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A protocol is a set of rules which control and enable how data is transferred through the Internet . This would involve different media, how it is compressed and presented over the Internet, sending messages through the e-mail as well as the behavior of a hardware connection such as a web cam or microphone. Most protocols used in the context of communications or networking are layered together into protocol stacks where instructions are listed and divided among the different protocols in the stack.
Why use Protocols?
Protocols are used to control how computers interpret information and how they can send and receive information over the Internet. You get a variety of different protocols which work together to ensure successful communication between different computers over a network. Without protocols, communication over the Internet and web would not exist. They can determine small things like which language to use, indicate the physical address of a computer,how to communicate over the web through e-mail and how to transfer files from one computer to another.
Different protocols and there uses
Internet Protocol Suite (IPS)
IPS is a set of of communication protocols used to send and receive data effeciently and accurately. The IPS is set out in layers mainly the application layer,the Transport Layer, the Internet Layer and the link Layer. The application layer Categorizes protocols and methods into process to process communication. The transport layer establishes a direct host to host communications transport medium for applications. The Internet layer connects a multiple of networks with each other through gateways and the Links layer is the lowest layer in the IPS. It is a group of methods that only operate on a hosts link. The two main protocols in the IPS would be the Internet Protocol and Transmission Control Protocol
Internet Protocol (IP)
IP works by exchanging pieces of information called packets. A packet is a sequence of bytes and consists of a header and a body. The header describes the packets destination as well as the routers until it reaches its final destination. The body contains the data which the IP is transmitting. This protocol is used for transferring data across a packet switched internetwork using an Internetwork Protocol Suite. This protocol defines addressing methods and structures for packet data encapsulation.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
This is one of the main original components of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP operates at a higher level concentrating in only two systems, Web browser and a Web server. TCP controls segment size,flow control, the rate at which data is exchanged and network congestion. With network congestion packet data can be lost,duplicated or delivered out of order. TCP detects these problems and fixes them apropiately by retransmitting,rearranging out of order packets as well as helping to minimize network congestion. TCP is used by the World-Wide-Web, E-mail, File transfer Protocol, Streaming media and file sharing in a network. With segment size TCP takes data and breaks it up into segments or sequences of bytes so they can travel through different paths in the network to get to there destination faster. When the destination computer recieves them the TCP layer reassembles the individual segments and makes sure they are all correctly in order and error free.
E-Mail protocols allow client users to access their e-mail and send and receive e-mail messages over the Internet from the ISP. You get two main E-mail protocols that alow you to access your mial box accounts and retrieve e-mail messages from your ISP namely the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) and Post Office Protocol (POP). Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to send E-mail messages.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
IMAP is one to the two most successful Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval. This protocol is used to transfer e-mail messages from an ISP such as g-mail to a client. IMAP supports both offline and online modes of operation so you can leave messages on the server of the ISP till the user deletes them. IMAP can allow multiple clients to access the same mailbox at a time. Most e-mail clients support either POP or IMAP to retrieve messages but fewer ISP's support IMAP. IMAP also allows clients to access their mail store where they can store copy's of messages. This acts as a temporary cache. IMAP is usually used in large networks such as large college or business mail systems.
Post office Protocol (POP)
POP is the second of the most used protocols for e-mail retrieval. POP provides basic e-mail functionality such as retrieving mail from the ISP and can delete it on the server,it can ndicate whether new mail has arrived but no yet retrieved or to look at bits of messages to see if they worth retrieving.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
SMTP is a text based protocol used to send messages to a mail server over the internet. It is a delivery protocol only but also has a feature where it can initiate a mail queue processing on a server.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
HTTP uses a set of rules for transferring files such as text,images,audio,video and other multimedia on the world wide web. When a user opens their Web browser the user is indirectly making use of HTTP. HTTP is the protocol used to display hypertext pages which is used a lot in the world wide web. When a user types the command http:// into his address bar and a web site after that this tells the web server that where ever the web site is typed after the http:// is hosted that the user is requesting a hypertext page. The server finds the hypertext page and sends it back to the user using the Hypertext Transport Protocol.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
This is the standard protocol used to transport and manipulate data files between a local network or over any system reachable over the Internet. It is the most simplest and most reliable methods of file sharing over the Internet used mostly to upload or download files from a web server. These files can be transported from a computer to a web server,updating a website and transferring files from a computer to computer over a network. It is an application layer protocol that uses TCP and Telnet protocol services to transfer large amounts of data.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
DNS is a protocol system that translates IP addresses into host names and domain names on the Internet or the local networks. The reason for this is that it makes it easier for users to find the websites they are looking for,so instead of typing out the IP address of the website the DNS protocol makes it easier by converting the IP addresses to domain or host names. When the URL of a website is typed into a web browser it is given to the DNS which translates the IP address to the name of the website and returns the information to the client for example you would have www.organisation.com the DNS would convert this into the IP address 220.127.116.11 where the web would recognize it and send the information back to the user.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
IRC protocol is used to allow group communication between different users where messages are sent between users. The basic structure of the IRC communication of sending messages is through channels. A user would going a channel to communicate with other users. Different channels would be found in a server It was developed on systems using TCP/IP network protocols. IRC connects to other IRC servers which expand and creating a larger communication network.