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The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide better QoS, speed and radio resource management (RRM) in heterogeneous network. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems.
Global mobility support integrated wireless solution, Improvement of QoS parameter to improve spectral
efficiency and also RRm for core network. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service,
but also will support the fixed wireless networks. This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features, framework and integration of mobile communication. The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one word- Integration of available radio resources. The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals, networks and applications to satisfy increasing user demands.
The history of the generations of technologies in use before to the 4G technology has been discussed below:
First Generation (1G):
The first generation technology started its design in the 1970, and was dedicated for analog communications. It involved the amalgamation of basic TDMA an FDMA techniques. An important drawback of this generation was that these systems could easily be listened by third parties. Some of standards used in this generation were NMT, AMPS, Hicap, CDPD, mobitex.
Second Generation (2G):
He generation began with a decade later in the 1980s, and it was still voice centric but it highly scored upon the 1G as the conversations where digitally encrypted. The prominent developments that was on to revolutionize this technology where the introduction of GSM and SIM cards. The major access technologies involve were: CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) and TDMA (Time Division Multiple access). The 2G technology lacked the strength in the radio frequency signaling in the sparsely populated areas. The second generation of wireless mobile communication systems was a huge success story because of its revolutionary technology and the services that is brought to its users. Besides high quality speech service, global mobility was a strong and convincing reason for users to buy 2G terminals.
This generation bridges the gap between the 2G and the 3G technologies; this technology signifies the implementation of the packet switching domain in addition to the circuit switching domain. It implemented hybrid communication which connected the internet to mobile communications. This technology is not officially recognized and war rather a marketing strategy. However it provides some of the benefits of 3G (like packet switching).
The third generation technology is intended to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support more diverse applications. For example, GSM(the current most popular cellular phone standard) could deliver not only voice, but also circuit- switched data at a download speeds up to 14.4 Kbps. The third generation technology has been launched in many parts of the world, but the success story of 2G is hard to repeat.
LIMITATIONS OF 3G:
Why do we need 4G? To answer this question we need to understand some of the major limitations of 3G. Some of the reasons are listed below:
Difficulty of CDMA to provide higher data rates.
Need for continuously increasing data rate and bandwidth to meet the multimedia requirements.
Limitations of spectrum and its allocation.
Inability to roam between different services.
To provide a seamless transport end to end mechanism
To introduce a better system with reduced costs.
INTRODUCTION TO RRM:
To overcome limitations as mentioned for 3G as 3 & 4; technology needs the radio resource management.
Fig: Seamless Connection of Networks
CHARACTERISTICS OF 4G TECHNOLOGY:
There are several reasons which are sufficient to answer a simple question why do we need to adapt 4G technology? Below are some of the features of 4G which make it an “above all” technology.
High performance:- Experts in the industry have pointed it out that why users will not be able to take advantage of the rich multimedia content with the 3G technology contrary to this the 4g technology promises to feature video of extremely high quality comparable to HDTV (High Definition Television). Wireless downloads at speeds reaching 100 mbps, i.e. 50 times of 3G, are possible with 4G .
Easy roaming and interoperability: Since 3G incorporates multiple standards hence making it difficult to roam & operate in different network, contrary to this 4G provides a global standard hence providing global mobility with ease. 4G offers service personalization, this concept intends to encompass various types of terminals which may have to provide common services, in depend of their capabilities.
Convergence of services: 4G technology provides a platform independence to access network i.e. user can access a network from any mobile / fixed device. Converging all the services of the likes of VOIP telephony, streaming videos, e-mail, web browsing, e-commerce and several other location based services through a wide variety of devices. All this to empower the consumers to reach out to any part of the world from any where.
Low cost: 4G systems will prove far cheaper than 3G, since they can be built on existing networks and won’t require operators to completely retool and won’t require carriers to purchase costly extra spectrum. Also RRM makes 4G spectrally efficient.
Crisis management applications: Unlike 3G technology, 4G helps in restoring the entire network in hours in case of any natural calamity.
IPv6: Currently the networking protocol used in the internet is the IPv4, but this will soon be obsolete, as there is a rapid increase in the number of computing devices. To bail out from the possible catastrophe, a totally new network protocol is in the stands and that is IPv6 which promises to score upon IPv4 on several departments with better header format, highly secured and larger space, this comes at the right to help in implementing 4G technology.
CHALLENGES IN MIGRATION TO 4G:
Multimode user terminals:
With 4G there will be a need to design a single user terminal that can operate in different wireless networks and overcome the design problems such as limitations in size of the device, its cost and power consumption. This problem can be solved by using software radio approach i.e. user terminals adapts itself to the wireless interfaces of the network
Selection among various wireless systems:
Every wireless systems has his unique characteristics and rules. The proliferation of wireless technologies complicates the selection of most suitable technology for a particular service at a particular place and time. This can be handled by making the selection according to the best possible fit of user QoS requirements and available network resources.
Network infrastructures and QoS support:
The most important challenge faced by the 4G technology is the integration of the existing non-IP and IP based systems and to ensure the constant QoS level during the handover which is termed as handover latency.
Heterogeneity of wireless networks complicates the security issue. Dynamic reconfigurable, adaptive and light weight security mechanisms should be developed.
BENEFITS OF 4G:
Benefits to broadcaster:
Broadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems to adapt the content of their multimedia services more rapidly in response to the feedback from customers. 4G will be able to penetrate deep into the existing untapped market and thereby can generate revenues.
The 4G technology has made it possible to integrate the services of TV, internet, phone, radio, home entertainment sensors, all reachable through one device i.e. mobile phone, enabling a device to stream real time Hgh Definition Video.
SWOT ANALYSIS – 4G
Considering 4G characteristics, expected scenarios and market trends, we can find out strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of 4G with better understandings. The lists and finding follow:
Strengths in 4G:
4G visions take into account installed base and past investments
Strong position of telecommunications vendors expected in the market place
Faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth, allow more business applications.
Has advantage for personalized multimedia communication tools
Weaknesses in 4G
No larger user community for advanced mobile data applications yet
Growing divergence between telecommunications vendors and operators
Not possible to offer full internet experience due to limited speed and bandwidth
Comparatively higher cost to use and deploy infrastructure compared fast mobile generation
Opportunities in 4G
Evolutionary approach may yield opportunities for the 4G
Emphasis on heterogeneous networks capitalizes on past investments
Strategic alliance and coalition opportunities with traditional non telecommunication industries
Worldwide economy recover simulates consumption and consumer confidence, so bring in opportunities for telecommunication sections
It is expected and predicted that consumers will continue to replace handsets with newer technology at a fast rate
Desirable higher data capacity rates, the growth opportunity for 4G is very bright and hopeful
Threats in 4G
Faster rate of growth and developments in other region.
Since 3G mobile is still in the market, it squeezes the market competition in mobile industry
As the history of mobile communications shows attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. Projected 4G systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of integration. Future wireless networks will need to support diverse IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users.
There must be a low complexity of implementation and an efficient means of negotiation between the end users and the wireless infrastructure. The Fourth Generation promises to fulfill the goal of PCC(Personal Computing and Communication) a vision that affordably provides high data rates everywhere over a wireless network.
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