As a technology refugee who travel place to place in order to curious of new thing I made this project. It is honor to mention that this project output of individual hard work of me. This document begins the story of my research project. In the first chapter I’ am explaining the scope of the research and some details about KCC car park. In addition, it will demonstrate the social ethical aspect of the research approach. In second chapter preliminary investigation will describe the program life cycle module which I ‘ am using in the topic of planning. The work beak down structure will demonstrate the time line of each and every activates I did. Feasibility study sessions are described in details such as legal factors, technical factor, operational factors and economical factors. In the economical factor the cost benefit analysis and breakeven point highlighted. In the chapter two fact finding is shortened out such as interviews, questioners and document reviews. Furthermore, it will fulfill with use cause diagram and sequence diagram of the current car parking system. The comparing diagrams will helpful to reader to identify the questioners’ responses. In the next chapter under system design will explain to the reader about the architecture of the design and prospered system diagrams such as ER, Class and sequence. There the place where I mention my programming language selection and database selection.
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On the other hand, the development chapter is covered with information of my electronic gadgets I am using and how I made them. It also describes the login of my system and about sensor technology. My prototype car park module photographs are attached in it for further referring. The black box testing chapter helps to test the electronic devises and computer program. Under implantation it describe the way I implement my system, Moreover, it will fulfill with user manual.
In end of the report SWOT for the proposed system, research out come and the conclusion are attached.
Technology is developing time to time and many new things investigating to make human life easier. As an IT student at Middlesex University United Kingdom I decided to do my final year project which called Automated Car Parking System. It can be place where the category of research because this will be a new innovating system to the Sri Lankan Car Parking buildings. This project will be a combination of electronics and Information Technology. With the use of this system the driver can park his/her vehicle without wasting time inside of the car park. Briefly the system will guide the driver till he finds free space in the park. In the same way, the automatic billing system will calculate the parking fee with comparing time of enters and the time that vehicle left from the building.
In Sri Lanka we were having few public car parking buildings, among those Kandy having the largest car park. It named as Kandy City Center car park. It was having 3 floors including 20 levels. The ten-storied complex designed by K.M.C. Architects of Singapore has two floors underground and is the first building in Sri Lanka constructed in this manner. This is the only BOI approved project in Sri Lanka, which has been granted the “Flagship Status.” It can be connected to the Complex via an overhead bridge increasing the total car parking facility to around 1200 vehicles. Currently it was having computerized system which prints the bill but that system becoming very busy in rush hours. Myself as an example, I was waited long time to pay my bill and to find a free parking slot at the day of Kandy Dalada Payrahara. That day car park was full and we waited 30 min to drive out of car park. Then onwards I decide that someday I can give a positive solution using Information Technology which I already learn. Although this is a prototype project the logic which describe can be an advantage to real implementation. The way I communicated with the electronic device and computer will be handshake of this research. Moreover, the billing systems will makes this system in to self intelligent project. The sample car park environment which I make from wood and plastic will help me to explain my research. The microcontroller programming makes this project more interesting to the audios. The microcontroller chip which I programmed having the capability of interfacing USB of computer. USB communication is the method I used to connect with the computer and car park.
On the other hand, LDR (light Dependent Resistance) sensors will help to track the automatic vehicle detection in my project. The LED digital arrows of my prototype project will guild driver to a free parking space. So there will be less time wasted to park a vehicle inside of the car park.
This is a projects which automatically detect vehicles form the entry point of the car parking building. After LDR sensor detects the vehicle the system will print a parking slip to the driver. After driver get the printed slip my electronic arrows will guide the driver in to the free space of the car park. All the electronic devices and sensors which I made will be controlled from the centralized VB.Net 2005 made program. In addition, my program having the ability to handle automatic billing system which means the program will shows the parking fee of the vehicle when it comes to the exit point of the parking building. There will be USB data communication in order handshake with the computer. Each and every car parking space having a LDR sensor implemented. It uses to check the parking area is occupied or not. In the same way, automatic generated vehicle ID will helps the operator to display the parking fee in the exit point. In the current system there are two operators in the car parking building. One is on the entry point and other on is in the exit point. Nevertheless, in my system it does not need an operator to work on the entry point. The sensors will work as an operator.
Kandy city center is the popular because of Kandy Dalada Maligawa. The city Kandy is very famous all around of the world because of Dalada Maligawa and the Annual perahara. It also named as hill capital of Sri Lanka. Comparing other major cities in Sri Lanka Kandy is smaller in scale. City center car park is sub project of kandy city center shopping complex. The history of the project goes back to 1993. It tool one year to handover the necessary reports to the government approval. According to the engineers records it received the approval on the year 2001. The engineers plan was to finish the project of car parking and the shopping complex construction on the year of 2004. Ashley De Vass and Chandra Abeysinghe are the great architects behind this project. Their plan was to build this two building with the 100% eco-friendly and also their plan was to increases the cultural value of
the kandy city. Car parking building designs to park 890 vehicle at a one time. In addition, they target was the daily customers who parked their vehicles on the road side of the city area. The Kandy police where in a higher trouble because of city side parking people. This project was a positive answer for the police and the public. Engineers also had a plan to park 400 other vehicles on the top of the building. After this project the rules and regulation when up for the people who park their
vehicles close to their business premises. The management of the car park building was accepting 1 million per month. The parking building was planned to open 2days of the week. It only closed in poya days. There will be not a separate management to manage the parking as a result of that the parking building management went to kandy city center shopping complex management.
In the Kandy city center car park there are having a manual system where is takes the vehicle registration no as a primary key of the program. When a vehicle come to the entry point of the parking building the parking entry computer operator will generate a parking slip to the driver. Then driver has to search for free space himself by driving his vehicle around the parking building. It having 3 floors including many levels so going around 3 floors will waste of human valuable time. The current computerized system only having the capability of counting vehicles inside of the car park building. The billing section will handle the computer operator who stays near to the leaving point of the car park. The amount of payment depends on the time that the vehicle was inside. The 1st hour of the parking is cost Rs.20 and for the all exciding hours will charge up to 40 per hour.
Security issues will be less
Increase job opportunities
Customer satisfaction will be high because of human direct interference with customers
Computer virus issues will be less
Keeping a record of vehicle registration number will be advantage in security issues
Customers can find free parking space according to their choice
Maintains cost will be less
Computer literacy will not be a much issue to use current system
Less errors in billing
Cheating cannot be done because of human interference
Less Electricity usage
Privacy issues because of keeping vehicle registration number
Customers valuable time will be wasted in searching free space
Cannot face rush situation with the current system
Payment calculation will be slow
The waterfall model is a software development module where it has the flowing method. It makes the connection using step by step. If the developer wants to check for errors in the system they shouldhave to check stage by stage. It will be not easy way for developer. However, it is a simple way of life cycle modeling.
It is a way of functional requirement method. It takes place where you do not know the
beginning entire methods of a project. It allowed returning the development process of
clients and it has the ability of demonstrating the product. In the development section
it checks the client’s satisfaction about the project. For that it uses prototype module.
If client is satisfied, rest of terms will be done according to clients need.
I select “Object Oriented” as my Life cycle model
It reduces the complicity of the coding. Main reason that I select water fall module is that I can easily trouble shoot communication class in cause of error in analog to digital data communication.
Easy to study the institute
Easy to trouble shoot
Easy to access communication ports in computer
Every stage of life cycle can properly document & it will easy to handle the program
Due to organized structure it is easy to find the requirement.
Alternative project plans
Scope of the projects which I select as alternatives
Researching how I use IT into those alternative projects
Selecting best project topic with alternative project which I have in my mind
Advantages of Automated Car Parking system
Risk of my research topic
Selecting a parking building to implement my system
Collecting car parking system information from foreign countries
Technology risks which can generate
Discussing my ideas with final project group leader (module lecturer )
Planning project proposal document
Collecting information about Kandy City Center car park
Studying the environment of a car park
Need of the customers
Automatic billing system plan
Car guiding system plan
Highlighted area of the project
Electronic devices enrollment plan
Communication with the electronic devices and computer
Analog to digital converting technology
Sensor technology plan
Sample car park design plan
Legal feasibility study
Technical feasibility study
Operational Feasibility study
Car park document review
Self studying Area
USB data communication
JDM programming handle
Microcontroller programming with C++
Analog to digital electronic conversion
Interfacing USB in VB.Net
Protious electronic circuit design software
Pic C programming
Mikroc C programming
USB – Communication port conversion
Serial data communication
7-segment display handle
Interrupt handle using microcontroller
Programming & electronic circuits
Making LDR sensor circuits
Main Circuit board marking
USB cable detection C++ coding
PIC18F4550 microcontroller circuit
main power supply circuit
Power controlling circuits
USB output protection circuit
Digital data filtering program
Car park module design
Wires communication fixing
Dividing sample car park into 4 parking areas
Computer program and electronic devices
Overview of research
Organization background studying
The feasibility analysis is designed to determine whether or not, given the project environment, a project will be successful. A feasibility analysis may be conducted for a project with an emphasis on financial viability, environmental integrity, cultural acceptability, or political practicability. It is a determination as to the likelihood of success and a description of how that determination was achieved.
2.4.1 Legal Feasibility
Human privacy issues –
Taking the record of vehicles can be privacy issues for the customers. If those information passed to third party the risk will be high.
Unauthorized access to the system –
Legal issues will generate because of unauthorized access to the computerized system. If an unknown person hacked to the system he/she can get the customer records easily. For instance, it can be use to do target marketing.
Employees will lose the job –
Because of automated billing system the workload of the entry operator will reduce. It may be a risk to the employee job. According the human rights laws the legal issues will generate.
2.4.2 Technical Feasibility
Although Sri Lanka doesn’t have automated car parking systems many developed countries currently using advanced systems. It uses latest technology. For example, Urban city car parking area is one of the innovative product in present. Those technologies cannot be compared with the system which I proposed. Those having latest sensor technology and also it development cost is so high.
Urban city car park
This project is based on free space allocation system and driver guiding system to free space. Urban parking building always a busy place to drivers even if it has free space it is difficult to find that place for a driver. They will have to waste lot of time and fuel to find a free space. Bee parking card is the method they use to drive the automated system. It uses latest wireless technology Zigbee network. Bee card will guide the driver shortest possible time in to free space and also it does the communication with IR sensors which are implemented in each and every parking slot.
Then the card will display information and direction of available space or exit. Parking card, there is more useful information to be shown such as entry time, parking space number and parking fee. After the customer paid the parking fee the arrow will become direction to the exit.
Alternative technologies for car parking system
In my project I use LDR sensors to detect the vehicle but there are some possible technologies which can use as well.
Metal detectors can be use as sensors
Laser beams can be use
Can be use a mounted switch to get the vehicle pass
Artificial intelligent can be use
2.4.3 Operational Feasibility
Kandy KCC car park is the largest car park in central province. In Colombo there are many car parks but they are not using technology to guide cars inside. On the point of operational, It
will be a great advantage to Sri Lanka to have this kind of technology. Day to day busy people
are the target market with my system. Those individual does not like to waste their valuable time inside of car park to find a free space.
These are tangible benefit that I got because of my research project. I interested in electronic and computer programming but couldn’t get a chance to learn port interfacing. This project taught me many lesson about USB and serial communications. Moreover these are some new things which I learn because of my project.
I learn electronics subjects
Learn about digital and analog data communication
USB and Serial port programming using C++ and vb.net
Learn Microcontroller programming
Learn about sensor technology
7 segment display control
JDM programmer handling
This project guide intangible benefits which are listed down.
Interviews do not waste time to get information. It is the one of the best method that we can use to know information from an unknown person or organization. Analysts can discover the points of the topic easily. Problems and suggestion can be made out in a positive way. On the other hand, it will be official entrance to do project. The information you gather can be trusted because of human face to face communication. Can meet new people and also can make new contacts.
Here the analysts can collect data from large groups. Questionnaires could be Open-ended or Close questionnaires. Open-ended questionnaires are used to learn feelings, opinions, general experiences on process detail or problem. In it, questions are answered in their own words. Where as in closed questionnaires a set of prescribed answers are used and specific response have to be selected. This is a costly affair as the questions should be printed out.
This is a skill which the analysts have to develop. The analysts have to identify the right information and choose the right person and look at the right place to achieve his objective. He should have a clear vision of how each departments work and work flow between them and for this he should be a good observer.
4.1.1 Windows based system
The (ACP) Automated car parking system is only works as a windows application.
Besides that it requires dot Net 3.0 frame work to run the program. Other than that, 3 windows frames are attached with the program including the main program window. When programs activated first windows form will be top up for the user login. This project does not have many windows it does the communication with the electronic device and windows only with coding. Windows form will shows the output in a understandable way where it increases user friendliness of the program.
The issues will generate why shouldn’t I make this program in a way where the users
can access online. I stay away from the online based system because the electronic device data handling is hard task to make it online. The main reason is the security issues. Windows use to block the communication port when we trying to access computer USB port with the help of internet explorer. So to do that task I have make a
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another program which unblock the communication ports. The knowledge is less on m point of view to handle that kind of program. In the same way, the time period we have for our final project is not suitable to do an online based car parking system where it gets increases the research area. Nevertheless, I ‘am looking forward change and upgrade ACP system in to online based system in near future.
184.108.40.206 3-Tier architecture
It is an application in a window or online based program which represent three main
levels. These levels increase the reusability of codes. These are 3 architectures which
have includes in 3 tire design pattern.
The GUI layer, can also call as top layer is drive the all things in the program such as such as navigation and screen layout. For instance, windows pages, java scripts, animations and user controls are handling by this layer. The business layer handles all business rules of a program. In this architecture the data transmission will get complicated when it’s get connected with the data access layer and presentation layer. The database layer helps to connect the program with the database it makes the secured in data handling. Database layer is the place where the code generates such as database connection code, table quires and results sets. Database update
can be done using the database layer easily.
Architecture is so important in programming because it backbone of the program. Development issues, performances and future development issues can be handle easily with the comparing architecture. Errors handling and troubleshooting also is can done in a clear manner.
N- tier architecture also based on main 3 categories but those contagious separated in to sub fields. Each layer use to communicate only with the below layer. Upper layer will be responsible for the data of sending. Very little code has to be change in cause of changing the program. There can have separate servers to handle those layers. This architecture is useful in a change of function, if a function of a program has to change this layer will help to change those function without disturbing to other layers of the system. For example, by changing data access code from the business logic code, when the database servers change you only needs to change the data access code. Reason is the business logic code stays the same; the business logic code does not need to be modified.
“3-Tier Architecture” as my system design pattern
It is easily to trouble shoot the system. Main reason that I select 3-tier architecture is the performance of the system. It increases the data communication with the electronic device. In the same way, without the communication class the windows operating system does not allowed to access computer communication ports. So the 3-tier architecture is the best method that I can use to complete my project.
Java is programming language which enables user to write English words instead of machine codes. It also can call as high level language. Java platform base on C++ programming language it is the beginning of the java programming language. People use java because of many reasons such as reliability, secure and plat form independence. This the place where the object oriented programming language introduced. In present many mobile applications were written by java language. That is because of the less security issues. On the other hand, java programs can be run any of the operating system we have today. For instance, it will give the maximum results in windows based operating system as well as apple operating or Linux operating system. It does not care the operating system because it having own capability of running itself.
It is part of Microsoft .NET product group. According to the Microsoft it is also a object oriented programming language. It has more reliable features than visual basic previous version. This is a stand along program in visual studio 2005. This is a new way to interact with the windows operating system. It is also very easy to code and maintain. The coding complexity is lower than java. On the other hand, it having very user friendly graphical interface design tools where the programmer can use them
“VB.Net 2005” and C+ as my system programming language
The reason is Vb.net is the language I did my 2nd year final project. As our HND final project we 4 of my group members developed a system for insurance company in Sri Lanka. That project went successfully and we got many experience in programming language. Because this is research project I thought of not to change the useful language. I have the experience so it’s better get the maximum benefit from the experience I have.
On the other hand, I use C programming language to program the USB enable microcontroller chip 18F4550 which send data and receive data from the electronic circuit which I made. For c there are no alternative languages because it only support for c programming language.
“SQL2005” as my system database
Due to these advantages I select SQL. SQL database is component that we used to do our HND final project. So I thought that those experiences are well enough to handle my ACP system. In the same way, we use SQL2005 for many systems that we make so coming up with a new database is waste of time for my project.
I decided to make this prototype car park design to demonstrate my research in to the audios in positive way. It is having 2×3 feet scale of size. It took two months to finish the sample. Sample is based on regiform architecture. I mount sensors and arrow LED bulbs top of the surface. I ‘am hoping to use 4 little cars to demonstrate my project. In addition, the sensors of the sample car park can be deactivating using a manual system also. I use 5 white LEDs to maintain light of sensor. LDR sensor is light resistance device (sensor explanation check chapter 5) so it should have proper lighting system just above it. On other hand, another red LED in mounted in each parking slot for the purpose of guiding the driver.
In this chapter it will describe the development information and knowledge about ACP system. Moreover, it will describe the sensor technology and the how the data communication made with the device and the computer program which I made. In whole, the electronic device is made out of 4 sub circuits.
System main circuit
Main power supply to the system
It is a centralized main circuit which manages the data communication with the sensor and the computer. In networking we use router to route data packets to the correct destination. That is the best example for my main circuit. What it does is, it gets the sensor analog single on one end and in the other end of the circuit it covert those signal into digital signal where computer can understand. Basically I made this circuit because I was need of a system that I can get the digital output of an interrupt in the car park. How it made the interrupt when car cross the sensor that I will explain in below the topic of “Sensor technology”. However, not only electronic device but also it having a 40PIN micro chip which I programmed of the process of ACP system. This technology is called as microcontroller programming. ACP system process will drive with the help of 18F4550 USB compatible reprogrammable microchip. C is the language I used to program the microchip.
This is a technology which runs electronic embedded system. It has the internal memory which can memorize programs which we feed it. After programming a microcontroller into our need it will loop all function of the chip according to what we programmed. Internal or external oscillator will handle the data processing time. It also call as timer of the unit. In my system, I’ am using external oscillator as a timer. The main circuit crystal is the component which it does. Feeding programming was done by C programming. The software is PIC C complier. I write the necessary process in C and the software will convert in to HEXA DECIMAL file where the machine can understand. That HEX files were mounted to the microchip using JDM programmer. JDM programming is the device I use to program the HEX file in to microcontroller chip.
This device having flash cells for Electronic Erasable Programmable read only memory (EEPROM). It can stand for many erase and write cycles. It having 40 pins including USB input and power input. This pic is the only chip having inbuilt instruction to USB communication handling. In this chip I’ am using the 10 bit Analog to digital convert pins for sensor communication. Once the sensor gives signal the A/D converter will be activated and it will transfer the data to computer in digital format. This device voltage input is 5V. It will support internal oscillator as well as external oscillator. More information please refer to datasheet attachment in appendix B.
This is the component which support to microchip to read data. It generate timer externally and passed in to the chip. With the help of timer clock the chip will identify and separate data which are transferring. In addition, it helps to indentify the digital signal and analog signal.
In all kinds of digital analog communication there can have many disturbances. Those
disturbances can be names as noise in electronic. In my system sensor transfer a analog signal in to circuit telling that vehicle detected. That signal comes to the circuit with some noise. Those disturbance signals will generate errors in data processing. So to avoid those I use capacitor. Capacitor having the capability of filtering original signals without noise.
LDR is the sensor I used to detect vehicle in the car park. LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) having the capability of changing the resistance in dark and light. That is the login I’ am using in my system. I am mounting a LDR sensor on each and every parking space and also one in the entry point of the car park. It fixed in middle of the parking space where it get dark when car parked on top of the sensor. In my circuit the sensor gives different voltage in dark and light. For instance, when a car crosses the sensor I get the voltage output as 4.4 V. When car parking space empty the sensor output voltage is 0.2 V. This voltage output I directly connected to the Microchip. In the microchip I programmed it to function digital LED arrows, Cross and parking spaces by getting voltage different. I mounted white LED to just above of the parking sensor to maintain lighting. If not the sensor might made errors according to the weather condition.
Universal Serial Bus is the port that I used connect to computer. The microchip process all the data from the sensors and it will send data to computer in digital format. In the 18F4550 microchip the pin no 23(D-) and 24(D+) are specially allocated to connect USB cable. It transferring speed is higher than parallel communication. In my system I used I CDC method to access communication port of the computer. Although the device connected using USB the computer recognized the USB as COM 1 port. When I access the COM port from the VB.Net program I have to use a class call COM because the VB.Net does not allowed access communication port directly. Port reading can also test using the Hyper Terminal of the computer. Communication baud rate of my system is 9600 and I use 48000000 delay clock from the microchip.
The microcontroller wants 5V power and also 5 sensor circuit want the 5V power each
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