensation of millions of dollars annually attackers. A typical attack is due to the demand of thousands of US dollars. Payment dose not guarantee that new attack not occurs by the same group or another Cyber extortionist group.

Coordinated efforts and high technology use, some Cyber extortionists found and some arrests has been made, prosecuted, sentenced to prison. However, according to some reports, most episodes Cyber extortion was unreported because victims do not want the publicity, and so, majority of reported attacks do not result in arrests.

Criminals groups be more and more with the internet as a instrument for extortion of cash from companies. Many of dispersed refutation of examination assaults happening in the world daily, plus it is vital to superior administration be alert of the extremely genuine danger of such an attack. As we explain that in current time, some corporations contain shifted their industry procedures online plus e-commerce have been a major basis of economic enlargement. Though the increase of the internet use has many advantages, also it includes a number of threats in the shape of bugs, hackers, malware, plus worms. Mainly businesses be conscious of these dangers plus suitable procedures and technologies, rather than lessen these. Although in current time, these dangers on the internet were made in a malicious and complicated way, bug scripting is not a hobby for youths by too a good deal of moment on their self, in its place of bugs may now printed in cyber-criminals stimulated organized solely for the cash.

EXTORTION: A RISING DILEMMA:-

Those illegals be more and more via the way named as dispersed denial of services(DDoS). DDoS assaults started amid the only reason of contravention the organisations net-site or server through attacking those as sachet of statistics, typically within the shapes of net appeal or electronic post. nothing like sole font assaults, the attacker compromises between several pc’s, which, consecutively, contaminate many of previous pc’s, you can work with agents of the attack. Those contaminated pc’s, recognized as “zombies” or “spam”, after that begin overflowing the prey’s site inquiries, the creation of an enormous flow of facts and eliminate the goals location, therefore stopping it as of giving a service.

BUSINESS AT RISK:-

The cost of a DDoS attack is important, and it is calculated to in excess of 10,000 place each day around the world have been attacked. DDoS extortion assaults be at first used next to online betting spots. Criminals groups to launch assaults to take the location downwards ahead of a large fair occasion, the smash up caused to the maximum. at the present, though, DDoS assaults maybe used towards extracting cash from every one types of business. The truth is that not a single corporation be secure. Lack of awareness is making businesses vulnerable.

THE FUTURE OF ONLINE EXTORTION:

Initially, the extortionist celebrated a good deal of success. The cost associated with the fight against the hackers usually exceeds the cost of extortion payment. So many online businesses declined and paid the ransom. Once the Betcris situation drain, online gaming companies have realized that they have no other choice. It is also recognized that the long term consequences of this war, extortion could very well be the optimal course of action. The lessons of recent years, the gaming industry have an interest in many other types of businesses. The attacks on these gaming sites.

Q3

(Stream Cipher) Investigate the use of the Berlekamp-Massy algorithm as a cryptanalysis tool.

Ans:

INTRODUCTION:

Nowadays many modern and reasonable secure communication systems like Personnel Computers, networks, SSL, mobile phone, Bluetooth etc. oblige a soaring pace binary encoding algorithms to encrypt messages that can be millions of fragment extensive and remarkable exhibit formation. The most frequently used encryption of this case is flow cipher. A flow cipher encryption explains the process itself which is to encrypt binary plain text one bit at a time. Mostly and easiest flow cipher utilized for encrypting binary plaintext is where a point intermission of a imitation accidental progression is connected with section two of XOR with the plaintext bit mt, with cipher text bit represented by ct. following expression shows the simple stream cipher explanation:

ct = mt ⊕ zt

where ⊕ denotes XOR(Exclusive OR). The decryption procedure could be articulated as:

mt = ct ⊕ zt

It should be noted from the equations that both encryption and decryption require to be capable of generating the alike key flow progression zt. The encryption key K is the preliminary beginning to begin the producer. Either the encryptor or decryptor has to deal with this key. The most frequent approach of shaping the streams is that zt be implemented to non-linear boolean function f of the invention of binary progressions by linear feedback shift register (LFSR’s) which is distinctive prehistoric polynomial.

CRYPTOGRAPHY:

Cryptography or cryptology is a local office of computer science and mathematics copping with data security and relevant matters mainly encryption and verification and applications like access monitor. Cryptography is an interdisciplinary matter, founded on some grounds. Before the start of 20th century, cryptography was principally worried about linguistic prototypes. As the result, the concentration has been boosted and cryptography is widely using mathematics. Cryptography is the subdivision of manufacturing as well but an extraordinary one, as it is only deal of energetic, intellectual and malicious disagreement.

Cryptography is the major means for data security and system such as access monitor and discretion. Cryptography has many implementations influencing the life on a daily basis of the security like electronic commerce, computer passwords and ATM cards, they all based on cryptography.

1.1 STREAM CIPHER:-

In cryptography, a stream cipher is a symmetric encryption algorithm, where plaintext digits encrypted one at the same time and succeeding digits differ throughout the procedure of encryption. Following figure show the encryption of each digit bases on the present situation, typically one bit at the same time.

Stream cipher corresponds to a diverse method to symmetric encryption as compared to block cipher. Block cipher working with great masses of digits in the fixed steady conversion. This feature is not constantly simple. Some functions apply block cipher prehistoric effectively as compared to stream cipher. Stream cipher is usually performed at superior speeds as compared to block cipher and connected to lower hardware complexity.

There are some popular stream ciphers

RC4, applied in Netscape’s Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol.

A5, in the global scheme for mobile message (GSM).

Bluetooth stream cipher, criterion of wireless short-term connectivity, particular of the blue tooth particular attention group.

Word-oriented tributary codes, appropriate pro software functioning (e.g. SNOW, SOBER, SCREAM). Tributary code forms of process of mass code (e.g. code response, productivity advice style of triple DES or AES).

CRYPTANALYSIS:-

Cryptanalysis is analysis or study the method to obtain the encrypted data, lacking right of entry towards undisclosed data usually needed to perform it. That typically entails ruling the underground input. Non-technically it is the exercise of contra-venting the cipher or demolishing the cipher other than that verdicts may also contain a particular method story. Cryptanalysis may also be used towards demote towards one effort en route for evading the safety of previous kinds of cryptographic algorithms plus procedures in common, not immediately encryption. though, cryptanalysis typically leave out the option so as to the assaults be not chiefly goal flaws real cryptographic ways such like dishonesty, bodily compulsion, theft, input classification plus hence on. Even though the last kind of assault be significant towards influence the safety of pc’s plus extra effectual then usual cryptanalysis.

THE BERLEKAMP-MASSEY ALGORITHM:-

The linear difficulty of dual sequences of the span of the smallest LFSR that can be produced in the series. For a series it is also suitable to use an enciphering succession inside a tributary code it be vital so as to it have a adequately big linear difficulty. Readily available are two shapes of linear difficulty, worldwide linear difficulty endless dual series in the same period, and the limited linear difficulty of dual series of limited span.

Any finite binary sequence of period p can be generated by linear reappearance of span p otherwise fewer. The linear difficulty of the smallest series of such a recurrence is to establish the series. This is equivalent to saying that the linear complexity is the span of the smallest LFSR to make the series. The berlekamp-massey algorithm be an effectual process for searching the shortest length LFSR of a known limited series. If the linear complexity is m, the algorithm requires at least 2m bit series. If the encryption key has the small linear complexity, then it will be replicate to short LFSR. This is not desirable, therefore, the encryption key must has a large linear complexity.

The following is the berlekamp-massey algorithm that is expert in the distinctive dual limited grounds F2 and GF(2). The parts 0 plus 1 in the ground processes + as well as – is the similar plus go round to be the only possessions elite OR operation(XOR). * The development worker is a consistent and process. The distribution operator increases to the personality operation i.e. the area defined in the for the dividing by 1 and x/1=1.

Let s0, s1,s3,…..Sn be the bits of stream.

F(x) ← 1 B(x) ← 1 D ← 1

L ← 0 b← 1 N← 0

If N=n, Stop.

If d=0, then D ← D+1 and got

if d ≠0 and 2L>N, then F(x) ← F(x)-dB-1xDB(x)

D←D+1

if d ≠0 and 2L≤N, then

T(x) ← F(x) {temporary storage of F(x)}

F(x) ←F(x) – dB-1xDB(x)

L←N+1-L

B(x) ←T(x)

B ← d

D ← 1

N ← N+1.

This section describes the execution of the berlekamp-massey algorithm to discover the linear complication of a mentioned series. Two new methods for encrypting data stream are, an attack first known attack using the combination part of the assumption that the data are a major threat to the right answer. The second method, an attacker combines part of the discovery of unknown behaviour (truth table), the combination of the algorithm into two parts. Once upon a time, we look for the fact table of the connecting element, we, afterwards, discover the preliminary principles of the record keeping part or drawing a map combining some functions to help you reverse engineering algorithm for reconstruction and participate in the combines.

There are mostly two algorithms used:

Algorithm A

Take the digits of b with highest (conditional) probability

p* as a guess of the sequence a at the corresponding

positions.

Approximately n digits are required to find a by

solving linear equations.

Computational complexity: O(2cn), 0 < c < 1, i.e.,

complexity is exponential. c is a function of t and

N/n.

Example: c = 0.012 if p = 0.75 and N/n = 100.

Algorithm B

1. Assign the correlation probability p to every digit

of b

2. To every digit of b assign the new probability p* .

Iterate this step a number of times.

3. Complement those digits of b with p* < pthr

(suitable threshold).

4. Stop, if b satisfies the basic relation of the LFSR,

else go to 1.

The number of iterations in 2. and the probability

shreshold in 3. have to be adequately chosen to

obtain maximum correction effect.

CONCLUSION:-

It can be concluded that as a consequence of applying the methods under study:

encryption stream is not recommended to use confidentiality because the stream cipher is vulnerable

to prevent a planned attack suggested that the number of LFSR is a part that must go over the capability to carry out the algorithm, which refers the number of LFSR must be above 20 with current computing ability.

Q.4.

(Artificial Intelligence) Investigate the use of Expert Systems as a tool in security systems. Give examples and references to support your arguments and concluding remarks.

EXPERT SYSTEM:-

The definition of an expert system is a computer program that simulates thought processes of a human expert to solve complex problems of decision in the specific field. The characteristics of expert systems that make them different from traditional programming and traditional harvest support tools are explained later. The growth of expert systems has been continue several years ago. Continued growth, many new and exciting applications appear. A system of peer review works as an interactive system that responded to questions and inquiries, recommendation and usually helps in decision making. Expert systems advice and guidance on a wide range of activities, computer-based diagnostics, medical surgery etc.

Various definitions of expert systems proposed by several authors. A general definition that describes the intended functions of experts systems:

“The expert system is a computerized interactive decision tool that the use use of facts and heuristics to solve the problems of a difficult decision based on knowledge from the expert.”

The expert system can be considered a computer simulation of human experts. Expert systems is an emerging technology in many areas as possible applications. Applications move from MYCIN, used in medical diagnose infectious diseases in blood, to XCON, used to configure the computer systems. These expert systems have been very good. Most expert systems applications fall in the following categories:

identification and interpretation.

Plan

Diagnosis

Planning

Designing

Monitoring

Debug and test

Education and training

Controlling

Applications that are computation and deterministic, is not good candidates for expert systems. The traditional decision-making, such as spreadsheets are very mechanically, they solve problems. Work based on mathematical operators and logical in their execution, and receives one and only one static solution for a data set. Calculation intensive most demanding applications extremely rigorous to better manage traditional tools for decision support or traditional programming. The best application candidates for heuristics expert systems or expert problems. Following are fundamentals of expert systems:

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Traditional computer programs are based on facts knowledge, the convincing power of computers. However, the people, solve problems based on a mixture of facts and heuristics. Heuristics knowledge composed of intuition, conviction and logical conclusions, the unchallenged power of the people. An expert systems for success are those that combine facts and heuristics, and thus unite the human knowledge computer to solve problems.

SPECIAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES:-

Expert systems are usually written in specific programming languages. The languages such as LISP and PROLOG development expert system simplifies the encoding process. The big advantage of these languages over traditional programming languages is the simplicity. In addition, elimination or substitution of the new regulation and memory management capabilities. A feature of some programming languages required for expert systems work are as follows:

Efficient mixing of the whole and real variable.

Good procedures for memory management.

Extensive data manipulation routines.

Incremental compilation.

The memory architecture tagged.

Optimization of environmental systems.

Procedures for effective research.

 

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