Cognitive Network Security

3446 words (14 pages) Essay

24th Jul 2017 Information Technology Reference this

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Introduction:

The rapid development of various communication and wireless technologies had led to ultimate spectrum insufficiency. This may cause a great spectrum extinction thereby not allowing new wireless services to be installed. To overcome this great spectrum disaster and to optimally use the underutilized bands, a new technology so called cognitiveradio evolved. This technology scampers the software programs thereby helps cognitive user to look for spectrum holes, pick the best among them, work jointly in coordination with other users and do not disturb the owner of spectrum on arrival[1].The members do stay connected in an ad-hoc manner and there is no guaranteed network architecture. This makes the privacy issues more intricate than in conventional wireless devices. [2]. The medium of transport is free air, any adulteration of data can be done without much being noticed by the sufferer and at the worst case, the data signals are even jammed. Establishing security in these networks is a risky task because of its inimitable quality. [4] The innate temperament of it has made it an open play ground for attackers.

There are four layers in a cognitive network out of which Physical layer is the lowermost layer and various attacks are feasible here .The main focus is on attacks in these layers since it is the common layer and has same compatibility with all other devices. The rapid development of technology has led to a new attack so called Primary User Emulation Attack wherein the imitation of spiteful user as a primary transmitter occurs to deceive the secondary users and gain access over the white space.

Better functioning of the Cognitive network is affected to a great extent if this Primary User Emulation Attack is severe.[3]Earlier methods and the most primitive are cyclostationary and the energy detection ones [11]. The first technique is based on the fact that the signals from primary users are periodic and do have regular cyclostationarity property. The second method involves comparison of energy level of the signal with a preset threshold. [10].These methods are already bypassed owing to the rapid growth of technology. It can be done either by impersonating the primary transmitted signal or high power signal to confuse the energy detector [9].

Thus to avoid the problem of PUEA, we need a trustable method to verify the arrival of primary user .One such method is verification of licensed user by means of biased reaction signalling[6]. The other technique involves LocDef , where we use localization technique by non interactive technique [7]. We can also use Public encryption systems thereby ensuring the trustworthy communication[5]. Primary user has a closely placed helper node which plays the role of a bridge thereby enabling of the verification of the primary user’s signals using cryptographic signatures and authentic link signatures.[8].There are hand off techniques meant for secret communication of sharing session keys between the client and the router [12].

We do add the tag for authentication in a transparent way so as no to interfere with the primary receiver but still maintain authenticity with the cognitive user. We can add this tag in parity bits of the codeword or in the modulation scheme .[13].But to make this signature embedding accurate, error control codes like convolutional codes, turbo codes or alamauti codes can be used. .A convolutional encoder is a linear predetermined-state device with n algebraic function generators and K stage shift register. The binary input data, is shifted as b bits at a time along the registers. Decoding can be done by either sequential decoding, maximum likelihood or feedback decoding[15]. In case of turbo codes, two RSC elementary codes are in a parallel organization. Maximum A Posteriori algorithm is used for decoding it in iterative process[16].In a highly noisy environments single error control codes do not have high coding gain. In order to improve this concatenated codes are preferred.[14] Hence to cope up with the FCC regulations, we proposed a method in which the authentication tag is embedded onto the data signal by the helper node after encoding and the comparative study of which concatenated codes serve the best to reduce the bit error rate has been discussed.

II. PROPOSED METHOD:

2.1)HASH ALGORITHM:

Procedure:

Message is Padded in such a way that the length of message matches to 896 modulo 1024 . In certain cases ,the length may match yet the padding becomes additional. We do add a binary bit 1 followed by binary 0s to make the desired length. Depending upon the actual message size, we may have n number of bits padded where n=1 to 1024.We do assume that the message after padding is an unsigned integer of 128 bits and output of earlier two steps is a 1024 bit integer in order to calculate the length of message. Eight registers each of capacity to hold 64 bits (p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w) are needed to grasp the 512 bit results momentarily .This 512 bit output is carried over as an input to the consecutive stages. For the first stage, the previously stored transitional hash output is taken. On processing the padded message of 1024 bits, we get 64 bit as input per round. So to maintain the security and avoid repetitions, we do use a constant to point to the round number out of 80.After completion of 80 rounds, the final stage result is fed back to the first block until the message gets over. Thus we need (Oi-1) to produce Oi where I is the stage number.

2.2)METHOD OF EMBEDDING:

C:UsersHarini MuraliDesktopbeamernew.PNG

We assume that the primary transmitter and the helper node share almost the same geological location and the helper node has a secret communication with the secondary users there. The primary transmitter on arrival generally transmits a data signal to its intended primary receiver. Since the primary transmitter has the highest priority and in no way it should be interfered we use the helper node to embed this security tag. The primary transmitter encodes the data sequence, modulates and transmits the signal. The data sequence after encoding is modulated and being transmitted by the primary transmitter. The helper node here repeats the signal and the hashed output is being embedded by it .Here the embedding is done in such a way that the tag to data ratio is comparatively low. Encode the data sequence to form N code words and each codeword contains p bits. We get an authentication tag by splitting the hash function output obtained earlier into p bit blocks. The tag thus obtained is substituted in the place of first p bits of the total N code words obtained. We do obey the regulations as per FCC since this tag embedding task is solely performed by the helper node. At the receiver end the authentication tag is retrieved and checked for authenticity. This tag verification is being done by the Cognitive Radio user upon reception since we did assume that the key for hash had been exchanged privately earlier. If verification is successful, the task is suspended and secondary user looks for any new white space.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

BER VALUES FOR CONVOLUTIONAL CODES:

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Before embedding

10323

8506

6713

5111

3611

2440

1463

788

361

After embeddin

10324

8511

6720

5118

3613

2445

1465

791

363

a2.PNG

BER VALUES FOR TURBO CONVOLUTIONAL CODES:

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Before embedding

10201

8385

6645

5065

3602

2428

1435

732

340

After embeddin

10264

8530

6793

5210

3716

2460

1484

750

342

BER VALUES FOR CONVOLUTIONAL-ALAMOUTI CODES:

C:UsersHarini MuraliDesktopa1.PNG

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

CONVO-ALAMOUTI before embedding

6114

4879

3609

2639

1778

1153

740

410

252

CONVO- ALAMOUTI after embedding

6120

4883

3617

2645

1783

1160

743

441

254

BER VALUES FOR TURBO-ALAMOUTI CODES:

C:UsersHarini MuraliDesktopa.PNG

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

TURBOALAMOUTI before embedding

6049

4815

3572

2618

1690

1124

724

395

249

TURBO- ALAMOUTI after embedding

6055

4823

3580

2635

1695

1135

728

398

251

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