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In this chapter the research methodology that will be adopted in this research work will be dealt with. Research methodology can be defined as the set of methods used for carrying out a research study. It is a logical, systematic rule and procedural system on which a research is based and alongside which claims in knowledge and assumptions are evaluated, calculated, established in favour or against preceding assumptions for decision-making. The subjects detailed here consist of the research design, population of study, the sample of study, sampling technique, instrumentation, reliability and validity of instrument, procedure for data collection, analysis and the procedure for statistical analysis of the data collected.
In this research study, the research design adopted is the survey research design. This is a quasi-experimental research design that is selected over others borne from a genuine reason that conclusion can be reached on the subjects being investigated by the study of a few individuals, as such, a study of large individuals that could rather become unmanageable, becomes unnecessary.
Sources of Data
This research project would depend basically on primary research in the analysis of the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variables. With this it would do throughout the generation of field level data from respondents (from the questionnaire) within population sample.
Population of Study
The population of study in this academic research is defined to be the entire population of internet/email users in the developed world and the third war countries. On the other hand, because of the enormous logistics and finances involved in studying the entire population, a sample would be taken from this population and studied as outlined below.
Size and Sampling technique
The sample of study is made up of randomly chosen individuals from adult age barrack 18-65. This category of respondents would be aware and would be in the exceptional position to assess the impact of phishing attack and which age group is most vulnerable to the attack and cyber world as a whole. These individuals will be met one on one likewise mailed for ease of questionnaire administration. An opportunistic sample size of 50 respondents will be sampled for their views on the issues under investigation. Table 3.1 below shows the distribution of the targeted sample:
For the purpose of this research study, the stratified random sampling technique will be used to select respondent from the three countries, which is Nigeria, United Kingdom and United States of America. It is a sampling technique whereby an entire population is divided into smaller divisions known as strata. Each stratum is based on the specific characteristics of its members. This sampling technique is necessary over others because the large population of internet users have to be stratified so that respondents can come from all age brackets.
Instrumentation for Data Collection
The questionnaire method is adopted for the purpose of this study data collection from respondents. Questionnaire method can be described as a fast and efficient method of collecting data from a large population through set of questions asked. It could be either structured or unstructured.
The structured multiple-choice questions system is adopted because of its ability to minimize bias and generate a relatively high rate of response. Also it is easy to administer and requires little or no support (Adedayo, 2000)
Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
In analyzing the data collected Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (x, y) will be used. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient is also known as PMCC. It is use to determine the correlation between two variables usually X and Y. Relying on the basis of this parameter ,that is, the validity of the research instrument will lead to reliable conclusion.Furthermore,the strength of mentioned parameter, the instrument will decide suitability or not for data collection. In ensuring the reliability of the research instrument, the instrument will be carefully designed and tested so that the instrument efficiency and effectiveness is assured. Below is the formula for Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
Procedure for Data Collection
The research instrument will be administered on the entire sample of respondents after determining the reliability and validity of the research instrument. These instruments will subsequently be recuperated for analysis after 72 hours. However, the time lag is indispensable so that the respondents can have enough time, without be put under unnecessary pressure, this reduces if not eliminate error rate and bias.
Procedure for Data Analysis
Responses to the research questionnaires will be sorted then presented in percentage tables with qualitative analysis carried out on them. Furthermore, a chi-square test will be carried out on the null hypotheses as a pre-requisite for the result which is either acceptance or rejection.
The chi-square test as a method is frequently used in testing hypothesis with reference to difference(s) between a set of observed frequencies of a sample, and equivalent set of expected and/or theoretical frequencies which is used to determine whether hypothesized results are verified by the research experiment.
The Limitations of Methodology
The limitations of chi-square as a method of data analysis are as follows:
- Chi-square increases with sample size - a large sample will make very weak relationships between variables appear "significant".
- It doesn't tell how strong a relationship is or how strong the departure is from some hypothetical distribution.
- Chi-square is affected by skewed marginal totals, so if the skewness is very great, then it should be used with caution.