Technologies become an essential part of a normal human life today. Emerging technologies are transforming society and businesses dramatically since last twenty years. In this paper we will discuss about current valuable technologies like Cloud computing its impact and its value in the world today. The reason behind selecting such topic is to demonstrate computing power and its capabilities as per requirements. Cloud Computing has changed the way of thinking about the cost, database, time and speed of the processes for any new application to the world.. Robotics in Surgery selected as the second technology. Now robotics has its great history in the industries. Robotics has proven that such machines can replace mass human efforts. But the topic to be discussed is why robotics used in medical science? Was there any essential need for robots which work with experienced surgeons in operation theatre!?Yes it is true that some of the medical robots are proven really useful in the surgery field. As a coin is having two sides, one is good and one is bad, we have to consider all the good and pitfalls of these technologies in these paper.
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Today, whole world is being compact with the use of technology and Science. Emerging Technologies have achieved a great pick in the world of Technology Science. Here in this paper two important technologies to be discussed, Cloud Computing and Robotics in Surgery. The value of Cloud Computing in terms of Businesses and society should be clear to all the users of this particular technology. More over at the Second topic of discussion is Robotics in Surgery, this particular technology is really needed to be discussed as it is having number of opponent questions against it. Robotics in Surgery is a great technique of high initiative cost, risky performance but still great demand in Surgery market today!
2. Emerging Technology # 1
Computer technology usage is growing worldwide. Cloud Computing is one of the technologies which has given a new hope to whole world to save overall cost and performance of the computing anywhere. The best technical definition of Cloud Computing is given by NIST and Cloud Security Alliance.
They have said that Cloud Computing is a model which enables an on-demand, convenient network access to shared pool of configurable computer resources for example Servers, Database Storages, Networks, Applications and Services.
All these can be done rapidly with the minimum management effort or service provider interaction.
In this paper the effects and usage of Cloud Computing on Business and Society is included. The overall performance of Cloud Computing and its future is also discussed.
Above image shows how cloud computing works, what facilities it provides, though this is an imaginary image server, database, applications do not exists in clouds like this!
Lower cost and centralized infrastructure
Peak load capacity increases
Dynamic allocation of cpu ,storage and network band width
Consistent performance (Reference 1)
It consists of 3 layers as syatem level, middleware and user level.
System Level contains cloud resources as Virtual machine, VM management and Deployement
Middleware contains as both user and company middle wares. In company middlewrae its functions as admission control. Pitching,SLA managementExecution mangement, Accounting and Billing. And user middleware contains programing.
User Level contains cloud applications such as social computing ISV, Scientific and etc...
2.1 Cloud Computing Impact on Business
If Cloud Computing has achieved a great impact after it got the support from Amazon, IBM and Google after 2007. Cloud Computing can be used as different service models like,
There is a great survey done on IT businesses worldwide to run their business.
Infrastructure as a Service- As this service Cloud Computing provides capability to provision storage, networks, processing and other computing resources as well. It also offers huge number of customers worldwide to deploy and run any arbitrary software which might includes OS and applications as well. Cloud Computing puts all these operations on third party! There are options to minimize the impact.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Another form of service model is Platform as a Service(PaaS)- As this service Cloud Computing provides to deploy onto the Cloud infrastructure itself. Customer might have used different programming languages, different tools to implement application by the provider but regardless they can manage their application on Cloud so easy! This service enables user to have their application Availability, Great Confident privacy and security, Data privacy and Concerns around any e-discovery.
Another Service model is Software as a Service(SaaS) which enables user to run their applications on cloud infrastructure. Applications can be used by various internet users worldwide but it is top secret that data comes from where? Where original application resides? Who owns the application? Etc.
Moreover Cloud Computing provides different models for privacy as well such as, Private model : Hosted at coalition facility or in a enterprise data centre
Public mode l: Provide service to multiple customers
Hybrid model : Combination of both Public and Private models and effective when both are located in same facility.
On worldwide business which is based on Computing and Internet, Cloud Computing has been successful on a wide scale. In the year 2007 IBM and Google Inc decided to teach distributed computing to Computer Science students on large scale. A Google software engineer, Christophe Biscigli tried to evaluate problems which deals with computer cluster and terabytes of data. More than 1600 processors were included in that studies run by two major computer companies. After that Amazon Inc and many other companies has started to use private clouds to manage their large scale database and hardware.
2.2 Cloud Computing Impact on Society
When things come to Society, we have to think Cloud Computing in a vast relation. It is fact that Cloud Computing has changed the traditional way of computing and has served a great technology to the world. But still it is quite important that is Cloud Computing is beneficial to the society as well? Answer is most probably yes but still research is going on.
As above image shows Cloud Computing also have some negative aspects as well along with more positive aspects. At once side it is highly scalable and really efficient for most of the application than other side its legging behind a step in Security level. Encapsulation and change management is possible with Cloud Computing but reliability is not satisfactory. Moreover next generation architectures are also possible along with vast choice and agility but at the same time lack of control is also exists. In society all these things are important. Yes it is true that in education Cloud Computing has served great things for students.
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Though Cloud Computing is achieving high standards day by day still there are questions which it has to prove in its future.
High Storage capacity
Easy to expand(Reference 6)
Loss of data (Reference 7)
Security (Reference 8)
Emerging Technology #2
3. Robotics in Surgery
Health safety is always being a priority of all human being around the world. Robotics is a vast subject of Computer Science and may be used in Medical Science as well! During late 1980s robots were assisted first time to the surgery. It is acceptable that robots are used in automotive or manufacturing sectors but in medical science it is quite strange. Robotic are best suited in ORTHOPAEDIC procedures such as knee or hip replacements.
Robotics is an essential part of medical science today not only for surgeons but also for patients. Though it has increased Cost and liabilities issues against the business and society, most of the great surgeons have positive aspects about such Medical Robots in Surgery. Here in this paper it will be explained how Medical Robots are used in surgeries, medical and paramedical treatments, special child educations etc.
3.1 Robotics in Surgery ââ‚¬" Impact on Business
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Before we discuss about Robotics in Surgery and its impact on Business, there are some questions which are really important for Medical robotics and its future.
Why Robots should be used in Medical Surgery
Are Medical Robots are more skill full than a great experienced surgeon?
Who will be responsible if any mistakes happened by such Robots during surgery?
No one is still 100% sure about its liability.
Still Medical Robots are striving for perfection.
Though number of questions are appears against the performance and existence of medical robots, today in medical science the use of such robots is increased obviously. There are number of barrier against such technologies like, Surgical barrier, High Capital Cost etc.
Today in all over the world robotics usage is growing as it has been proven that medical machines have significantly changed the way of treatment at each areas of human body.
Robots can be useful in so many ways in medical science, Time Utilisation, Perfection, Speed, Accurate etc.
A French consortium has developed a robot which is having real probe as its end-effectors and master interface with a virtual probe. Such information does two things Transmits motion and force information bidirectional. Now such slave robot is used to examination of a remote place.
Medical Robotics having great impact on business as we discussed here, but there are number of great positive aspects of Medical Robots
3.2 Robotics in Surgery ââ‚¬" Impact on Society
Robots are also used for special education purposes.
A special education of children and rehabilitation is possible with the use of robotics. Robots which can be controlled using the movements of the body, voice commands or interactive controls.
Robots also used to help Deaf and Blind. People who are both deaf and blind Dexter is really useful which works on hand communication. Such robots controlled by typing on a keyboards or with the use of special telephones. Thus robotics technology is quite successful in producing important tools for rehabilitation, medical surgeries, and medical training as well.
Now question against Medical Robots from Society is there true need of such robots in surgery? The simple answer is yes. But why it is needed? There are number of questions against medical robots but answer can be achieved only when people see its amazing results. Surgical barrier to the robots is to protect the job of surgeons? If more and more medical robots will come into the picture soon than number of highly experienced or newly trained surgeons have to leave their jobs? But at the other side if patients might get better treatment in less time as compared to before!
High Initial cost is also a question from society, medical science should spent such big amount of money behind such medical robots or they should utilise it at other place. But the answer is without investment no achievements.
All the benefits of robotic surgery brings heavy prices with it. For example an initial cost of each Vinci Surgical System is 1.5 million dollars. Which results in the increased costing about $100,00. Though costs increased of surgeries it also increases the complexity of the surgeries and the risk as well.
Safety for environment
Unit cost in the long run and batch
Accuracy, repeatability and work quality
Using advance technologies like sensors and vision cameras.
Cost constraint is investment
Replacement of Labour in populated places
Degeneration of human skills and capacity (Reference 12)
As here both the technologies discussed with the consideration of Business impact and Society impact as well. It is clear that Cloud Computing has successfully changed the IT/Computing businesses Strategies, their overall investments and as a result profit and performance as well. But there are some technical and social issues are also related with Cloud Computing technology and its future. Robotics in Surgery has got support from number of great experienced surgeons, Doctors and medical research institutions, but as it is highly costly and risky as well there is a question to apply such robots in any minor or major medical Surgeries or not? In the relation of technology Robotics Technology has done really great performance, it helps surgeons in operation theatre, it also helps patients as well. Thus Cloud Computing and Robotics in Surgery both are always in issues but still because of their performance their demand is growing for sure.