Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol Report

1231 words (5 pages) Essay in Information Systems

23/09/19 Information Systems Reference this

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TCP/IP OSI Report

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – This protocol is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation via which application programs can exchange data. TCP works together with the IP (internet protocol). This also manages how messages is assembled into little packets before they are transmitted over the Internet then put back together in the right order at the right address.

The IP (Internet Protocol) are packets that has blocks of data that goes directly over networks, the packets contains of a header part and body that is within the header that the source and destination IP addresses resides.

How TCP/IP works

This works by using client/server model of communication in which a machine (client) or a user is provided a service (opening a webpage) by another computer (server) in the network. This also works when one computer speaks to another computer through the internet that doesn’t have to be a server compiling packets of data and making sure that it is being sent to the right destination.

TCP/IP Model     OSI Model

      Application

Application     Presentation

      Session

Transport     Transport

Internet     Network

Network Access     Data Link

      Physical

The TCP/IP Model contains 4 different layers which are –

Application – This layer provides networks services to many applications. It interacts with the communication coordination, encoding, dialogue control and data translation between systems. The protocols that this layer deal with are File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Transport – This layer deals with the transportation of data between different hosts. The 2 main protocols that operates in this layer are the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). While TCP is being regarded as the most reliable transmission protocol, it guarantees that the actual data transfer takes place. On the other hand UDP also sends out data but it is not as reliable as TCP, it also doesn’t make sure that the data that has been sent out, has arrived to its destination.

The Internet – This layer deals with the connection of different networks that are both to send and receive data packets from one another. The Internet Protocol (IP) is usually the most common protocol that would provide this service for the layer. Also helping out with this layer, that helps routers learn different networks that they can reach is called the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) which is used to send error messages across on this layer.

Network Access – This layer works with the Data link and the Physical layer of the OSI model. The protocol is defined and hardware that is required to connect to a host to a physical network and then deliver the data across it. Packets from the layer above are sent down this layer for delivery within the physical network. This layer uses a physical address to identify host and to deliver data.

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) deals with the process of communication between two end points in a network that can be divided into 7 different distinctive groups related to certain functions/ layers. This was developed by the International Organisation for standardization (ISO) in 1984.

The 7 layers in the OSI are-

Application – this layer deals with a number of different things, depending on what kind of application it actually is. Like for example that some of the things would include remote file access, resource sharing. Examples of applications for this layer are what we use every day on the computer like a web browser, word documents, iTunes.

Presentation – this layer is responsible for the translation of different character codes like ASCII, UNICODE and EBCDIC (Extended binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code). They also deal with one of the most common standard security protocol, the SSL (secure Sockets Layer).

Sessions – This layers is responsible for the connection, maintenance and termination of the same application that are located at a different location in the world. So that they are speaking to one another and to make sure that they do before having to terminate the communication within each other.

Transport – This layer is responsible for the message of acknowledgement and traffic control of the application. It also has the ability to perform error detection and correction (resends) the message that is reorders and ensure message sequence.

Network – This layer is responsible for routing network traffic, this layer not only makes the decision of routing network traffic, it also provides traffic control, logical addressing, dealing with IP address. Once the data has reached its final stop, this layer formats the data into packets, that is then delivered up to the transport layer.

Data Link – This layer is responsible of the link establishment and termination. The data link obtains data from the physical layer and checks for any physical transmission errors and packages bits into data. This layer also does error checking, media access management. This layer also manages the addressing scheme like the MAC address.

Physical – This layer is responsible for the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw data between a device and a physical transmission medium. This includes an Ethernet cable, repeaters and hubs

How the OSI work

It works by going through different stages of the seven layer that data must travel through from one device to another over a network. Because this model has 7 layers, each layer has its own responsibility to perform very specific tasks, if one of the layer was to let the side down, it would easily distinguish which layer and can be fixed without having to go through different layers to find out what the problem is.

References:

  • Free CCNA Study Guide. (2019). 1-4 TCP/IP Model – Free CCNA Study Guide. [online] Available at: http://www.freeccnastudyguide.com/study-guides/ccna/ch1/1-4-tcpip-model/ [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
  • Sqa.org.uk. (2019). TCP/IP Model Layers. [online] Available at: https://www.sqa.org.uk/e-learning/HardOSEss04CD/page_06.htm [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
  • Study.com. (2019). OSI Model: Using Open Systems Interconnection to Send and Receive Data – Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com. [online] Available at: https://study.com/academy/lesson/osi-model-using-open-systems-interconnection-to-send-and-receive-data.html [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
  • SearchNetworking. (2019). What is TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)? – Definition from WhatIs.com. [online] Available at: https://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/TCP-IP [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
  • Lifewire. (2019). The OSI Model Explained in Easy Steps. [online] Available at: https://www.lifewire.com/layers-of-the-osi-model-illustrated-818017 [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].

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