Advanced Metering Technology

2353 words (9 pages) Essay in Information Technology

24/07/17 Information Technology Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Abstract: This paper describes about the development of advanced metering and the power management system. Energy saving is the very important one in the world scenario. We need energy to do anything in this world. The demand of power is growing at a faster rate than the transmission capacity due to the increase in population growth and also increase in coal, fuel prices. To overcome the shortage of power supply, this paper provides an overview of wireless sensor network by managing an equal distribution of power to the consumers by using Zigbee technology and also to avoid the power theft problem. The Zigbee Digital Power meter (ZPM) which utilize the Wireless sensor network to send the power usage reading of the consumer node to the energy provider section. The energy provider side will display the energy unit consumed by the consumer in the LCD which placed in their homes. At the energy provider side they have the control to change priority of the devices when power distributed in low range.

Keywords: Power management system, wireless electric meter, Wireless sensor network, Zigbee etc

  1. INTRODUCTION

The World is now facing a most critical problem of not getting a uninterrupted power supply. In many countries, the people living there had not even getting the supply for their primary needs such as light,fan,tv etc.This occurs due to shortage of power supply.Due to enoromous growth in population the power distributed by the base station cannot be able to utilise equally by all the people living in the country.Because of over population,the demand of energy is increasing day-by-day.

Inorder to overcome the shortage of power supply,government is underlying many projects to provide continuous supply to the consumers by implanting nuclear power plants,by having MOU with foreign countries to get coal,fuels et,and many more.And also scientists are doing many experiments,researches to provide more power supply to fulfil the peoples need.The governments are now taking many steps to save the energy instead of underlying power generation projects and this paper will be one of key for that.

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Find out more

At existing system,the energy provider are shutting down the power supply inorder to save energy during the energy crisis time for more than 4hours per day.This causes discomfort to the below averaged and the middle class peoples are affecting more by power cut.The industries,companies,factories are having inverters to get continuous power supply.The peoples who does not have the inverters are suffering more. During the power shortage times many of them using AC(Air Conditioner),Fridge,Heater etc so demand of power is more i.e.,the nductive loads consuming more energy so the people who having single phase supply are having low-voltage problems.Through this method we can able to manage the power by providing energy only to the low power consuming devices like fans,light,computer etc which are the primary needs.And not allowing the power to the high power consuming devices like air conditioner,heater,etc.

To achieve this, system can be created which will differentiate between high power and low power devices at every node and allow only low power devices to be ON.This can done by creating a wireless sensor network having number of nodes which communicate with each other in full duplex mode. The communication will consist of data transfer, controlling node operation. We are using zigbee protocol for the wireless communication.

The main advantage of using ZigBee protocol is that the nodes require very less amount of power so it can be operated from battery.If any node which consumes more power than the allotted energy then the power flows that node gets cutted through the interrupt given through the zigbee so we can avoid the power theft. Each node is measuring the power, which is being consumed by the appliance and it is sent to the energy provider section through wireless sensor network and also the units consumed by the node is displayed in LCD which is place at the consumer side. The appliance is controlled by the end device i.e. node. An overall operation of the system controlled by the control device.

The main purpose of the project is that the wireless sensor network will differentiate and control the devices in the network on the basis of power consumed by appliances to make the efficient use of power also to avoid power theft and units consumed by the node can also intimated to the consumer side and the energy provider side. Through that the consumer can able to monitor the usage of energy.

Also we proposed the e-billing system in this paper. Billing system for electricity consumption is manually done by human operator. Readings collected by human operator are used for bill calculation. Manual processing of billing system is very time consuming and it can cause human error also.The manual bill entry is inaccurate and inefficient.Due to the technology development we are using digital meter instead of analog meter. . It is convenient to implement wireless electric meter by interfacing Zigbee module with the digital electronic meter. All digital electronic meter along with Zigbee module can form a network. The use of Wireless Personal Area Networks has been steadily increasing in recent years. The inconvenience and logistical concerns of laying wires for a communication network lay the ground for a much more appealing technologies incorporating wireless transmission. Removing the constraints of the physical installation of wires, wireless solutions provide diversity and in many applications can reduce cost.

Data from electric meter such as meter reading can be transmitted to the energy provider Station from consumer node by forming a path using network topologies. Zigbee module support Star, Tree, and Mesh topology. Zigbee networks facilitate many applications, such as Commercial Building and Home Automation, Security, Healthcare Medical Monitoring, Vehicle Monitoring, Agriculture and Environmental Monitoring and so on.

The Zigbee protocol stack based on IEEE 802.15.4 offers a practical, cost-effective solution for low-cost and low power consumption WPANs. . Zigbee is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard along with other protocols like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Zigbee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio band, specifically at 2.4 GHz internationally and 868MHz or 915 MHz in specific parts of the world. The simplicity and cost of Zigbee networks makes them a greater one for wireless control and monitoring applications. The Zigbee protocol can support over 65,565 nodes and can operate in three network topologies: Mesh, Star and Ring.

  1. LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 S. Vukmirovic, A. Erdeljan, F. Kulic, and S. Lukovic, “SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE FOR SMART METERING SYSTEMS WITH VIRTUAL POWER PLANT,” in MELECON 2010-2010 15th IEEE Mediterranean Electro technical Conference. IEEE, 2010, pp. 448–451.

This paper presents a novel architecture for Smart Metering systems which enables their seamless, secure and efficient integration in wider Smart Grid software structures. Smart metering solutions represent one of the fastest evolving areas in the field of power distribution systems. There is an extensive interest of leading software vendors in the field, for development of architectures that can efficiently manage transmission, processing and storing of the tremendous amount of data produced by such metering devices deployed at the end-end side. The integration of these systems into existing power system software architectures (outage management, workforce management, etc.) represents a major challenge for the research community. In such an environment it is of fundamental importance to adopt standardized data exchange mechanisms. The proposed architecture is conceived as a modular and scalable structure so that it can support implementation of novel power distribution concepts as Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). The proposed architecture has been successfully tested and verified in real life operation as one of the modules of Smart Metering system named Meter Data Management (MDM).

2.2 Z. Xiao, Y. Xiao, and D. H.-C. Du, “NON-REPUDIATION IN NEIGHBORHOOD AREA NETWORKS FOR SMART GRID,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 18–26, 2013.

Lack ofnon-repudiationis a major barrier to building a trustworthysmartgrid.Oncurrent power systems, bills are generated based on the amount of service consumed by residential or commercial users. However, meter readings may not be trustworthy due to malicious behavior (e.g., energy theft) or external attacks. The root cause is that power providers have no means to obtain the reading value other than receiving it from the others. To resolve this issue, we present a mutual inspection strategy, which enables no repudiation on meter readingsforsmartgrid. The goal of our scheme is to discover problematic meters that report inaccurate reading values.

2.3 S. Depuru, L. Wang, V. Devabhaktuni, and N. Gudi, “MEASURES AND SETBACKS FOR CONTROLLING ELECTRICITY THEFT,” in IEEE North American Power Symposium, 2010, pp. 1–8.

Most of the utility companies in developing countries incur huge losses because of the non-technical losses (NTL). It is very difficult to detect and control potential causes of NTL in developing countries due to their poor infrastructure. Electricity theft and billing irregularities form a major chunk of NTL. These losses affect the quality of supply, electrical load on the generating station and tariff imposed on electricity consumed by genuine customers. This paper discusses various factors those influences the consumer to make an attempt to steal electricity In addition, some handy cases where electricity theft are detected will be illustrated. In view of these ill effects, some methods for detection and estimation of the theft will be discussed. This paper also illustrates several methods to quantify and control theft. In essence, setbacks for implementation of these measures and techniques will be illustrated in detail. The motivation of this work is to conserve the interest of utility companies in providing quality electricity to genuine customers at affordable tariff.

 

2.4 C. Bandim, J. Alves Jr, A. Pinto Jr, F. Souza, M. Loureiro, C. Magalhaes, and F. Galvez-Durand, “IDENTIFICATION OF ENERGY THEFT AND TAMPERED METERS USING A CENTRAL OBSERVER METER: A MATHEMATICAL APPROACH,” in IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 163–168.

This paper presents a new methodology to identify energy theft and tampered meters as well as meters that are not working properly. It is based on a central observer meter that is responsible for metering the overall energy of a group of consumers under investigation. Deterministic and statistic approaches are used to determine which consumers have problems with their premises. Also, pattern recognition is used to discover energy theft using bypass.

2.5 G. Hart, “NONINTRUSIVE APPLIANCE LOAD MONITORING,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 1870–1891, 1992.

A nonintrusive appliance load monitor that determines the energy consumption of individual appliances turning on and off in an electric load, based on detailed analysis of the current and voltage of the total load, as measured at the interface to the power source is described. The theory and current practice of nonintrusive appliance load monitoring are discussed, including goals, applications, load models, appliance signatures, algorithms, prototype field-test results, current research directions, and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach relative to intrusive monitoring.

2.6 C. Bandim, J. Alves Jr, A. Pinto Jr, F. Souza, M. Loureiro, C. Magalhaes, and F. Galvez-Durand, “IDENTIFICATION OF ENERGY THEFT AND TAMPERED METERS USING A CENTRAL OBSERVER METER: A MATHEMATICAL APPROACH,” in IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 163–168.

This paper presents a new methodology to identify energy theft and tampered meters as well as meters that are not working properly. It is based on a central observer meter that is responsible for metering the overall energy of a group of consumers under investigation. Deterministic and statistic approaches are used to determine which consumers have problems with their premises. Also, pattern recognition is used to discover energy theft using bypass.

III.BLOCK DIAGRAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please:

Related Lectures

Study for free with our range of university lectures!